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Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
Managing across culture 1
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Managing across culture 1

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  • 1. Chapter 12 Motivation Across Cultures The specific objectives of this chapter are: 1. DEFINE motivation, and explain it as a psychological process. 2. EXAMINE the hierarchy-of-needs, two-factor, and achievement motivation theories, and assess their value to international human resource management.
  • 2. Chapter 12 Motivation Across Cultures The specific objectives of this chapter are: 3. DISCUSS how an understanding of employee satisfaction can be useful in human resource management throughout the world. 4. EXAMINE the value of process theories in motivating employees worldwide.
  • 3. Chapter 12 Motivation Across Cultures 5. RELATE the importance of job design, work centrality, and rewards to understanding how to motivate employees in an international context. The specific objectives of this chapter are:
  • 4. 4  Motivation A psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or incentives. The Nature of Motivation The Basic Motivation ProcessThe Basic Motivation Process McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure Figure 12–1: The Basic Motivation Process Unsatisfied need Drive toward goal to satisfy need Attainment of goal (need satisfaction)
  • 5. 5 The Nature of Motivation The Universalist Assumption  The first assumption is that the motivation process is universal, that all people are motivated to pursue goals they value—what the work- motivation theorists call goals with “high valence” or “preference”  The process is universal  Culture influences the specific content and goals pursued  Motivation differs across cultures
  • 6. 6 The Nature of Motivation The Assumption of Content and Process  Content Theories of Motivation Theories that explain work motivation in terms of what arouses, energizes, or initiates employee behavior.  Process Theories of Motivation Theories that explain work motivation by how employee behavior is initiated, redirected, and halted.
  • 7. 7 The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory The Maslow Theory  Maslow’s theory rests on a number of basic assumptions:  Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher- level needs become motivators  A need that is satisfied no longer serves as a motivator  There are more ways to satisfy higher-level than there are ways to satisfy lower-level needs
  • 8. 8 Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Basic physical needs for water, food, clothing, and shelter. Desires for security, stability, and the absence of pain. Desires to interact and affiliate with others and to feel wanted by others. Needs for power and status. Desires to reach one’s full potential, to become every thing one is capable of becoming as a human being. Maslow’s Need HierarchyMaslow’s Need Hierarchy McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure 12–2: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
  • 9. 9 The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory International Findings on Maslow’s Theory  With some minor modification researchers examined the need satisfaction and need importance of the four highest-level needs in the Maslow hierarch  Esteem needs were divided into two groups:  Esteem – including needs for self-esteem and prestige  Autonomy – including desires for authority and opportunities for independent thought and action
  • 10. 10 The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory International Findings on Maslow’s Theory  The Haire study indicated all these needs were important to the respondents across cultures  International managers (not rank-and-file employees) indicated the upper-level needs were of particular importance to them  Findings for select country clusters (Latin Europe, United States/United Kingdom, and Nordic Europe) indicated autonomy and self-actualization were the most important and least satisfied needs for the respondents  Another study of managers in eight East Asian countries found that autonomy and self-actualization in most cases also ranked high
  • 11. 11 The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory International Findings on Maslow’s Theory  Some researchers have suggested modifying Maslow’s “Western- oriented” hierarchy by reranking the needs  Asian cultures emphasize the needs of society  Chinese hierarchy of needs might have four levels ranked from lowest to highest:  Belonging (social)  Physiological  Safety  Self-actualization (in the service of society)
  • 12. 12 Top-Ranking Goals for Professional Technical PersonnelTop-Ranking Goals for Professional Technical Personnel from a Large Variety of Countriesfrom a Large Variety of Countries Adapted from Table 12–1: Top-Ranking Goals for Professional Technical Personnel from a Large Variety of Countries
  • 13. 13 Top-Ranking Goals for Professional Technical PersonnelTop-Ranking Goals for Professional Technical Personnel from a Large Variety of Countriesfrom a Large Variety of Countries Adapted from Table 12–1: Top-Ranking Goals for Professional Technical Personnel from a Large Variety of Countries
  • 14. 14 The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory International Findings on Maslow’s Theory  Hofstede’s research indicates:  Self-actualization and esteem needs rank highest for professionals and managers  Security, earnings, benefits, and physical working conditions are most important to low-level, unskilled workers  Job categories and levels may have a dramatic effect on motivation and may well offset cultural considerations  MNCs should focus most heavily on giving physical rewards to lower- level personnel and on creating a climate where there is challenge, autonomy, the ability to use one’s skills, and cooperation for middle- and upper-level personnel.
  • 15. 15 Table 12–2: The Four Most Important Goals Ranked by Occupational Group and Related to the Need Hierarchy Four Most Important GoalsFour Most Important Goals Ranked by Occupational GroupRanked by Occupational Group Adapted from Table 12–2: Four Most Important Goals Ranked by Occupational Group and Related to the Need Hierarchy
  • 16. 16 Table 12–2: The Four Most Important Goals Ranked by Occupational Group and Related to the Need Hierarchy Four Most Important GoalsFour Most Important Goals Ranked by Occupational GroupRanked by Occupational Group Adapted from Table 12–2: Four Most Important Goals Ranked by Occupational Group and Related to the Need Hierarchy
  • 17. 17 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation The Herzberg Theory Two-Factor Theory of Motivation A theory that identifies two sets of factors that influence job satisfaction:  Motivators Job-content factors such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the work itself  Hygiene Factors Job-context variables such as salary, interpersonal relations, technical supervision, working conditions, and company policies and administration
  • 18. 18 Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHerzberg’s Two-Factor Theory McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Table 12–3: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Salary Technical supervision Company policies and administration Interpersonal relations Working conditions Achievement Recognition Responsibility Advancement The work itself Hygiene Factors Motivators
  • 19. 19 Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHerzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Adapted from Table 12–4: The Relationship Between Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
  • 20. 20 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation The Herzberg Theory  The two-factor theory holds that motivators and hygiene factors relate to employee satisfaction – a more complex relationship than the traditional view that employees are either satisfied or dissatisfied  If hygiene factors are not taken care of or are deficient there will be dissatisfaction  There may be no dissatisfaction if hygiene factors are taken care of – there may be no satisfaction also  Only when motivators are present will there be satisfaction
  • 21. 21 Views of Satisfaction/DissatisfactionViews of Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure 12–3: Views of Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Traditional View Dissatisfaction Satisfaction Two-Factor View (Hygiene Factors) (Motivators) Absent (Dissatisfaction) Present (No Dissatisfaction) Absent (No Satisfaction) Present (Satisfaction)
  • 22. 22 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Two categories of International findings relate to the two-factor theory:  One type of study consists of replications of Herzberg’s research in a particular country Do managers in country X give answers similar to those in Herzberg’s original studies?  The others are cross-cultural studies focusing on job satisfaction What factors cause job satisfaction and how do these responses differ from country to country? International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory
  • 23. 23 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation  A number of research efforts have been undertaken to replicate the two-factor theory – they tend to support Herzberg’s findings  George Hines surveyed of 218 middle managers and 196 salaried employees in New Zealand using ratings of 12 job factors and overall job satisfaction – he concluded “the Herzberg model appears to have validity across occupational levels”  A similar study was conducted among 178 Greek managers – this study found that overall Herzberg’s two-factor theory of job satisfaction generally held true International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory Two-Factor Replications
  • 24. 24 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation  Motivators tend to be more important to job satisfaction than hygiene factors  MBA candidates from four countries ranked hygiene factors at the bottom and motivators at the top while Singapore students (of a different cultural cluster than the other three groups) gave similar responses  Job-satisfaction-related factors may not always be culturally bounded  Lower- and middle-management personnel attending management development courses in Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Japan ranked the importance of 15 job-related outcomes and how satisfied they were with each  Job content may be more important than job context International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory Cross-Cultural Job- Satisfaction Studies
  • 25. 25 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation  Job-Context Factors In work motivation, those factors controlled by the organization, such as conditions, hours, earnings, security, benefits, and promotions.  Job-Content Factors In work motivation, those factors internally controlled, such as responsibility, achievement, and the work itself. International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory Cross-Cultural Job- Satisfaction Studies
  • 26. 26 Motivation Factors in ZambiaMotivation Factors in Zambia McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure 12–4: Motivation Factors in Zambia High Dissatisfaction High Satisfaction Neutral Point -2.00 -1.00 +1.00 +2.00 Average Standard Score of Frequency of Mention of Items Growth Opportunity Work Nature Material and Physical Provisions Relations with Others Fairness in Organizational Practices Personal Problems
  • 27. 27 JOI Results in Four Cross-Cultural GroupsJOI Results in Four Cross-Cultural Groups Adapted from Table 12–5: The Results of Administering the Job Orientation Inventory to Four Cross-Cultural Groups
  • 28. 28 Achievement Motivation Theory Characteristic profile of high achievers:  They like situations in which they take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems.  Tend to be moderate risk-takers rather than high or low risk-takers.  Want concrete feedback on their performance.  Often tend to be loners, and not team players. The Background of Achievement Motivation Theory
  • 29. 29 Achievement Motivation Theory A high nAch can be learned. Ways to develop high- achievement needs:  Obtain feedback on performance and use the information to channel efforts into areas where success will likely be attained  Emulate people who have been successful achievers;  Develop an internal desire for success and challenges  Daydream in positive terms by picturing oneself as successful in the pursuit of important objectives The Background of Achievement Motivation Theory
  • 30. 30 Achievement Motivation Theory  Polish industrialists were high achievers scoring 6.58 (U.S. managers’ scored an average of 6.74)  Managers in countries as diverse as the United States and those of the former Soviet bloc in Central Europe have high needs for achievement  Later studies did not find a high need for achievement in Central European countries  Average high-achievement score for Czech industrial managers was 3.32 (considerably lower than U.S. managers) International Findings on Achievement Motivation Theory
  • 31. 31 Selected Countries on the Uncertainty-AvoidanceSelected Countries on the Uncertainty-Avoidance and Masculinity Scalesand Masculinity Scales Masculinity index 5 23 41 59 77 95 Uncertaintyavoidanceindex 11 16 21 27 32 37 43 48 53 59 64 69 75 80 85 91 96 101 107 110 Weak uncertainty avoidance Feminine Norway Finland Others Weak uncertainty avoidance Masculine Great BritainIndia USA South Africa Canada Others Strong uncertainty avoidance Feminine France Brazil Costa Rica Spain South Korea Others Strong uncertainty avoidance Masculine Japan Austria Germany Mexico Others Adapted from Figure 12–5: Selected Countries on the Uncertainty-Avoidance and Masculinity Scales
  • 32. 32 Achievement Motivation Theory  Achievement motivation theory must be modified to meet the specific needs of the local culture:  The culture of many countries does not support high achievement  Anglo cultures and those that reward entrepreneurial effort do support achievement motivation and their human resources should probably be managed accordingly International Findings on Achievement Motivation Theory Hofstede offers the following advice: The countries on the feminine side . . . distinguish themselves by focusing on quality of life rather than on performance and on relationships between people rather than on money and things. This means social motivation: quality of life plus security and quality of life plus risk.
  • 33. 33 Select Process Theories Equity Theory  When people perceive they are being treated equitably it will have a positive effect on their job satisfaction  If they believe they are not being treated fairly (especially in relation to relevant others) they will be dissatisfied which will have a negative effect on their job performance and they will strive to restore equity. When the theory is examined on an international basis, the results are mixed. There is considerable research to support the fundamental equity principle in Western work groups.
  • 34. 34 Select Process Theories Equity Theory  Equity perceptions among managers and nonmanagers in an Israeli kibbutz production unit  Everyone was treated the same but managers reported lower satisfaction levels than the workers  Managers perceived their contributions to be greater than other groups in the kibbutz and felt under compensated for their value and effort
  • 35. 35 Select Process Theories Equity Theory  Employees in Asia and the Middle East often readily accept inequitable treatment in order to preserve group harmony  Men and women in Japan and Korea (and Latin America) typically receive different pay for doing the same work – due to years of cultural conditioning women may not feel they are treated inequitably These results indicate equity theory is not universally applicable in explaining motivation and job satisfaction
  • 36. 36 Select Process Theories Goal-Setting Theory  A process theory that focuses on how individuals go about setting goals and responding to them and the overall impact of this process on motivation  Specific areas that are given attention in goal-setting theory include:  The level of participation in setting goals  Goal difficulty  Goal specificity  The importance of objective  Timely feedback to progress toward goals
  • 37. 37 Select Process Theories Goal-Setting Theory  Unlike many theories of motivation, goal setting has been continually refined and developed  There is considerable research evidence showing that employees perform extremely well when they are assigned specific and challenging goals that they have had a hand in setting  Most of these studies have been conducted in the United States – few have been carried out in other cultures
  • 38. 38 Select Process Theories Goal-Setting Theory  Norwegian employees shunned participation and preferred to have their union representatives work with management in determining work goals  Researchers concluded that individual participation in goal setting was seen as inconsistent with the prevailing Norwegian philosophy of participation through union representatives  In the United States employee participation in setting goals is motivational – it had no value for the Norwegian employees in this study
  • 39. 39 Select Process Theories Expectancy Theory  Expectancy Theory A process theory that postulates that motivation is influenced by a person’s belief that  Effort will lead to performance  Performance will lead to specific outcomes, and  The outcomes will be of value to the individual.
  • 40. 40 Select Process Theories Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory predicts that high performance followed by high rewards will lead to high satisfaction Does this theory have universal application?  Eden found some support for it while studying workers in an Israeli kibbutz  Matsui and colleagues found it could be successfully applied in Japan Expectancy theory could be culture-bound – international managers must be aware of this limitation in motivating human resources since expectancy theory is based on employees having considerable control over their environment (a condition that does not exist in many cultures)
  • 41. 41 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Job Design  Quality of work life (QWL) is not the same throughout the world.  Assembly-line employees in Japan work at a rapid pace for hours and have very little control over their work activities  Assembly-line employees in Sweden work at a more relaxed pace and have a great deal of control over their work activities  U.S. assembly-line employees typically work somewhere between – at a pace less demanding than Japan’s but more structured than Sweden’s  QWL may be directly related to the culture of the country. Quality of Work Life: The Impact of Culture
  • 42. 42 Cultural DimensionsCultural Dimensions Adapted from Table 12–6: Cultural Dimensions in Japan, Sweden, and the United States
  • 43. 43 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Sociotechnical Job Designs  The objective of these designs is to integrate new technology into the workplace so that workers accept and use it to increase overall productivity  New technology often requires people learn new methods and in some cases work faster  Employee resistance is common  Effective sociotechnical design can overcome these problems
  • 44. 44 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Sociotechnical Job Designs  Some firms have introduced sociotechnical designs for better blending of their personnel and technology without sacrificing efficiency  General Foods  Autonomous groups at its Topeka, Kansas plant  Workers share responsibility and work in a highly democratic environment  Other U.S. firms have opted for a self-managed team approach  Multifunctional teams with autonomy for generating successful product innovation is more widely used by successful U.S., Japanese, and European firms than any other teamwork concept
  • 45. 45 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Work Centrality The importance of work in an individual’s life can provide important insights into how to motivate human resources in different cultures  Japan has the highest level of work centrality  Israel has moderately high levels  The United States and Belgium have average levels  The Netherlands and Germany have moderately low levels  Britain has low levels
  • 46. 46 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Work Centrality  Work is an important part of most people’s lifestyles due to a variety of conditions  Americans and Japanese work long hours because the cost of living is high  Most Japanese managers expect their salaried employees who are not paid extra to stay late at work, and overtime has become a requirement of the job  There is recent evidence that Japanese workers may do far less work in a business day than outsiders would suspect Value of Work
  • 47. 47 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Work Centrality  In recent years, the number of hours worked annually by German workers has been declining, while the number for Americans has been on the rise.  Germans place high value on lifestyle and often prefer leisure to work, while their American counterparts are just the opposite.  Research reveals culture may have little to do with it  A wider range of wages (large pay disparity) within American companies than in German firms creates incentives for American employees to work harder. Value of Work
  • 48. 48 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Work Centrality  Impact of overwork on the physical condition of Japanese workers  One-third of the working-age population suffers from chronic fatigue  The Japanese prime minister’s office found a majority of those surveyed complained of  Being chronically tired  Feeling emotionally stressed  Abusive conditions in the workplace  Karoshi (“overwork” or “job burnout”) is now recognized as a real social problem Value of Work
  • 49. 49 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Job Satisfaction EU workers see a strong relationship between how well they do their jobs and the ability to get what they want out of life  U.S. workers were not as supportive of this relationship  Japanese workers were least likely to see any connection This finding suggest difficulties may arise in American, European, and Japanese employees working together effectively
  • 50. 50 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Job Satisfaction  An emphasis on flexibility. An emphasis on control.  Cooperation built on intuition and pragmatism.  The habit of analyzing things in such great depth that it results in “paralysis through analysis.”  An emphasis on cooperation, trust, and personal concern for others.  The avoidance of risk taking and the feeling of distrust of others.  Viewing work as a challenging and development activity.  Viewing work as a necessary burden.  A more holistic, idealistic, and group thinking approach to problem solving.  Logical and reason-centered, individualistic thinking. Moving toward …Moving away from …
  • 51. 51 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards  Managers everywhere use rewards to motivate their personnel  Some rewards are financial in nature such as salary raises, bonuses, and stock options  Others are non-financial such as feedback and recognition  Significant differences exist between reward systems that work best in one country and those that are most effective in another Reward Systems
  • 52. 52 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Incentives and Culture  Use of financial incentives to motivate employees is very common  Countries with high individualism  When companies attempt to link compensation to performance  Financial incentive systems vary in range  Individual incentive-based pay systems in which workers are paid directly for their output  Systems in which employees earn individual bonuses based on organizational performance goals
  • 53. 53 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Incentives and Culture  Many cultures base compensation on group membership  Such systems stress equality rather than individual incentive plans  An individually based bonus system for the sales representatives in an American MNC introduced in its Danish subsidiary was rejected by the sales force because  It favored one group over another  Employees felt that everyone should receive the same size bonus  Indonesian oil workers rejected a pay-for-performance system where some work teams would make more money than others
  • 54. 54 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Incentives and Culture Workers in many countries are highly motivated by things other than financial rewards  The most important rewards in locations at 40 countries of an electrical equipment MNC involved recognition and achievement  Second in importance were improvements in the work environment and employment conditions including pay and work hours
  • 55. 55 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Incentives and Culture  French and Italian employees valued job security highly while American and British workers held it of little importance  Scandinavian workers placed high value on concern for others on the job and for personal freedom and autonomy but did not rate “getting ahead” very important  German workers ranked security, fringe benefits, and “getting ahead” as very important  Japanese employees put good working conditions and a congenial work environment high on their list but ranked personal advancement quite low
  • 56. 56 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Incentives and Culture  The types of incentives that are deemed important appear to be culturally influenced  Culture can even affect the overall cost of an incentive system  Japanese efforts to introduce Western-style merit pay systems typically lead to an increase in overall labor costs  Companies fear that reducing the pay of less productive workers’ may cause them to lose face and disturb group harmony  Hence, everyone’s salary increases as a result of merit pay systems
  • 57. 57 Case  Copy Shop

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