THE SPREAD OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION
to Korea, Japan, Vietnam
Medieval pattern: Civilizations spread beyond their major cent...
KOREA
I. Pattern of Korea’s relationship with China
A. Partially conquered by Han (108 BCE-313 CE)
B. Post-Han: Independen...
II. SILLA, 668-935 C.E.
A. Tributary to Tang China
B. Imitated Tang; sent scholars to China
to study and to bring back
Con...
C. Chinese-style bureaucracy filled via exams
pavilion on grounds of Changdeokgung Palace (1405, Seoul)
where exams were h...
D. Aristocracy too strong to allow scholar-bureaucrat class
E. Buddhism too strong for Confucianism to take root
(1) Monks...
Sokka-t’ap and Tabo-t’ap pagodas at Pulguk-Sa temple,
Kyongju
Punhwang-Sa temple
(634 C.E.) Chomsangdae observatory
(7th
c.)
Hall where wood blocks for printing Buddhist scriptures
(13th
c.) are kept,
Haein-Sa temple
“Three Buddhist Treasures”
motif at
Haien-Sa monastery
swastika (s-vasti-ka =
“conducive to well-
being”)
on shrine in Chi...
F. Korea’s economy is subordinated to that of Tang and Song China:
Korea imports luxury goods (silk clothing, scrolls, etc...
III. Rule by aristocracy
A. Aristocracy is too powerful for warlords, bureaucrats, or other
social elements to dislodge (i...
C. Choson King Sejong (1418-50) develops Hangul alphabet.
Chinese calligraphy
JAPAN
I. Island that absorbs Chinese
cultural influences while re-
taining political autonomy
II. Emperor = minor Shinto g...
V. Aristocratic court culture, 8th
-9th
centuries: tea ceremony,
landscapes, haiku
1st
novel: Tale of Genji by Lady Murasa...
VI. Buddhism remains a much greater socio-cultural force
than in Tang and Song China.
VII. Aristocrats and provincial warl...
VIETNAM (Annam)
I. Southeast Asian cultural sphere: Chinese/Indian
II. Theravada Buddhism spreads directly from India, str...
III. Partially conquered by Han (111 B.C.E.), who introduce
Chinese writing and bureaucracy.
IV. Aristocracy rebels agains...
statue of medieval Vietnamese emperor
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Koreajapan

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Koreajapan

  1. 1. THE SPREAD OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION to Korea, Japan, Vietnam Medieval pattern: Civilizations spread beyond their major centers (as in the case of Islam spreading to South and East Asia).
  2. 2. KOREA I. Pattern of Korea’s relationship with China A. Partially conquered by Han (108 BCE-313 CE) B. Post-Han: Independent kingdoms pay tribute to China. C. Mahayana Buddhism spreads to Korea, then Japan, after fall of Han. D. Korea adopts Chinese writing system.
  3. 3. II. SILLA, 668-935 C.E. A. Tributary to Tang China B. Imitated Tang; sent scholars to China to study and to bring back Confucian classics Silla dynasty tomb mounds, Kyongju Remember him? CHINA
  4. 4. C. Chinese-style bureaucracy filled via exams pavilion on grounds of Changdeokgung Palace (1405, Seoul) where exams were held
  5. 5. D. Aristocracy too strong to allow scholar-bureaucrat class E. Buddhism too strong for Confucianism to take root (1) Monks are influential at Silla court. (2) Silla kings patronize monasteries and temples. Pulguk-Sa temple (751 C.E.), Kyongju
  6. 6. Sokka-t’ap and Tabo-t’ap pagodas at Pulguk-Sa temple, Kyongju
  7. 7. Punhwang-Sa temple (634 C.E.) Chomsangdae observatory (7th c.)
  8. 8. Hall where wood blocks for printing Buddhist scriptures (13th c.) are kept, Haein-Sa temple
  9. 9. “Three Buddhist Treasures” motif at Haien-Sa monastery swastika (s-vasti-ka = “conducive to well- being”) on shrine in Chinju fortress tile from Ottoman Empire
  10. 10. F. Korea’s economy is subordinated to that of Tang and Song China: Korea imports luxury goods (silk clothing, scrolls, etc.), exports raw materials (copper, wood). G. Korea exports some luxury goods for Chinese (and Japanese) elites. “Emille” Bell, Kyongju National Museum Koryo (918-1392) celadon
  11. 11. III. Rule by aristocracy A. Aristocracy is too powerful for warlords, bureaucrats, or other social elements to dislodge (in contrast to China). change of dynasty = change of aristocratic family Silla, 668-935→Koryo, 918-1392→Yi/Lee (Choson), 1392-1910 B. Choson dynasty patronizes Confucianism, persecutes Buddhists. throne at Changdeokgung palace, Seoul
  12. 12. C. Choson King Sejong (1418-50) develops Hangul alphabet. Chinese calligraphy
  13. 13. JAPAN I. Island that absorbs Chinese cultural influences while re- taining political autonomy II. Emperor = minor Shinto god, descendant of sun goddess III. Adopts Chinese writing system, 4th century Mahayana Buddhism arrives via Korea, 6th century. IV. Adopts Chinese political structure, 7th century A. Sinified emperor: “Son of Heaven” B. Bureaucracy staffed by exams in Confucian classics C. Japan’s bureaucracy is filled by urban aristocrats influential at CHINA
  14. 14. V. Aristocratic court culture, 8th -9th centuries: tea ceremony, landscapes, haiku 1st novel: Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki (c. 973-1025)
  15. 15. VI. Buddhism remains a much greater socio-cultural force than in Tang and Song China. VII. Aristocrats and provincial warlords are too powerful for emperor to rein in→feudal system dominated by warlords by 12th century
  16. 16. VIETNAM (Annam) I. Southeast Asian cultural sphere: Chinese/Indian II. Theravada Buddhism spreads directly from India, strikes deeper roots.
  17. 17. III. Partially conquered by Han (111 B.C.E.), who introduce Chinese writing and bureaucracy. IV. Aristocracy rebels against Chinese, 10th century. Vietnam remains independent until 19th c. V. Vietnamese expand into other parts of SE Asia, become dominant political/cultural force in region. CHINA
  18. 18. statue of medieval Vietnamese emperor

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