0
1
Outline
Training & Development
Training Cycle
Step 1: Needs Analysis (Needs Assessment)
Step 2: Design & Develop Train...
Training & Development
What is training? What is development?
Training: enhances the capabilities of an employee to
perf...
Training & Development
Development: enhances the capabilities of an
employee to be ready to perform possible future jobs
...
Training Cycle
Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.1, p. 377
5
Step 1: Needs Analysis/Assessment
Goal of needs analysis: Identify training needs
Needs Analysis:
3 Levels of Needs Ana...
Needs Analysis
3 Levels of Needs Analysis:
Organizational analysis: What are the training needs of the
organization?
 W...
Needs Analysis
3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more):
Organizational analysis (more)
 What training will support the organi...
Needs Analysis
3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more):
Organizational analysis (more)
 Use benchmarks of organizational heal...
Needs Analysis
3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more):
Job and task analysis: What are the training needs of
each job in the ...
Needs Analysis
3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more):
Individual analysis: What are the training needs of each
individual em...
Needs Analysis
Training Objectives: Use the 3 levels of needs analysis
to establish the training objectives for the train...
Training Cycle
Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.1, p. 377
13
Step 2: Design & Develop Training
Program
3 Stages of Learning: Design the training program to
move employees up to Stage...
Design & Develop Training
Program
3 Stages of Learning (more):
Stage 3: Procedural knowledge (autonomous phase)
 Perfor...
Design & Develop Training
Program
Training Methods: decide which training method to use
On-the-job training (OJT): train...
Design & Develop Training
Program
Training Methods (more):
Off-the-job training: training takes place off the job at a
t...
Design & Develop Training
Program
Training Methods (more):
Off-the-job training (more):
 Off-the-job training technique...
Training Cycle
Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.1, p. 377
19
Step 4: Training Evaluation
4 Levels of Evaluation
(Kirkpatrick, 1983)
Level 1: Reaction: measure
the satisfaction of th...
Step 4: Training Evaluation
4 Levels of Evaluation (more)
Level 3: Behavior: measure
the trainees’ job
performance back ...
Training Cycle
Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.1, p. 377
22
Outline
Training & Development
Training Cycle
Step 1: Needs Analysis (Needs Assessment)
Step 2: Design & Develop Train...
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Training and developmen 2

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Transcript of "Training and developmen 2"

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Outline Training & Development Training Cycle Step 1: Needs Analysis (Needs Assessment) Step 2: Design & Develop Training Program Step 3: Deliver the Training Step 4: Training Evaluation 2
  3. 3. Training & Development What is training? What is development? Training: enhances the capabilities of an employee to perform his or her current job Focuses on the current job  Examples for a bank teller:  Training program to correctly identify counterfeit currency  Training program in the bank’s new computer system used by tellers to process customer’s transactions 3
  4. 4. Training & Development Development: enhances the capabilities of an employee to be ready to perform possible future jobs Focuses on future jobs  Developmental education programs  Examples for a bank teller:  Bank sends the teller to a day-long workshop on “Emerging Issues in Finance & Banking”  Bank pays for the employee to get his or her MBA degree  Developmental job experiences  Examples: job rotation or job enlargement  Developmental interpersonal relationships  Example: mentoring 4
  5. 5. Training Cycle Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.1, p. 377 5
  6. 6. Step 1: Needs Analysis/Assessment Goal of needs analysis: Identify training needs Needs Analysis: 3 Levels of Needs Analysis:  Organizational analysis  Job and task analysis  Individual analysis Training Objectives 6
  7. 7. Needs Analysis 3 Levels of Needs Analysis: Organizational analysis: What are the training needs of the organization?  What training will support the organization’s strategy?  Example: Internal growth strategy (growth from new products or new markets) would be supported by training in:  Creative thinking  New product development  Understanding & evaluating potential new markets  Technical competence in jobs  Example: What are the training needs for other strategies?  Low-cost leadership, focused (niche) concentration, external growth (mergers & acquisitions), downsizing & divesting 7
  8. 8. Needs Analysis 3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more): Organizational analysis (more)  What training will support the organization’s culture, goals, & priorities?  Some organization’s emphasize training more than others  Learning organization: use training linked to strategic goals as a source of competitive advantage 8
  9. 9. Needs Analysis 3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more): Organizational analysis (more)  Use benchmarks of organizational health & success to identify training needs  General examples:  Headcount  Productivity  Costs  Quality  Specific examples for an airline:  On-time rates  Lost baggage rates  Employee injury rates 9
  10. 10. Needs Analysis 3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more): Job and task analysis: What are the training needs of each job in the organization?  Examine the job descriptions:  What tasks & duties are performed by each job?  For each task:  Do new hires already know how to perform the task or will they have to be trained? (Helps to identify training needs)  What are the consequences of performing the task incorrectly? (Helps to set training priorities)  Can the task be learned on the job, or should it be taught off the job? (Helps to identify training methods) 10
  11. 11. Needs Analysis 3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more): Individual analysis: What are the training needs of each individual employee in the organization?  Examine each employee’s performance appraisal  Do certain employees, or groups of employees, have job performance that might be improved by training that is cost- effective? 11
  12. 12. Needs Analysis Training Objectives: Use the 3 levels of needs analysis to establish the training objectives for the training program Training objectives answer the question: What will employees be able to do as a consequence of the training?  Make the training objectives specific, concrete, & measurable  Example for a bank teller training program in detecting counterfeit currency:  Identify counterfeit currency correctly 100% of the time 12
  13. 13. Training Cycle Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.1, p. 377 13
  14. 14. Step 2: Design & Develop Training Program 3 Stages of Learning: Design the training program to move employees up to Stage 3 Stage 1: Declarative knowledge (cognitive phase)  Learn facts & concepts  High demands on memory & attention  Performance is slow & halting  Errors are common Stage 2: Knowledge compilation (associative phase)  Performance begins to improve  Reduced concentration is required 14
  15. 15. Design & Develop Training Program 3 Stages of Learning (more): Stage 3: Procedural knowledge (autonomous phase)  Performance becomes automatic  Performance is fluid & correct  Little conscious concentration is required 15
  16. 16. Design & Develop Training Program Training Methods: decide which training method to use On-the-job training (OJT): training is at the actual work site using the actual work equipment  Advantages:  The training setting and the work setting are the same  May reduce costs: avoid the cost of a separate training facility  Enhances trainee motivation: job-relevancy of training is more obvious to the trainees  Disadvantages:  May be disruptive to normal operations  May have more distractions that interfere with learning  May have safety concerns 16
  17. 17. Design & Develop Training Program Training Methods (more): Off-the-job training: training takes place off the job at a training facility designed for training  Advantages:  Avoids disruptions to normal operations  Minimizes distractions  Avoids safety concerns  Disadvantages:  Differences between the training setting and the work setting  Costs may be higher due to the cost of the training facility  Trainee motivation may be reduced because the job-relevancy of the training is not as obvious 17
  18. 18. Design & Develop Training Program Training Methods (more): Off-the-job training (more):  Off-the-job training techniques:  Lectures  Discussions  Cases  Role-plays  Simulations 18
  19. 19. Training Cycle Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.1, p. 377 19
  20. 20. Step 4: Training Evaluation 4 Levels of Evaluation (Kirkpatrick, 1983) Level 1: Reaction: measure the satisfaction of the trainees with the training program  Satisfaction questionnaire Level 2: Learning: measure how much the trainees have learned  Written tests  Performance tests  Simulation tests Source of figure: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.4, p. 405 20
  21. 21. Step 4: Training Evaluation 4 Levels of Evaluation (more) Level 3: Behavior: measure the trainees’ job performance back on their jobs  Performance appraisals Level 4: Results: measure the impact on the organization  Profits  Costs  Productivity  Quality  Injury rates, etc. Source of figure: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.4, p. 405 21
  22. 22. Training Cycle Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 9.1, p. 377 22
  23. 23. Outline Training & Development Training Cycle Step 1: Needs Analysis (Needs Assessment) Step 2: Design & Develop Training Program Step 3: Deliver the Training Step 4: Training Evaluation 23
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