What is Personality?• Combination of psychological traits we use toclassify a person.• What is a trait?– Traits refer to broad, relatively regular dimensionsof individual behavior• Pervin, L.A., (2002), Current Controversies and Issuesin Personality, 3rd ed., Wiley, New York
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI)• Most widely used personality assessment• 100 question personality test• Classified in 4 dichotomous dimensions
Dimensions of MBTI• Extroverted (E) or Introverted (I)– How the individual interacts socially• Sensing (S) or Intuitive (N)– How people prefer to collect information• Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)– How people evaluate information• Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)– How people like to make decisions
• Extroverted: outgoing, social, assertive• Introverted: quiet, shy• Sensing: practical, prefer routine and order• iNtuitive: unconscious processes, big picture• Thinking: reason, logic• Feeling: rely on personal values and emotions• Judging: want control, order, structure• Perceiving: flexible, spontaneous
Is MBTI a valid measure of personality?• Evidence is mixed• Valuable tool for self awareness• Useful in career guidance• MBTI results tend to be UNRELATED to jobperformance• Should not be used as a selection tool
Strengths• Marcus Buckhaming• Gallup• An Inventory– To Find Your 5 greatest strengths– Will not tell you any others• A year• Some training
What can be used ?• 5 Factor Model of Personality– Impressive body of research supports 5dimensions• Extroversion:– Comfort level with relationships
• Extroversion: Comfort level with relationships• Extroverts: gregarious, assertive, sociable• Introverts: reserved, timid, quiet• Agreeableness: propensity to defer to others• High agreeable: cooperative, warm, trusting• Low agreeable: cold, disagreeable antagonistic• Conscientiousness: measure of reliability• High conscientious: responsible, organized dependable, persistent• Low conscientious: easily distracted, disorganized, unreliable• Emotional Stability: ability to withstand stress• Positive scores: calm, self-confident, secure• Negative scores: nervous, anxious, depressed, insecure• Openness to Experience: range of interests & fascinationwith novelty• Open People: creative, curious, artistically sensitive• Closed People: conventional, comfort in the familiar
Quick Results• Conscientiousness– Only one that was predictive of job performance• All others predictive ability is dependent upon– Performance criterion– Occupational group
Other important PersonalityDimensions• Locus of Control?• Machiavellianism?• Self-Esteem?• Self-Monitoring?• Risk Propensity?• Type “A” Personality?
Do these frameworks transfer to othercultures?
Do these frameworks transfer to othercultures?• Yes• No common personality types for a givencountry• Country’s history and attitudes impact thepercentages of certain personality types• Where materialism is less revered – less proportion oftype “A”s
Are Traits a good OB?• Many relationships between traits andbehavior are moderate, at best• Labeling people according to their personalityprofile or type can result in self-fulfillingprophecy• Knowing a person’s score on a test can impacthow others’ perceive that individual
Interactionist Models• Hypothesize personality is important factor inbehavior• Argue situational factors can powerfully shapebehavior
Conditional Reasoning Approach• Individuals interpret what happens inenvironment based on their mental maps• How they– Frame the world– Motives– Assumptions they make regarding events• Create different justification mechanisms to adjust toenvironment
Cognitive-Affective Processing System(CAPS)• Personality -- mental representations of:• people and situations,• goals,• expectancies,• memories,• feelings• Difference in content --how accessible they are• How they related to one another• Affected by array of factors• Genetic,• cultural,• societal,• developmental
Why is this important?• Because the mix of people in an organizationmake a difference. (Read Tipping Point byMalcomb Gladwell to view the difference oneor two of the right people can make.)• Having some insight into others – provides uswith opportunities to influence.• If we understand ourselves we can makebetter decisions for ourselves.