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ppt on water

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project on water

project on water

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  • 1. STUTI MAJMUDAR X-D ROLL. NO : 45 REGISTRATION NO. : B114084140215
  • 2. WATER CONSERVATION (GEOGRAPHY)
  • 3. RAINWATER HARVESTING Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer HISTORY Around the third century BC, the farming communities in Baluchistan (in presentday Pakistan , Afghanistan and Iran), and Kutch (in present-day India) used rainwater harvesting for irrigation. In ancient Tamil Nadu (India), rainwater harvesting was done by Chola kings. Rainwater from the Brihadeeswarar temple was collected in Sivaganga tank. During the later Chola period, the Vīrānam tank was built (1011 to 1037 CE) in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu to store water for drinking and irrigation purposes. Vīrānam is a 16-kilometre (9.9 mi) long tank with a storage capacity of 1,465,000,000 cubic feet (41,500,000 m3). Rainwater harvesting was done in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Chhattisgarh in the olden days Ratanpur, in the state of Chhattisgarh, had around 150 ponds. Most of the tanks or ponds were utilised in agriculture works.
  • 4. HOW IS RAIN-WATER HARVESTED ? Rainwater harvesting is done in 3 steps: Collecting and transporting water- done through catchment areas and conduits.  Filtration -A filter unit is a chamber filled with filtering media to remove debris and dirt from water before it enters the storage tank or recharge structure.  Storage in tanks for recharging the groundwater- harvested water is stored in tanks which is later used to recharge groundwater
  • 5. WATER CONSERVATION Water conservation means using our water wisely and caring for it properly. Since each of us depends on water for life, it is our responsibility to learn more about water conservation and how we can help keep our water pure and safe for generations to come. Since we all enjoy the benefits of having pure, clean water, we must help conserve water so that we may continue to enjoy these benefits. Water conservation is not a job that is just for the technician, soil scientist, hydrologist, forester, wildlife manager, plant scientist, city planner, park manager, farmer, rancher, or mine owner alone. It is a job for the every day person who just likes to have access to the life sustaining resource of water.
  • 6. HARD AND SOFT WATER (CHEMISTRY)
  • 7. HARD WATER Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of lime scale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects.
  • 8. SOFT WATER The water that lathers readily with soaps are called soft water. It describes type of water that contain few or no minerals like calcium(CA) or magnesium(Mg) ions. The term is usually relative to hard water, which does contain significant amounts of such ions. Soft Water mostly comes from peat or igneous rock sources, such as granite but may also come from sandstone sources, since such sedimentary rocks are usually low in calcium and magnesium. However, soft water does have negative side effects and can be bad for the heart. Thus it should be drunk in moderation if at all.
  • 9. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN : HARD WATER • Hard water is water that has a high mineral content, commonly magnesium and calcium. • Hard water can also lead to calcification of faucets and pipes • Hard water is a good source of calcium and magnesium in the body. Hard water also reduces the solubility of toxic metal ions. SOFT WATER • Soft water is water that has a higher sodium content and small concentration of calcium and magnesium. • Soft water does not leave residue behind and provides are luscious later. • Soft water is not harsh on the skin, clothes, dishes, etc.
  • 10. BENEFITS OF HARD WATER SOFT WATER • tastes great • keeps water using/heating • supplies needed appliances clean and minerals in the diet deposit free • when rinsing soap removes all traces of • Soap works better it • it doesn't break water using appliances.
  • 11. RECYCLING OF WATER (BIOLOGY) Stuti Majmudar
  • 12. WHAT IS WATER RECYCLING ? Water recycling is treating and reusing wastewater, grey-water and storm-water for non-drinking purposes in and outside the home, in industry, for irrigation and agriculture. The recycling and recharging is often done by using the treated wastewater for designated municipal sustainable gardening irrigation applications. In most locations, it is intended to only be used for non-potable uses, such as irrigation, dust control, and fire suppression. 12 Stuti Majmudar
  • 13. PROCESS OF WATER RECYCLING A combination selected from the following processes is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide: Pre-chlorination - for algae control and arresting any biological growth Aeration - along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron and manganese Coagulation - for flocculation Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes - to improve coagulation and for thicker floc formation Sedimentation - for solids separation, that is, removal of suspended solids trapped in the floc Filtration - removing particles from water Desalination- Process of removing salt from the water Disinfection - for killing bacteria. There is no unique solution (selection of processes) for any type of water. Also, it is difficult to standardise the solution in the form of processes for water from different sources. Treatability studies for each source of water in different seasons need to be carried out to arrive at most appropriate processes.
  • 14. WATER RECYCLING BENEFITS DISADVANTAGES • • • • The cost of reclaimed water exceeds that of potable water in many regions of the world, where a fresh water supply is plentiful. However, reclaimed water is usually sold to citizens at a cheaper rate to encourage its use. Using reclaimed water for nonpotable uses saves potable water for drinking, since less potable water will be used for non-potable uses. It sometimes contains higher levels of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen which may somewhat help fertilize garden and agricultural plants when used for irrigation • • Using recycled water can mean increased costs for infrastructure such as additional treatment facilities and extra pipes to transport it Using recycled water, especially as drinking water, requires overcoming public opinion, which can be difficult. However, much of the recycled water used in the U.S. is for irrigation purposes and is not treated to a high enough standard to make it safe for drinking. Drinking this water could pose health risks to you, as there might still be pathogens present . Stuti Majmudar
  • 15. Stuti Majmudar
  • 16. POPULAR STRUGGLES RELATED TO WATER (POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT)
  • 17. BOLIVIAN WATER WAR • • The Cochabamba protests of 2000, also known as the Cochabamba Water War or the Water War in Bolivia, were a series of protests that took place in Cochabamba, Bolivia's third largest city, between December 1999 and April 2000 in response to the privatization of the city's municipal water supply company Semapa. The wave of demonstrations and police violence was described as a public uprising against water prices. The tensions erupted when a new firm, Aguas del Tunari – a joint venture involving Bechtel and Suez Lyonnaise – was required to invest in construction of long-envisioned dam (a priority of Mayor Manfred Reyes Villa) - so they had dramatically raised water rates. Protests, largely organized through the Coordinadora in Defense of Water and Life, a community coalition, erupted in January, February, and April 2000, culminating in tens of thousands marching downtown and battling police. One civilian, Victor Hugo Daza was killed. On April 10, 2000, the national government reached an agreement with the Coordinadora to reverse the privatization. A complaint filed by foreign investors was resolved by agreement in January 2006
  • 18. SUDANESE WATER WAR • • Although the Nile flows through the northern part of Sudan, it is largely beyond the drainage basins of the feeder streams and rivers that consolidate themselves into the White and Blue Niles further to the south.Persistent drought and desertification, population expansion, and the need to increase food output have forced many northern Arabs to look south for lands and resources. The introduction by the North of mechanized farming equipment continues to threaten southern• subsistence farming. Organized as the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) southerners have fought back against northern intrusion for the better part of three decades. Water conflict in Sudan typically concerns canal building or farming projects. One of the more notable sources of conflict has been the Jonglei Canal project, begun in 1978. The project was started for two primary reasons: to drain the Sudd Swamps to create additional farmland and to conserve the water being evaporated as it sat idle in the swamps. The amount lost through evaporation was estimated at 4000 mcm/y.Both the Sudanese and Egyptian governments supported the project as both would share in the benefits of additional water. The Jonglei Canal is massive enough to be seen from space. It averages 210 feet in width and 16 feet in depth] Drainage of the wetlands threatened the roughly 1.7 million local tribesmen that depended on the swamps for survival and in November 1974, locals rioted in the southern city . Southerners began to flock to the SPLA, of Juba which led violent attacks on construction sites along the Jonglei Canal. They eventually forced the suspension of the project in 1984. 250 of 360 km of canal had been built. The incursion of northern mechanized farming in southern Sudan has also caused conflict. The Arabdominated government envisioned agricultural development in the South and northern farmers continually encroached upon the fertile southern plains. Such encroachment threatened the Nilotic tribes, who ran the cattle economies of the south. Southerners responded to northern incursion with hostility and violence.
  • 19. TEHRI DAM The Tehri Dam is the highest dam in India and project's delayed completion. one of the tallest in the world. It is a multiSince 2005, filling of the reservoir has led to the purpose rock and earth-fill embankment dam on reduced flow of Bhagirathi water from the the Bhagirathi River normal 1,000 cubic feet per second (28 m3/s) to a near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India mere 200 cubic feet per second (5.7 m3/s). This The Tehri Dam has been the object of protests by reduction has been central to local protest environmental organizations and local people of against the dam, since the Bhagirathi is the region. In addition to the human rights considered part of the sacred Ganges whose concerns, the project has spurred concerns about waters are crucial to Hindu beliefs. At some points the environmental consequences of locating a during the year, the tampering with Bhagirathi large dam in the fragile ecosystem of waters means this tributary stops flowing. This the Himalayan foothills. There are further has created resentment among many concerns regarding the dam's geological stability. Hindus, who claim that the sanctity of the Ganges The Tehri dam is located in the Central Himalayan has been compromised for the generation of Seismic Gap, a major geologic fault zone If there electricity. was such a catastrophe to occur, the potentially resulting dam-break would submerge numerous towns downstream, whose populations total near half a million. The relocation of more than 100,000 people from the area has led to protracted legal battles over resettlement rights, and ultimately resulted in the
  • 20. NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat , and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement. Friends of River Narmada is the unofficial website of the NBA. Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities (notably Bollywood actor Aamir Khan). Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, received the Right Livelihood Award in 1991. The Supreme Court's decision is still pending, seeking stoppage of construction of the Sardar Sarovar dam. The court initially ruled the decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an immediate stoppage of work at the dam and directing the concerned states to first complete the rehabilitation and replacement process. The Court deliberated on this issue further for several years but finally upheld the Tribunal Award and allowed the construction to proceed, subject to conditions. The court introduced a mechanism to monitor the progress of resettlement pari pass with the raising of the height of the dam through the Grievance Redressal Authorities (GRA) in each of the party states. The court’s decision referred in this document, given in the year 2000 after seven years of deliberations, has paved the way for completing the project to attain full envisaged benefits. The court's final line of the order states, "Every endeavour shall be made to see that the project is completed as expeditiously as possible".
  • 21. GROUNDWATER PRESERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (ECONOMICS)
  • 22. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainable development is an organising principle for human life on a finite planet. It posits a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use meet human needs without undermining the sustainability of natural systems and the environment, so that future generations may also meet their needs. The term 'sustainable development' rose to significance after it was used by the Brundtland Commission in its 1987 report Our Common Future. In the report, the commission coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development: "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
  • 23. GROUNDWATER PRESERVATION WE CAN PRESERVE GROUNDWATER BY : Reduce chemical use- we should minimize chemical use. Manage waste- waste disposal should be watched over. Save water- close the taps when not in use. Reduce the amount of "stuff" you use and reuse what you can. Recycle paper, plastic, cardboard,
  • 24. HYDROELECTRICITY • Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy , accounting for 16 per cent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years
  • 25. TIDAL ENERGY Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels. Tidal energy is a renewable energy source
  • 26. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN: HYDROELECTRICITY TIDAL ENERGY • Hydropower is produced by a reservoir of water which depends on rainfall • Hydroelectric power is built mainly in rivers where a dam makes a difference between the water-level above and below the power-plant, the water is then driven threw turbines that generate energy. • Tidal power is produced by tidal rise and fall, which is produced by gravitation between earth, moon, and sun. • Tidal energy uses tidal water to raise and lower pontoon that threw a generator creates energy.

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