Research methodolgy


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Research methodolgy

  1. 1. Research Methodology and Technical Writing What is Research ?
  2. 2. Research means – 1. A systematic search for facts 2. Answers to questions and solutions to problems
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Definition Some of the definitions of Research are: 1. Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge”. 2. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from known to unknown. It is actually a voyage to discovery. 3. According to Clifford Woody “Research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis”.
  5. 5. On evaluating these definitions we can conclude that Research refers to the systematic method consisting of · Enunciating the problem, · Formulating a hypothesis, · Collecting the fact or data, · Analyzing the facts and · Reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions towards the concerned problem or in certain generals for some theoretical formulation.
  6. 6.  How is the Research made ?  What are possible methods or approaches?
  7. 7. Search for facts can be by a. Arbitrary methods or b. Scientific method
  8. 8. Arbitrary method :  Imagination, opinion, blind belief or impression.  The method is subjective and varies from person to person.  It is vague and inaccurate.
  9. 9. Scientific method: Systematic rational approach to seeking facts. It is objective, precise and arrives at conclusions on the basis of verifiable evidences.
  10. 10. Characteristics of research  Research is systematic and critical investigations into a phenomenon.  It is not a mere compilation but a purposive investigation; aiming at describing, interpreting and explaining a phenomenon  It adopts scientific method  It is objective and logical, applying possible tests to validate the measuring tools and the conclusion reached  It is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.  Directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems.  It emphasizes the development of generalization, principles and theories.  The purpose of research is not to arrive at an answer but which will stand up to the test of criticism.
  11. 11. Scientific Method  The Scientific method is a systematic step-by-step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning.
  12. 12. Basis of Scientific method The scientific method is based on certain “articles of faith”, these are: 1. Reliance on empirical evidence 2. Use of relevant concepts 3. Commitment to objectivity 4. Ethical neutrality 5. Generalisation 6. Verifiability 7. Logical reasoning process
  13. 13. Empirical  The word empirical denotes information gained by means of observation, experience, or experiment, as opposed to theoretical.  Empirical data are data that are produced by experiment or observation.
  14. 14. Empirical Cycle according to A.D. de Groot
  15. 15.  Empirical cycle Observation: The collecting and organisation of empirical facts; Forming hypotheses. Induction: Formulating hypotheses. Deduction: Deducting consequenses of hypotheses as testable predictions. Testing: Testing the hypotheses with new empirical material. Evaluation: Evaluating the outcome of testing.
  16. 16. The Manager-Researcher Relationship  Manager’s obligations  Specify problems  Provide adequate background information  Access to company information gatekeepers  Researcher’s obligations  Develop a creative research design  Provide answers to important business questions
  17. 17. Manager-Researcher Conflicts  Management’s limited exposure to research  Manager sees researcher as threat to personal status  Researcher has to consider corporate culture and political situations  Researcher’s isolation from managers
  18. 18. Scientific Method  The Scientific method is a systematic step-by-step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning.
  19. 19.  Components of Scientific method: Two components: 1. Procedural component 2. Personal component
  20. 20.  Procedural component: 1. Define the problem 2. Establish hypothesis as to causes/explanation/solutions of the problem. 3. Collect data 4. Analyze the data to test the hypothesis and draw inferences
  21. 21.  Personal component (Scientific attitude): 1. Consistent thinking 2. Objective, dispassionate and unbiased devotion to collection and treatment of facts 3. Overcoming personal preconceptions and value judgements 4. Avoiding personal and vested interests 5. Avoiding wishful thinking
  22. 22. 6. Stubborn determination to analyse one’s own system of thinking 7. Taking nothing for granted without evidence, tests and proofs 8. “Faith in the universality of cause and effect” 9. High curiosity, imagination and interest in experimental inquiry. 10. Keeping an open mind
  23. 23. Basis of Scientific method The scientific method is based on certain “articles of faith”, these are: 1. Reliance on empirical (practical)evidence 2. Use of relevant concepts 3. Commitment to objectivity 4. Ethical neutrality 5. Generalisation 6. Verifiability 7. Logical reasoning process
  24. 24. Reliance on empirical evidence:  Truth is established on the basis of evidence.  Relevant data are collected through observation or experimentation  The validity and reliability of data are checked and analysed  Conclusion is reached on the basis of the result of analysis.
  25. 25.  Use of concepts:  A number of facts are experienced through our senses  In order to deal with the facts we use concepts with specific meanings  We use them in our thinking and communications to get clarity and correct understanding.
  26. 26.  Commitment to objectivity:  It means forming a judgment upon facts unbiased by personal impressions.  It is the willingness and ability to examine evidence dispassionately  The conclusion should not vary from person to person
  27. 27.  Ethical neutrality:  Science does not pass normative judgment on facts  It does not say that they are good or bad  Science aims at nothing but making true and adequate statements about its objects
  28. 28.  Generalisation:  Scientists are not concerned with isolated events, but with the commonality of a series of events.  They aim at discovering “under the surface layer of of diversity the thread of uniformity”.
  29. 29.  Verifiability:  The conclusions arrived by a scientist should be verifiable.  He must make known to others how he arrived at his conclusions.  The methods and conclusions should be brought out for critical scrutiny.
  30. 30.  Logical reasoning process:  The scientific method involves the logical process of reasoning.  This reasoning process is used for drawing inference from the finding of a study or for arriving at conclusion.  The logical reasoning process consists of Induction and Deduction.
  31. 31.  Induction: Study of individual cases and drawing a generalisation.  Induction involves two process – Observation and generalisation.  Conclusion from induction are tentative inferences and are subject to further evidences
  32. 32.  Essential conditions to satisfactory conditions:  Observation must be correctly performed and recorded, data collected should be accurate.  Observations must cover representative case drawn from a specific universe.  Observations must cover an adequate number of cases  Conclusions must be confined to inferences drawn from the findings.
  33. 33.  Deduction: Deduction is reasoning process of applying a general accepted principle to a specific individual case falling under the general principle.  It is regarded as General to particular.  Establishes a logical relationship between a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion.
  34. 34.  Deductive method is useful for solving problems  But is not useful for finding new truths.  The inductive process overcomes this limitation
  35. 35.  Essential conditions :  The general rule or assumption must be correct  The general rule must be applied only to the case which properly fall under it
  36. 36.  Major Premise : All men are Mortal  Minor premise : Sanjay is a man  Conclusion : Sanjay is mortal
  37. 37. Types of Research  Qualitative: Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assesment of attitudes, opinions and behaviour  Quantitative: Quantitative approach to research involves the generation of data in quantitative form.  This includes experimental, case study, survey and analytical approach
  38. 38.  Research can also fall into two distinct types:  Primary research: (field research) involves the collection of data that does not already exist.  This can be through numerous forms, including questionnaires and telephone interviews amongst others. This information may be used in such things as questionnaires, magazines, and Interviews  Secondary research :(desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments.
  39. 39. Types of Research  Research may be classified according to its major intent or methods: 1. Pure research 2. Historical research 3. Case study 4. Experimental research 5. Survey approach 6. Descriptive study 7. Analytical study
  40. 40. Pure research (Basic research, fundamental)  Pure research is research carried out to increase understanding of fundamental principles.  Many times the end results have no direct or immediate commercial benefits, which is to say that basic research can be thought of as arising out of pure curiosity.  However, in the long term it is the basis for many commercial products and applied research.  Like in science the research on basic objects, forces, relations between them and laws governing
  41. 41. Historical research  This is when the research is conducted on the basis of past data  This method is followed by historians, philosophers, psychiatrics&academicians  Its objective is to draw explanations and generalisations from the past trends in order to understand the present and to anticipate the future.
  42. 42.  The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.  There are various history guidelines commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis.  This includes higher criticism and textual criticism.
  43. 43.  Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are usually part of most formal historical research:  Identification of origin date  Evidence of localization  Recognition of authorship  Analysis of data  Identification of integrity  Attribution of credibility
  44. 44.  Sources of data: 1. Eyewitness accounts narrated by an actual observer or participant 2. Oral testimony of elders 3. Records and other documentary materials 4. Relics
  45. 45.  The limitations of this research are – non-matching situations over generalisation and subjective interpretation.
  46. 46. Case Studies  This is one of the most popular types of research  Research performed in detail on a single case rather than on a sample of whole population.  It is an in-depth comprehensive study of a person, a social group, and episode, a process, a situation, a program, a community, an institution or any other social unit.
  47. 47.  The purpose is to understand the lifecycle of the unit under study or the interaction between factors that explain the present status or the development over a period of time.  They provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing information, and reporting the results.
  48. 48.  When selecting a case for a case study, researchers often use information- oriented sampling, as opposed to random sampling  The case study method is intensive in nature, it helps in formulating a valid hypothesis.
  49. 49. Experimental research  This approach to research is based on scientific methods in so far as the cause and effect relationships are studied under controlled conditions.  This is characterized by greater control over the research environment and where some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on other variables.
  50. 50. Survey approach  It is a fact finding study.  The fact finding may be related to inumerous issues like, poverty, BPO, night shifts, housing problems, etc, etc.  Survey research studies large and small populations by selecting samples to discover the relative incidence, distribution, and inter-relations of social and psychological variables.  The types of survey research are general survey. Specific survey, regular survey, ad-hoc survey, government survey, market survey and so on.
  51. 51. Descriptive study  This approach is a fact finding investigation with adequate interpretation.  It seeks to describe a field or a problem by using questionnaire and opinions  Data are collected by using one or more appropriate methods- observation, interviewing and questionnaire.  The study reveals potential relationships between variables.
  52. 52. Analytical study  This approach is primarily concerned with testing hypothesis and interpreting relationships.  Analytical study design approximates to the model of an experimental design.  This study employs advanced statitical techniques like corelation, ANOVA, regression, multi-variate analysis and so on.
  53. 53. Criteria for good research 1. Careful logical analysis of the problem, separating its elements and whenever possible, formulating hypothesis 2. Unequivocal definition of terms and concepts and statistical units and measures, so that others will understand exactly and be able repeat the analysis and test the generlisations 3. Collection of data pertinant to the problem under study 4. Classification of data 5. Expression of variables in quantitative terms whenevr possible
  54. 54. 6. Rigorous and exacting experimental or statistical procedure in summerising the data and in isolating the attributes or variables and measuring their relationships and inter-effects 7. Sound and logical reasoning as to the testing of hypothesis and drawing generalisations 8. Statement in unassailable terms of the exact conclusion arrived at from the findings 9. Specific and clear statement of generalisation to facilitate checking and testing by others 10. Complete elimination of personal equation 11. Complete and careful reporting of the research process, definitions and the methods of analysis so that others can check the analysis or test the generalisations with new sets of data.
  55. 55. Review of Literature  A researcher needs to survey the available literature relating to his field of study.  Literature consists of 1. Books: Text books, Encyclopedia, Reference books, etc 2. Journals : Annual, Half yearly, Quarterly,etc 3. Reports: Committees, commissions appointed by govenrment, public inst., Seminar and conference reports etc 4. Research dissertations and theses 5. Newspapers 6. Micro forms: Audio and Video tapes, Micro films, CDs, etc
  56. 56. Purpose of review  The literature review starts with the selection of a problem for research.  The purpose is to : 1. gain background knowledge of the research topic 2. Identify concepts relating to it 3. Identify appropriate methodology, research design, methods, concepts and techniques 4. Identify data sources 5. Learn others structured their reports.
  57. 57. Sources of Literature 1. Subject catalogues of li9braries 2. Documentation services 3. Bibliography: Indian national Bibliography etc monthly publication 4. Lists of Books and Publishers Bulletins 5. Journals: Index India, documentation fortnightly etc 6. Government reports 7. Research Abstracts : HBR journal of Abstracts and journals 8. Information on research done: University news
  58. 58. Notes taking  The most suitable method of notes taking as is use of cards and a tentative outline of the key elements regarding the topic .Although the outline may undergo revision when the researcher acquires further insight into his subject,it is useful in deciding which information is needed and how various bits of information should be related.