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Ancient india
 

Ancient india

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    Ancient india Ancient india Presentation Transcript

    • Ancient Civilizations:Ancient Civilizations: IndiaIndia
    • India - GeographyIndia - Geography
    • Origins: Pre-Historic IndiaOrigins: Pre-Historic India 3000-1000 BCE3000-1000 BCE • Archaeological excavations in the PunjabArchaeological excavations in the Punjab and Indus valleys (right) have revealed theand Indus valleys (right) have revealed the existence of urban cultures at Harappa, theexistence of urban cultures at Harappa, the prehistoric capital of the Punjab (located inprehistoric capital of the Punjab (located in modern Pakistan); and Mohenjo-Daro on themodern Pakistan); and Mohenjo-Daro on the banks of the River Indus.banks of the River Indus. • This early Indian culture is sometimes calledThis early Indian culture is sometimes called the Indus Valley civilization.the Indus Valley civilization. • Historians are not sure who the originHistorians are not sure who the origin inhabitants were. Many believe the peopleinhabitants were. Many believe the people may have been proto-Dravidians, related tomay have been proto-Dravidians, related to the Dravidians of southern India.the Dravidians of southern India. • Historians are also unclear as to why theHistorians are also unclear as to why the Indus civilization ceased to exist.Indus civilization ceased to exist.
    • Origins: Arrival of the AryansOrigins: Arrival of the Aryans 2000-1000 BCE2000-1000 BCE • Some time in the second millennium BCE theSome time in the second millennium BCE the Aryan people arrived in north-west India.Aryan people arrived in north-west India. • The Aryans (Aryan means noble) were a nomadicThe Aryans (Aryan means noble) were a nomadic people who may have come to India from thepeople who may have come to India from the Caucasus region of southern Russia.Caucasus region of southern Russia. • They brought with them their language and theirThey brought with them their language and their religious traditions. These both influenced andreligious traditions. These both influenced and were influenced by the religious practices of thewere influenced by the religious practices of the peoples who were already living in India.peoples who were already living in India.
    • Origins: Pre-Historic IndiaOrigins: Pre-Historic India 3000-1000 BCE3000-1000 BCE Language –Language – SanskritSanskrit • The classical literary language of Hindu Indians.The classical literary language of Hindu Indians. • First appeared in the text of the Rig Veda.First appeared in the text of the Rig Veda. • Grammar is similar to the other Indo-European languagesGrammar is similar to the other Indo-European languages such as Greek and Latin.such as Greek and Latin.
    • Origins: Pre-Historic IndiaOrigins: Pre-Historic India 3000-1000 BCE3000-1000 BCE Aryan Migration to IndiaAryan Migration to India
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India HinduismHinduism • Considered the world’s oldest religion – over 3,000 yearsConsidered the world’s oldest religion – over 3,000 years old.old. • The world’s third largest religion after Christianity andThe world’s third largest religion after Christianity and Islam.Islam. - over 900 million followers- over 900 million followers • The dominant religion in India and Nepal (80%) of the pop.The dominant religion in India and Nepal (80%) of the pop. In both.In both.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India HinduismHinduism • Hinduism claims to have many founders, teachers andHinduism claims to have many founders, teachers and prophets who claim first hand experience of God.prophets who claim first hand experience of God. • Hindus recognize one God, Brahman, who is the causeHindus recognize one God, Brahman, who is the cause and foundation of all existence.and foundation of all existence. • The gods of the Hindu faith represent different expressionsThe gods of the Hindu faith represent different expressions of Brahman.of Brahman.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India HinduismHinduism • Hindus recognize three principal gods:Hindus recognize three principal gods: -- BrahmaBrahma, who creates the universe, who creates the universe -- VishnuVishnu, who preserves the universe, who preserves the universe -- ShivaShiva, who destroys the universe., who destroys the universe.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India HinduismHinduism • Hindus believe that existence is a cycle of birth, death, andHindus believe that existence is a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, (rebirth, (SamsaraSamsara = reincarnation) governed by= reincarnation) governed by KarmaKarma.. • Hindus believe that the soul passes through a cycle ofHindus believe that the soul passes through a cycle of successive lives and its next incarnation is alwayssuccessive lives and its next incarnation is always dependent on how the previous life was lived (karma).dependent on how the previous life was lived (karma). • MokshaMoksha is the end of the death and rebirth cycle.is the end of the death and rebirth cycle.
    • ““The Wheel of Life”The Wheel of Life” (Samsara = Reincarnation)(Samsara = Reincarnation)
    • Belief Systems - IndiaBelief Systems - India Hinduism: The Ganges River and Varanasi/BenaresHinduism: The Ganges River and Varanasi/Benares • After a Hindu is cremated, the ashes are usually scattered in water.After a Hindu is cremated, the ashes are usually scattered in water. • The Ganges River is considered the most sacred place to scatterThe Ganges River is considered the most sacred place to scatter ashes.ashes. • Varanasi (Benares), one of the oldest cities in the world, is seen as aVaranasi (Benares), one of the oldest cities in the world, is seen as a desired place to die.desired place to die. - Anyone who dies here breaks the cycle of life and achieves- Anyone who dies here breaks the cycle of life and achieves moksha.moksha.
    • Varanasi / Benares - CremationVaranasi / Benares - Cremation
    • Hindu Men Bathing in the HolyHindu Men Bathing in the Holy Ganges RiverGanges River
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India Hinduism – Religious TextsHinduism – Religious Texts • The Vedas are the most ancient religious HinduThe Vedas are the most ancient religious Hindu text and define the truth.text and define the truth. • Hindus believe that the texts were received byHindus believe that the texts were received by scholars directly from God and passed ontoscholars directly from God and passed onto generations by word of mouth.generations by word of mouth.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India Hinduism – Religious Texts – The VedasHinduism – Religious Texts – The Vedas • The Vedas are the most ancient religiousThe Vedas are the most ancient religious texts which define truth for Hindus.texts which define truth for Hindus. • They got their present form between 1200-They got their present form between 1200- 200 BCE and were introduced to India by200 BCE and were introduced to India by the Aryans.the Aryans.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India • The Vedas are made up of four compositions:The Vedas are made up of four compositions: - The Samhitas- The Samhitas - The Upanishads- The Upanishads - Bhagavad Gita- Bhagavad Gita - The Ramayana- The Ramayana
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India The Caste SystemThe Caste System • The Aryans introduced the varna system (varna = estatesThe Aryans introduced the varna system (varna = estates or classes) to India.or classes) to India. • VarnasVarnas are the historical division of society into 4 broadare the historical division of society into 4 broad classes:classes:
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India The Caste SystemThe Caste System  The Brahmins – priests and teachers – the highest casteThe Brahmins – priests and teachers – the highest caste • ““Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, purity, tolerance,Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, purity, tolerance, honesty, wisdom, knowledge, and religiousness--these arehonesty, wisdom, knowledge, and religiousness--these are the qualities by which the brahmanas work.”the qualities by which the brahmanas work.” - Bhagavad Gita, Ch. 18, Verse 42- Bhagavad Gita, Ch. 18, Verse 42
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India The Caste SystemThe Caste System 2.2. The Kshatriyas – warriors, soldiersThe Kshatriyas – warriors, soldiers • ““Heroism, power, determination, resourcefulness, courage in battle,Heroism, power, determination, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity, and leadership are the qualities of work for the ksatriyas.”generosity, and leadership are the qualities of work for the ksatriyas.” - Bhagavat Gita, Ch. 18, Verse 43.- Bhagavat Gita, Ch. 18, Verse 43.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India The Caste SystemThe Caste System 3. The Vaishyas – merchants and artisans3. The Vaishyas – merchants and artisans 4. The Sudras – unskilled laborers and servants4. The Sudras – unskilled laborers and servants • ““Farming, cow protection and business are the qualities of work for theFarming, cow protection and business are the qualities of work for the vaisyas, and for the sudras there is labor and service to others.”vaisyas, and for the sudras there is labor and service to others.” - Bhagavad Gita, Ch. 18, Verse 44- Bhagavad Gita, Ch. 18, Verse 44
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India Outcastes – Untouchables – “Dalits”Outcastes – Untouchables – “Dalits” • Too low to be in the caste systemToo low to be in the caste system • Considered “impure” from birthConsidered “impure” from birth • Perform jobs that are traditionally considered “unclean”Perform jobs that are traditionally considered “unclean” - scavengers- scavengers - clean toilets and sewers- clean toilets and sewers - handle dead bodies- handle dead bodies - many Dalit girls forced into prostitution- many Dalit girls forced into prostitution
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India The Caste System – JatisThe Caste System – Jatis • Hundreds of sub-castes.Hundreds of sub-castes. • Exclusive social groups defined by birth, marriageExclusive social groups defined by birth, marriage occupation, region, dialect.occupation, region, dialect. • The higher a person's birth, the greater the blessings.The higher a person's birth, the greater the blessings.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India BuddhismBuddhism • Is 2,500 years old.Is 2,500 years old. • Originated in Nepal when it was part of India.Originated in Nepal when it was part of India. • Currently 376 million followers worldwide.Currently 376 million followers worldwide. • There is no belief in a personal God. It is not centered on theThere is no belief in a personal God. It is not centered on the relationship between humanity and Godrelationship between humanity and God • Buddhists believe that nothing is fixed or permanent - change is alwaysBuddhists believe that nothing is fixed or permanent - change is always possiblepossible
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India BuddhismBuddhism • Founder:Founder: Siddharta GautamaSiddharta Gautama (580 - ) born in Nepal.(580 - ) born in Nepal. • He was born into a royal family, and his privileged lifeHe was born into a royal family, and his privileged life insulated him from the sufferings of life; sufferings such asinsulated him from the sufferings of life; sufferings such as sickness, age and death.sickness, age and death. • Once he left his royal surroundings he saw an old man, aOnce he left his royal surroundings he saw an old man, a sick man, and a corpse. He learned that sickness, age,sick man, and a corpse. He learned that sickness, age, and death are inevitable. He decided to give up his royaland death are inevitable. He decided to give up his royal lifestyle and become an ascetic.lifestyle and become an ascetic.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India BuddhismBuddhism • Buddha became a wandering monk, devoting himself to meditation andBuddha became a wandering monk, devoting himself to meditation and denying himself of material pleasure.denying himself of material pleasure. • After six years of asceticism, he concluded that suffering was not theAfter six years of asceticism, he concluded that suffering was not the answer.answer. • He devoted his life to the “Middle Way” a life without luxury or poverty.He devoted his life to the “Middle Way” a life without luxury or poverty. • Most important Buddhist doctrines:Most important Buddhist doctrines: -- Four Truths for the Spiritually NobleFour Truths for the Spiritually Noble - The Eightfold Path- The Eightfold Path
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India Buddhism -Buddhism - Four Truths for the Spiritually NobleFour Truths for the Spiritually Noble 1. Suffering is a fact of life. - Birth, aging, sickness, death, encountering the unpleasant, separation from the pleasant, and not gaining what one desires 2. Origin / Cause of suffering:2. Origin / Cause of suffering: - Unsatisfied cravings, desires- Unsatisfied cravings, desires - Negative deeds and actions
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India Buddhism -Buddhism - Four Truths for the Spiritually NobleFour Truths for the Spiritually Noble 3.3. Cessation of suffering =Cessation of suffering = nirvananirvana.. 4. The path to the cessation of suffering.4. The path to the cessation of suffering. - that path is known as the- that path is known as the Eightfold Path.Eightfold Path. • Like in Hinduism, Buddhism recognizes reincarnation and karma. YourLike in Hinduism, Buddhism recognizes reincarnation and karma. Your karma determines what form your reincarnation will take.karma determines what form your reincarnation will take.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India BuddhismBuddhism –– The Eightfold PathThe Eightfold Path 1.1. Correct view – accurate understanding of the nature of thingsCorrect view – accurate understanding of the nature of things 2.2. Correct intention – avoiding thoughts of attachment, hatred, and ofCorrect intention – avoiding thoughts of attachment, hatred, and of harmful intent.harmful intent. 3.3. Correct speech – refraining from lying, hurtful, harsh, devisiveCorrect speech – refraining from lying, hurtful, harsh, devisive speechspeech 4.4. Correct action – refraining from killing, stealing, sexual misconductCorrect action – refraining from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India Buddhism –Buddhism – The Eightfold PathThe Eightfold Path 5. Correct livelihood – avoid selling drugs, weapons, slaves, poisons5. Correct livelihood – avoid selling drugs, weapons, slaves, poisons 6. Correct effort – abandoning negative thoughts and actions ; sustaining6. Correct effort – abandoning negative thoughts and actions ; sustaining positive thoughts and actionspositive thoughts and actions 7. Correct mindfulness – awareness of body, mind, spirit7. Correct mindfulness – awareness of body, mind, spirit 8. Correct concentration – through meditation8. Correct concentration – through meditation
    • Belief Systems: India BeliefBelief Systems: India Belief Systems: IndiaSystems: India Sikhism - monotheisticSikhism - monotheistic ** Sikhism was born in the Punjab area of South Asia,Sikhism was born in the Punjab area of South Asia, which now falls into the present day states of India andwhich now falls into the present day states of India and Pakistan.Pakistan. • 1.3% of India’s population are Sikhs.1.3% of India’s population are Sikhs. • The Sikh faith was founded by Guru Nanak around 1500 CE.The Sikh faith was founded by Guru Nanak around 1500 CE. • Sikhism combines elements of Hinduism & Buddhism (cycle of life, death, reincarnation, karma) withSikhism combines elements of Hinduism & Buddhism (cycle of life, death, reincarnation, karma) with Islam (monotheism, all humans equal in the eyes of God).Islam (monotheism, all humans equal in the eyes of God). • Sikhism stresses the importance of doing good actions rather than merely carrying out rituals /Sikhism stresses the importance of doing good actions rather than merely carrying out rituals / emphasizes honest living and hard work.emphasizes honest living and hard work. • Sikhs reject the caste system.Sikhs reject the caste system. • Sikhs have had strained relations with Hindus and Muslims.Sikhs have had strained relations with Hindus and Muslims.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India JainismJainism • Jainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation andJainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live lives of harmlessness and renunciation.bliss is to live lives of harmlessness and renunciation. • No single founder. The truth has been revealed at different times by a tirthankara =No single founder. The truth has been revealed at different times by a tirthankara = teacher.teacher. • There are no gods or spiritual beings that will help human beings.There are no gods or spiritual beings that will help human beings. • Animals and plants, as well as human beings, contain living souls. Each of theseAnimals and plants, as well as human beings, contain living souls. Each of these souls is considered of equal value and should be treated with respect andsouls is considered of equal value and should be treated with respect and compassion. (ahisma – non-violence).compassion. (ahisma – non-violence). • Jains are strict vegetarians and live in a way that minimizes their use of the world'sJains are strict vegetarians and live in a way that minimizes their use of the world's resources.resources. • Believe in karma as a determination of what the person’s soul will be reincarnatedBelieve in karma as a determination of what the person’s soul will be reincarnated as. The goal is to be liberated from the cycle of rebirth.as. The goal is to be liberated from the cycle of rebirth.
    • Belief Systems: IndiaBelief Systems: India IslamIslam • Islam arrived in the Ganges basin in the 7th century, but its influence wasIslam arrived in the Ganges basin in the 7th century, but its influence was not really felt until the Turks arrived in the 11th and 12th centuries CE.not really felt until the Turks arrived in the 11th and 12th centuries CE. • Muslim rulers sought to conquer Hindu territories and, from the 17thMuslim rulers sought to conquer Hindu territories and, from the 17th century, to assert the superiority of Islam.century, to assert the superiority of Islam. • India under the Mughals was ruled by Muslims.India under the Mughals was ruled by Muslims. • Islam was established — and flourished — chiefly in areas whereIslam was established — and flourished — chiefly in areas where Buddhism was in a process of slow decline, that is mainly aroundBuddhism was in a process of slow decline, that is mainly around modern-day Pakistan, Bangladesh and Kashmir.modern-day Pakistan, Bangladesh and Kashmir.
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India Pre-Imperial RulePre-Imperial Rule • 1500-500 BCE - Aryan conquest.1500-500 BCE - Aryan conquest. • 513 BCE - Persians under513 BCE - Persians under DariusDarius conquered the Indus Valley –conquered the Indus Valley – brought India in contact with Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece.brought India in contact with Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece. - As part of the larger Persian Empire, Indian- As part of the larger Persian Empire, Indian commerce grew.commerce grew. • 326 BCE – After defeating the Persians,326 BCE – After defeating the Persians, Alexander the GreatAlexander the Great (Macedonia / Greece) took the Indus Valley.(Macedonia / Greece) took the Indus Valley.
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India • India had three major forms of imperial rule:India had three major forms of imperial rule: 1.1. The Mauryan EmpireThe Mauryan Empire (322 – 180 BCE)(322 – 180 BCE) 2.2. The Gupta EmpireThe Gupta Empire (320 – 480 CE)(320 – 480 CE) 3.3. The Mughal EmpireThe Mughal Empire (1526 – 1858)(1526 – 1858) • In between these periods, India was divided and suffered fromIn between these periods, India was divided and suffered from constant warfare.constant warfare. • Beginning in 711 CE, Arab Muslim armies invaded and plunderedBeginning in 711 CE, Arab Muslim armies invaded and plundered India.India. • By 1206, Persian, Afghan, and Turkish Muslim armies made Islam aBy 1206, Persian, Afghan, and Turkish Muslim armies made Islam a permanent fixture on the subcontinent.permanent fixture on the subcontinent.
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India 1.1. The Mauryan Empire (322 – 180 BCE)The Mauryan Empire (322 – 180 BCE) • Alexander the Great’s retreat from India led to the rise of the first unified IndianAlexander the Great’s retreat from India led to the rise of the first unified Indian Empire under Chandragupta Maurya.Empire under Chandragupta Maurya. - United the Gangetic and Indus Valleys.- United the Gangetic and Indus Valleys. - Made Pataliputra the capital city.- Made Pataliputra the capital city. - Learned from the Persians how to divide territory into provinces and rule- Learned from the Persians how to divide territory into provinces and rule through governors.through governors. - Established a bureaucracy to help govern and collect taxes on- Established a bureaucracy to help govern and collect taxes on agriculture that financed public services.agriculture that financed public services. - The state exercised control over all mines and forests, some farms,- The state exercised control over all mines and forests, some farms, granaries, shipyards, and spinning and weaving factories.granaries, shipyards, and spinning and weaving factories.
    • India under the MauryaIndia under the Maurya
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India 1.1. The Mauryan Empire (322 – 180 BCE)The Mauryan Empire (322 – 180 BCE) • AshokaAshoka (269-232 BCE), Chandragupta’s grandson, extended the empire to its(269-232 BCE), Chandragupta’s grandson, extended the empire to its farthest limits.farthest limits. • 261 BCE - He embraced Buddhism after a particularly bloody was of conquest261 BCE - He embraced Buddhism after a particularly bloody was of conquest against Kalinga over 100,000 were killed in battle.against Kalinga over 100,000 were killed in battle. - He used the governors in his empire to spread Buddhist teaching- He used the governors in his empire to spread Buddhist teaching all over India and beyond.all over India and beyond. • For the rest of his rule, Ashoka promoted non-violence, humane treatment forFor the rest of his rule, Ashoka promoted non-violence, humane treatment for all, from Brahmans to slaves.all, from Brahmans to slaves. • Asoka saw government as a father that takes care of his children without givingAsoka saw government as a father that takes care of his children without giving them much freedom.them much freedom. • After he died, the dynasty declined and eventually the empire collapsed.After he died, the dynasty declined and eventually the empire collapsed.
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India 2. The Gupta Empire (320 – 480 CE)2. The Gupta Empire (320 – 480 CE) • Controlled less territory than the Mauryans, but they were able to unify much ofControlled less territory than the Mauryans, but they were able to unify much of northern India under their rule.northern India under their rule. • Modeled their government after the Mauryans.Modeled their government after the Mauryans. • Under Chandragupta II (375-415) India achieved its “Golden Age”Under Chandragupta II (375-415) India achieved its “Golden Age” - Indian cash crops – sugar, cotton, pepper, cinnamon was in- Indian cash crops – sugar, cotton, pepper, cinnamon was in great demand.great demand. - Mathematics – the “Arabic” numerical system was developed.- Mathematics – the “Arabic” numerical system was developed. - developed the concept of “zero”- developed the concept of “zero” - The arts, poetry, drama flourished /- The arts, poetry, drama flourished / KalidasaKalidasa = “India’s Shakespeare”= “India’s Shakespeare” - Religious toleration.- Religious toleration.
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India 2. The Gupta Empire (320 – 480 CE) – The Economy2. The Gupta Empire (320 – 480 CE) – The Economy • The textile industries were well developed:The textile industries were well developed: - Silk, calico, muslin, linen, wool, cotton were produced in large- Silk, calico, muslin, linen, wool, cotton were produced in large quantities and exported.quantities and exported. - Merchants (Vaisyas) were well respected.- Merchants (Vaisyas) were well respected. • Around 480, the invasions of the Huns from Central Asia dealt theAround 480, the invasions of the Huns from Central Asia dealt the dynasty the final blow.dynasty the final blow.
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India Islamic ConquestsIslamic Conquests • Arab Muslims first pushed into the subcontinent beginning in 711.Arab Muslims first pushed into the subcontinent beginning in 711. • 870-1030 – Turks from Central Asia came.870-1030 – Turks from Central Asia came. - Systematically looted palaces and temples, destroyed religious- Systematically looted palaces and temples, destroyed religious statues.statues. • 1206 – Dehli Sultinate – led by Persians1206 – Dehli Sultinate – led by Persians - Muslims saw Buddhism as a bigger threat than Hinduism- Muslims saw Buddhism as a bigger threat than Hinduism
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India 3. The Mughal Empire (1526-1858)3. The Mughal Empire (1526-1858) • The largest, wealthiest, and most populous of the Islamic empires ofThe largest, wealthiest, and most populous of the Islamic empires of the modern world.the modern world. • Babur (1483-1530), Turkish ruler claiming to be descendent of MongolBabur (1483-1530), Turkish ruler claiming to be descendent of Mongol conquerors Ghenghis Khan and Tamarlane, conquered northern India.conquerors Ghenghis Khan and Tamarlane, conquered northern India. • Mughals (Mongols) were mostly Turks, Persians, Afghans.Mughals (Mongols) were mostly Turks, Persians, Afghans.
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India 3. The Mughal Empire (1526-1858)3. The Mughal Empire (1526-1858) • The high point of Mughal rule in India –The high point of Mughal rule in India – AkhbaAkhbar (1556-1505)r (1556-1505) - Through conquest, he expanded and consolidated India under- Through conquest, he expanded and consolidated India under centralized, Mughal rule.centralized, Mughal rule. - Developed a sophisticated bureaucracy to govern his vast- Developed a sophisticated bureaucracy to govern his vast empireempire - Practiced religious tolerance and promoted people of talent to- Practiced religious tolerance and promoted people of talent to positions of administration irrespective of religious affiliationpositions of administration irrespective of religious affiliation (Hindus made up 30% of his imperial bureaucracy).(Hindus made up 30% of his imperial bureaucracy). - Abolished the property tax on non-Muslims- Abolished the property tax on non-Muslims - Made Persian the official language of the Empire- Made Persian the official language of the Empire
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India 3. The Mughal Empire (1526-1858)3. The Mughal Empire (1526-1858) • Akhbar’s grandson,Akhbar’s grandson, Shah JahanShah Jahan (1628-1658) continued to(1628-1658) continued to consolidate Mughal rule throughoutconsolidate Mughal rule throughout India.India. • Had the “Taj Mahal” constructed inHad the “Taj Mahal” constructed in honor of his wife who died givinghonor of his wife who died giving birth to their 15birth to their 15thth child.child.
    • Politics and Government: IndiaPolitics and Government: India 3. The Mughal Empire (1526-1858)3. The Mughal Empire (1526-1858) • The origins of the decline of the Mughal Empire start with Shah Jahan’s son –The origins of the decline of the Mughal Empire start with Shah Jahan’s son – AurangzebAurangzeb (1658-1707).(1658-1707). • Strict Muslim – sent officials to enforce Islamic laws against gambling,Strict Muslim – sent officials to enforce Islamic laws against gambling, prostitution, drinking & the use of narcotics.prostitution, drinking & the use of narcotics. • Forbade suttee.Forbade suttee. • Re-imposed the tax on non-Muslims.Re-imposed the tax on non-Muslims. • Ordered the destruction of some Hindu temples / Made Hindus pay higherOrdered the destruction of some Hindu temples / Made Hindus pay higher customs taxes than Muslims / but employed more Hindus in the imperialcustoms taxes than Muslims / but employed more Hindus in the imperial administration than any other Mughal ruler.administration than any other Mughal ruler.
    • Height of the Mughal EmpireHeight of the Mughal Empire
    • India & China RisingIndia & China Rising
    • Thematic QuestionsThematic Questions 1.1. Compare the principles of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and Islam).Compare the principles of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and Islam). 2. Do you think India’s native religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism) will help or hinder2. Do you think India’s native religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism) will help or hinder India’s current economic reforms?India’s current economic reforms? 3. Why is the Aryan invasion of India theory so controversial to the understanding of the origins of3. Why is the Aryan invasion of India theory so controversial to the understanding of the origins of Indian civilization?Indian civilization? 4.4. Compare the political theories of Kautilya, aide to India’s Chandragupta Maurya, the ChineseCompare the political theories of Kautilya, aide to India’s Chandragupta Maurya, the Chinese Legalists, and Niccolo Machiavelli.Legalists, and Niccolo Machiavelli. 5.5. Compare the crisis of conscience experienced by Ashoka Maurya and Emperor ConstantineCompare the crisis of conscience experienced by Ashoka Maurya and Emperor Constantine affected their respective empires.affected their respective empires. 6.6. Discuss the major achievements of Indian civilization during the three great imperial periods.Discuss the major achievements of Indian civilization during the three great imperial periods. 7.7. For most of India’s early history (up to British colonialism), the country found itself divided. WhatFor most of India’s early history (up to British colonialism), the country found itself divided. What other great ancient civilization in this project also found itself divided? Did the absence of unityother great ancient civilization in this project also found itself divided? Did the absence of unity help or hinder cultural achievements?help or hinder cultural achievements?