• Define “Ethics”– This is about what we think we “Should”• Definition: ?• Define “Values”– This is about what we “Actually” embrace• Definition: ?
Ethics• What is this really?– Take a look – a pretty good look at ….. Ethics fromSanta Clara• http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/whatisethics.html
But knowing what it is doesn’t explaine “Why to HumanBeings Do What They Do?”• To Start to Understand ….– We begin with psychological contributions• There are 4 areas of contribution– 1. Values– 2. Attitudes– 3. Perception– 4. Learning
• Attitudes, Perceptions, and Learning fit into adifferent part of our understanding ….…but Values are well worth exploring!
Values• Define Values?• Basic convictions – one mode of conduct is preferableto another• Judgmental element carrying individual’s ideas aboutright, good, or desirable (and the opposites)
What are Value Systems?• They prioritize individual values– The weight assigned to values such as:• Freedom• Pleasure• Self-respect• Honesty• Obedience• Equality– Or the rank ordering you did earlier with the 34items.
Kohlberg (researcher)Stages of Moral Development as a Basis for Moral Education• Level One – Self Centered• Obedience and Punishment orientation• Avoid physical punishment• Instrumental Purpose and Exchange –• Following rules when in my interest• Level Two – Conformity• Interpersonal Accord – Mutual Expectations• Good behavior -- peers and those close to you• Social Accord & System Maintenance• Fulfilling duties -- contributing
Kohlberg2Stages of Moral Development as a Basis for Moral Education• Level Three – Principled– Social Contract – Individual Rights• Aware people hold a variety of values• Relative to the group– Universal Ethical Principles• Following self-chosen ethical principles of justice andrights• Law vs. principles – act in accordance with principles
Ethical FrameworksBelow are the most modest descriptors of the Frameworks• Take a moment with a search engine and expand thedescriptors….• Utilitarianism – greatest good• Individual Rights – personal entitlements• Justice Principle – fairness, equity, impartiality• Caring Principle – well being of others• Environmentalism – person–land relationships
Does a person’s generational standing or otheridentifier make a difference in values?• You saw the generational chart earlier…• Now group people by some broad brushstrokes………. And ask ourselves about• Age?• Nationality?• Region of upbringing? (south, east, midwest, west,…)• Politics?• Education?
Again, another look at Dominant Values inToday’s workforceRobbins• Veterans» 65+ Hardworking, conservative,• Loyal to organization• Boomers» 40’s – 60’s Success, achievement, ambition, dislike authority• Loyal to career• Xers» 30’s – 40’s Work/life balance, teams, dislike rules• Loyal to relationships• Nexters» Under 30 Confident, $ success, self-reliant ,• Loyal to both self and relationships
Is there a logical line ofthinking that might help toexplain or answer thequestion?:Has there been a decline inBusiness Ethics? (because it seems like it)
Possible Partial explanation• Vets leave Loyalty to employer• Best for the organization• Boomers take over Loyalty to career• Best for #1• Xers coming up Loyalty to relationships• Implications of actions
So… can other values issues be explained as well (or possiblyexplained)?• How about values around the world?– Do different cultures have different values?• Well, yes! (I think …. Don’t I?)– How would you find out? (easy way is look it up on the internet – but I want you to thinkabout how you would find out? Not what someone thinks, but what we know because we havetested it out)
Geert HofstedeNot his son, Gert• Google him – take a quick look at Wikipedia(I know it isn’t what I recommend but really….)• So the big study he did …– IBM employees– 116,000– 40 countries– Produced 5 dimensions• What are they? Look it up
• Power – distance• Acceptance of distribution of power• Individualism/collectivism• Prefer to act ……• Achievement/Nurturing• Uncertainty avoidance• Structure vs. unstructured• Long Term / Short Term
Finally …Here are some steps to Ethical Decision Making:• Define the problem accurately• Define the problem from the other side• State the historical background to events• Consider where are your loyalties• What do you want to accomplish– Compare intention with probable results• Whom could get injured(multiple definitions)• Can you discuss with parties involved• Valid over long time frame• Can you disclose• Exceptions?Nash – Ethics without the sermon -- HBR
Attitudes• Attitude is a hypothetical construct – it is made up• Cannot be directly observed – we look at what people doand infer what their attitude is – (think of an ice berg, we onlysee 10% of what is actually there)• Attitude directs Behaviour• Attitudes are persistent – until something changes them• Attitudes range from very favourable to very unfavourable.
THREE COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES• Cognitive Component – The opinion or beliefsegment of an attitude.• Affective Component – The emotional or feelingsegment of an attitude.• Behavioral Component – An intention to behave ina certain way towards someone or something.20OrganizationalBehavior
CHANGING ATTITUDES• Barriers to changing attitudes:1. Prior commitment2. Insufficient information• Methods to overcome barriers and change attitudes:1. Providing new information2. Use of fear3. Resolving Discrepancies4. Influence of friends and peers5. The co-opting approach21OrganizationalBehavior
Attitudes(just briefly)• Are evaluative statements• They reflect how we feel about something» Objects, people, events• OB focuses on job-related attitudes– Job involvement – how involved are people and why– Organizational commitment – how committed arepeople to the organization –– Job satisfaction – how satisfied are people with theirjob.» Most attention is placed on Job Satisfaction
Determinants of Job Satisfaction• Mentally challenging work• Equitable rewards• Supportive working conditions• Supportive colleagues
• The following slide is a simple model of theinterrelatedness of Values, Attitudes and otherfactors and how they impact an individualsbehavior.