Causes of Stress• The causes of stress can be grouped into threebroad categories:• Before advancing the slide – what do youthink they are?
Causes of Stress• The causes of stress can be grouped into threebroad categories:– Personal Factors• Some people are just more prone to stress– Interpersonal Factors• What happens between people can cause stress– Organizational Factors• Stuff beyond our control and yet within our work– Each one of these could be a problem by itself but when you begin to combine them the impact isnot arithmetic but geometric – all three together can be a perfect storm – we’ll look at each oneseparately
Causes of Stress: Personal Factors• Type A vs. Type B Persoanlities– Type A personalities are more prone to stress– Competitive– Impatient– Time pressure sensitive– Aggressive– Multi taskers– Difficulty relaxing– Type A tied to certain physical disorders – heart problems– Type A also predisposed to certain work – 60% of managers Type A – 12% Type B– What gets A promoted (persistence, fanatic observance of deadlines, etc…) doesn’tnecessarily translate into better performance once at the top – B’s perform better
Causes of Stress: Personal Factors• Changes in One’s Life– Magnitude of change• You have seen the scales of the impact of certain events?– Frequency of Change• Less dramatic impact in the moment but greater over time
Causes of Stress: Personal Factors• Demographic Attributes– Income?– Race?– Gender?• On a scrap piece of paper – what do you think?– Higher income means more or less stress?– Minorities have less stress than whites?– Men are more stress than women?
Causes of Stress: Personal Factors• On a scrap piece of paper – what do you think?– Higher income means more or less stress?– Minorities have less stress than whites?– Men are more stress than women?• Higher income = less stress• White = less stress• Men = less stress– However, minorities and women, in aggregate are in lower quality positions thatpay less and have greater demands – hence demographic differences may besimply a reflection of differences in job attributes
Interpersonal Factors in Stress• Jealousy and Envy– Emotions are powerful – last few years have shown Jealousy and Envyas strong negative emotions– Employee jealousy -- a pattern of thoughts, emotions, & behaviors resulting from loss of outcomes in aworking relationship– Envy – a pattern of thoughts, emotions, & behaviors resulting from loss of self-esteem becausesomeone else gets what is wanted• Simple way to distinguish between the two – recall that jealousy involves threepeople while envy only takes two.• Men experience more envy – probably because of the issue ofcompetition• Women experience more jealousy – probably because theywant to maintain social relations.
Interpersonal Factors in Stress:• Workplace Romance– From those outside the romance• Fear of favoritism• If/when it turns sour – caught in the fallout– Issues• Sexual harassment possibility• Gossip
Organizational Factors• Responsibility for Others– Recognizing what I do has an impact on others• Working Conditions– The kind of job you have does make a difference• Emotional Labor– When you have to display a certain emotion» Resorts, flight attendants, salespeople• Role Conflict– Expected to do two different things» College prof – publish and teach» Boss – supervisiors expect him to drive the troops, troopsexpect him to stand up for them.
Organizational Factors• Role Ambiguity– Absence of clarity regarding how to perform one’s job• Role Overload– Too many activities are expected of an employee• Shift Work– 20% of U.S. workforce– Rotating shifts• Sleep• Social activities
Reactions to Stress• Physical Problems– Heart• Alcoholism and Drug Abuse• Absenteeism, Turnover, and Dissatisfaction• Workplace Violence• Mass Psychogenic Illness
Coping with StressWhat are each of these mechanisms?• Flight or Fight• Exercise• Social Support• Job Redesign• Relaxation Techniques
Coping with StressPractical Approach• Time Management – active attempt to reducestress– Time Log– Structure Time – blocks– Just say no– Make a List