Chemistry
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Chemistry

on

  • 120 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
120
Views on SlideShare
120
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Chemistry Chemistry Presentation Transcript

  • E F F E C T S With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap: 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca
  • TYPES OF HARDNESS TEMPORARY HARDNESS PERMANENT HARDNESS Caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate chemicals. When dissolved these minerals yield calcium and magnesium cat ions and carbonate and bicarbonate anions . It can be removed by either boiling the water or by addition of lime through the softening process. Caused by the presence of calcium sulphate and magnesium sulphate which do not precipitate out while boiling. Ions causing permanent hardness can be removed by using a water softener or Ion exchange column.