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Leading Education consultant in India
www.StudsPlanet.com
CHAPTER 11CHAPTER 11
DEVELOPING NEW
PRODUCTS FOR
GLOBAL MARKETS
Group members:
Denise Caesar
Debbie Goodman
Delicia John
R...
CHAPTER OUTLINECHAPTER OUTLINE
1. Introducing products
into foreign markets
2. Developing a global
product
3. New product
...
DEFINITIONSDEFINITIONS
PRODUCTS – Anything that can be offered to
a market for attention, acquisition, use or
consumption ...
What are new products?What are new products?
New product line
Addition to product line
Repositioning to new market segm...
1. INTRODUCING PRODUCTS INTO
FOREIGN MARKETS
STRATEGIC OPTIONS
1. EXTENSION STRATEGY –
Same approach as home market
2. ADA...
STRATEGIC OPTIONS
4. STANDARDIZATON –
Same product, all markets
5. GLOBAL PRODUCTS -
Only some aspects of the product is
s...
Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight
1. Extension Extension Standardized product with same
communications st...
Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight
1. Extension Adaptation Standardized product with different
communicati...
Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight
1. Adaptation Extension Changes made to the product, same
communication...
Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight
1. Adaptation Adaptation Dual adaptation:
Changes made to the product, ...
Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight
1. Invention Develop new communications Usually redesigning of an origi...
STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATIONSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION
Factors encouraging product standardization:
Economies of Scale...
STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUEDSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUED
 Easier management and control i.e.
famili...
STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUEDSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUED
 For a firm selling a small proportion of ...
STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUEDSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUED
Factors encouraging adaptation/modification...
STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUEDSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUED
Legal requirements can include:
 Specified...
Discretionary Modifications:Discretionary Modifications:
 This is called for to make the product more appealing in differ...
2. DEVELOPING A GLOBAL2. DEVELOPING A GLOBAL
PRODUCTPRODUCT
In order to remain competitive, firms
often have to reduce th...
A portion of the final product is
standardized. However, the design retains
some flexibility so that the end product
can b...
Modularity
This process involved the development of
standard modules that can easily be connected
with other standard mod...
3. NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT3. NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
PROCESSES FOR GLOBAL MARKETSPROCESSES FOR GLOBAL MARKETS
Developing ...
Steps in New ProductSteps in New Product
Development processDevelopment process
Idea Generation
Idea Screening
Concept ...
Sources of New ProductSources of New Product
DevelopmentDevelopment
1. Head office
2. Lead markets
3. Subsidiaries
4. Purc...
Sources of New Product Development #1Sources of New Product Development #1
The organization of Head Office-SponsoredThe or...
Reasons for Head Office-sponsored Approach:
1. R&D is centralized so there is an integrative
strategy with regards to prod...
Sources of New Product Development #2
International Leads Markets and Research and
Development
 The lead market is a mark...
Sources of New Product Development #3Sources of New Product Development #3
The Role of Foreign Subsidiaries in ResearchThe...
Roles of involvement for the subsidiary:Roles of involvement for the subsidiary:
Strategic leader role:
 With responsibil...
Sources of New Product Development #4Sources of New Product Development #4
Purchasing Research and Development fromPurchas...
Sources of New Product Development #5Sources of New Product Development #5
Importing as a Source of New ProductsImporting ...
Sources of New Product Development #6Sources of New Product Development #6
Acquisition as a Route to New ProductsAcquisiti...
Sources of New Product Development #7Sources of New Product Development #7
Joint Ventures for New Product DevelopmentJoint...
Sources of New Product Development #8Sources of New Product Development #8
Alliances for New Product DevelopmentAlliances ...
4. INTRODUCING NEW PRODUCTS TO GLOBAL4. INTRODUCING NEW PRODUCTS TO GLOBAL
MARKETSMARKETS
Once a product has been develop...
Determining Introduction in target countriesDetermining Introduction in target countries
Concept Test
This involves prese...
Test MarketingTest Marketing
Test Market
The ultimate way to test a new consumer product is to
put it into full-blown test...
Test MarketingTest Marketing
- Controlled Test Marketing
In this method, the number of geographic
locations are tested. Th...
Market-entry timing is critical. A company may
be faced with the challenge of trying to enter a
market with a new product ...
Timing of New Product Introduction continuedTiming of New Product Introduction continued
First Entry
The first firm enteri...
Timing of New Product IntroductionTiming of New Product Introduction
ContinuedContinued
Parallel Entry
The firm might time...
Timing of New Product Introduction continuedTiming of New Product Introduction continued
Timing decisions involves additio...
Globalmarketing
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  • Future trend: International companies will make better use of the talents of local subsidiaries in the development of new products. Instead of simply the selling or production arm of the company, subsidiaries will become more involved in the innovation and product development process.
  • These people are then invited to a brief screening of both well-known and new commercials or print ads. One ad advertises the new product but is not singled out for attention. The company notes how many consumers buy the new brand and competing brands. This provides a measure of the ad’s effective against competing ads in stimulating trial
  • Globalmarketing

    1. 1. StudsPlanet Leading Education consultant in India www.StudsPlanet.com
    2. 2. CHAPTER 11CHAPTER 11 DEVELOPING NEW PRODUCTS FOR GLOBAL MARKETS Group members: Denise Caesar Debbie Goodman Delicia John Roxanne Risbrooke
    3. 3. CHAPTER OUTLINECHAPTER OUTLINE 1. Introducing products into foreign markets 2. Developing a global product 3. New product development processes for Global markets 4. Introducing new products to global markets
    4. 4. DEFINITIONSDEFINITIONS PRODUCTS – Anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a want or need. It includes physical objects, services, places, organizations, ideas and people. GLOBAL MARKETING - A total commitment to international marketing, in which a company applies its assets, experience and products to develop and maintain marketing strategies on a global scale.
    5. 5. What are new products?What are new products? New product line Addition to product line Repositioning to new market segments Improvements/revisions Cost reductions Source: Booz, Allen & Hamilton
    6. 6. 1. INTRODUCING PRODUCTS INTO FOREIGN MARKETS STRATEGIC OPTIONS 1. EXTENSION STRATEGY – Same approach as home market 2. ADAPTATION STRATEGY - Makes changes to fit new market requirements 3. INVENTION STRATEGY - Entirely new approach is developed for the new market
    7. 7. STRATEGIC OPTIONS 4. STANDARDIZATON – Same product, all markets 5. GLOBAL PRODUCTS - Only some aspects of the product is standardized
    8. 8. Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight 1. Extension Extension Standardized product with same communications strategy across the globe. - This strategy is Cost effective - Allows for greater economies of scale - Rarely used for consumer type products except soft drink and some luxury type goods -Used mainly for industrial type products OPTION 1. PRODUCT EXTENSION – COMMUNICATION EXTENSION
    9. 9. Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight 1. Extension Adaptation Standardized product with different communications strategies across the globe. - Cost effective because communications adaptation is less expensive than the tailoring product to a local market. - Can be used for consumer type products eg. Bicycles OPTION 2. PRODUCT EXTENSION – COMMUNICATION ADAPTATION
    10. 10. Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight 1. Adaptation Extension Changes made to the product, same communications strategy across the globe. - Product formulations are changed without consumers knowing it. E.g. detergents - Entails research, development expenses and tooling costs. - Do not allow for economies of scale to the extent possible under an product extension strategy - savings can be realized from the creation of a single communications strategy OPTION 3. PRODUCT ADAPTATION - COMMUNICATION EXTENSION
    11. 11. Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight 1. Adaptation Adaptation Dual adaptation: Changes made to the product, changes made to communications strategy - Recognizes the socio-cultural differences from country to country -To make this option profitable, the foreign market or markets need to be of sufficient volume - Calls for extensive research and development expenses and tooling costs OPTION 4. PRODUCT ADAPTATION - COMMUNICATION ADAPTATION
    12. 12. Product Strategy Communications Strategy Highlight 1. Invention Develop new communications Usually redesigning of an original product at a lower level of complexity. - Recognizes the socio-cultural and economic differences from country to country -Leads to more purchases as a result of the reinvention of the product OPTION 5. PRODUCT INVENTION
    13. 13. STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATIONSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION Factors encouraging product standardization: Economies of Scale in: Production Marketing/communications Research & Development Stock Holding
    14. 14. STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUEDSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUED  Easier management and control i.e. familiarity  Homogeneity of markets, in other words markets available without adaptation e.g. denim jeans  Cultural insensitivity (except industrial and agricultural products)  Where “made in” image is important to a product’s perceived value e.g. France for perfumes, Sheffield for stainless steel
    15. 15. STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUEDSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUED  For a firm selling a small proportion of its output overseas, the incremental costs may exceed the incremental sales value  Consumer mobility for travellers/tourists for example standardization is expected in certain products:  Camera film  Hotel Chains
    16. 16. STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUEDSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUED Factors encouraging adaptation/modification Mandatory Modification:  Normally involves either adaptation to comply with government requirements or  Unavoidable technical changes  Example: Car manufacturer
    17. 17. STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUEDSTANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION CONTINUED Legal requirements can include:  Specified exhaust emission levels (HSE Laws & strict emission standards)  Local components (economic law)  Technical requirements such as:  Modification of heating/cooling systems for different climates  Engine modification to use locally available fuels
    18. 18. Discretionary Modifications:Discretionary Modifications:  This is called for to make the product more appealing in different markets. It is as a result of differing customer needs, preferences and tastes that market research, customer feedback among others may reveal.  Levels of customer purchasing power – low incomes makes cheaper version of product more appealing in some less developed countries  Levels of education and technical sophistication – ease of use may be a crucial factor in decision-making  Standards of maintenance/repair facilities – simpler more robust versions may be needed
    19. 19. 2. DEVELOPING A GLOBAL2. DEVELOPING A GLOBAL PRODUCTPRODUCT In order to remain competitive, firms often have to reduce their costs. Usually the production of standardize products provides cost advantage, however this strategy is not as common. Many firms now employ new strategies: 1. Global Product Development strategy 2. Modularity
    20. 20. A portion of the final product is standardized. However, the design retains some flexibility so that the end product can be tailored to the needs of individual markets. - This represents a move to standardize as much as possible those areas involving common components or parts. The Global Product Development Strategy
    21. 21. Modularity This process involved the development of standard modules that can easily be connected with other standard modules to increase the variety of products. E.g General Motors has established a modular product architecture for all its global automobile products. Future GM cars will be designed using combination of components from 70 different body modules and about a hundred major mechanical components (e.g. Engines, power trains, and suspension systems) The Global Product Development Strategy
    22. 22. 3. NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT3. NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES FOR GLOBAL MARKETSPROCESSES FOR GLOBAL MARKETS Developing new products or services for global markets poses unique challenges. To combat these challenges, the international firm can assign development responsibilities to any one of its international subsidiaries. The success however will depend on how well the firm marshals its resources on a global scale to develop new products for foreign markets.
    23. 23. Steps in New ProductSteps in New Product Development processDevelopment process Idea Generation Idea Screening Concept Development & Testing Marketing Strategy Development Business Analysis Small Batch Prototype Development Product Development & Testing Test Marketing Commercialization / Launch
    24. 24. Sources of New ProductSources of New Product DevelopmentDevelopment 1. Head office 2. Lead markets 3. Subsidiaries 4. Purchasing research and development 5. Importing new product technology 6. Acquisitions 7. Joint ventures 8. Alliances 9. Consortia
    25. 25. Sources of New Product Development #1Sources of New Product Development #1 The organization of Head Office-SponsoredThe organization of Head Office-Sponsored Research and DevelopmentResearch and Development Research and development for the introduction of new products is originally conducted in centralized facilities in the firm’s domestic market. The largest portion of research and development monies spent by international firms goes to support efforts in domestically located facilities. Initial introduction at home is followed by a phase-in introduction to the company’s foreign markets.
    26. 26. Reasons for Head Office-sponsored Approach: 1. R&D is centralized so there is an integrative strategy with regards to product development. To achieve this there must be frequent contacts and interfacing between R&D facilities and the company’s main office. 2. To minimize duplication 3. For the effective and efficient utilization of scarce research funds 4. To capitalize on the firm’s experience in their domestic market. The organization of Head Office- Sponsored Research and Development
    27. 27. Sources of New Product Development #2 International Leads Markets and Research and Development  The lead market is a market whose level of development exceeds that of the market in other countries worldwide and whose developments tend to set a pattern for other countries.  Lead markets are not restricted to technological developments as embodied in product hardware.  Lead market advantage based on superior design, advanced features, function and quality, production processes, patterns in consumer demand, methods of marketing. (Any phase of the operation is subject to lead market influence)
    28. 28. Sources of New Product Development #3Sources of New Product Development #3 The Role of Foreign Subsidiaries in ResearchThe Role of Foreign Subsidiaries in Research DevelopmentDevelopment Subsidiaries o   Subsidiaries may assume R&D function if products require some adaptation to a local market o   Foreign subsidiaries of international firms rarely play an active role in the R&D unless they have manufacturing responsibilities and capabilities o   Sales subsidiaries provide central organization with feedback on product adjustments or adaptation, but generally their participation does not go beyond the generation of ideas. o   A subsidiary located in a lead market is in a better position to observe developments and to accommodate new demands and can therefore act as an effective “listening post”
    29. 29. Roles of involvement for the subsidiary:Roles of involvement for the subsidiary: Strategic leader role:  With responsibility for developing a new range of products to be used by the entire company. This role will be handled by a highly competent subsidiary in a market of strategic importance. Contributor:  This role would be assumed by a subsidiary in a distinct area and the subsidiary will adapt some products in smaller though important markets Implementer: These are smaller subsidiaries located in less strategic markets that act as implementers of the overall strategy without making a major contribution to either technology or strategy
    30. 30. Sources of New Product Development #4Sources of New Product Development #4 Purchasing Research and Development fromPurchasing Research and Development from Foreign CountriesForeign Countries A company may acquire material or information from independent outside sources that have acquired lead market status. How?  Literature published in lead markets  Regular visits to foreign countries  Trade fairs  Management contact with lead markets These are admittedly ad hoc measure though.
    31. 31. Sources of New Product Development #5Sources of New Product Development #5 Importing as a Source of New ProductsImporting as a Source of New Products Some companies import finished products directly from a foreign firm to supplement their product lines. This is usually done in areas that do not represent the core of the firm’s business and technology, and is used to extend the product offering.
    32. 32. Sources of New Product Development #6Sources of New Product Development #6 Acquisition as a Route to New ProductsAcquisition as a Route to New Products Advantages: Efficient, cost-effective way to create a new product instead of trying to conceptualize, R&D and launch new products from the ground up. Overcomes the process of acquiring technological experience Establish supplier relationships Circumvents need for large Advertising & Promotional Budgets to gain visibility & brand recognition
    33. 33. Sources of New Product Development #7Sources of New Product Development #7 Joint Ventures for New Product DevelopmentJoint Ventures for New Product Development Usually pursued with technologically advanced foreign company usually at lower costs Good way to pursue an opportunity that is too complex, uneconomical or risky for a single organization to pursue alone Provide entry into desirable foreign markets when access is restricted by government Used when opportunities in new industry require broader range of competencies that any one company can marshal
    34. 34. Sources of New Product Development #8Sources of New Product Development #8 Alliances for New Product DevelopmentAlliances for New Product Development Companies are using alliances or the Consortium Approach to share technology and R&D to gain competitive advantage Consortium Approach – member firms join in working relationship without forming a new entity. On completion of assigned task, member firms are free to seek other relationships with different firms.
    35. 35. 4. INTRODUCING NEW PRODUCTS TO GLOBAL4. INTRODUCING NEW PRODUCTS TO GLOBAL MARKETSMARKETS Once a product has been developed for commercial introduction, the following decisions need to be made: - Test Marketing procedure - The target country - The timing or sequence of introduction into foreign market These decisions are influenced by sales potential. Following careful analysis, a list of target countries is developed, then the company will choose from among several paths to the actual introduction in the target country/countries.
    36. 36. Determining Introduction in target countriesDetermining Introduction in target countries Concept Test This involves presenting the product concept to appropriate target consumers and getting their reactions. The concepts can be presented symbolically or physically. However the more the tested concepts resembles the final product or experience, the more dependable concept testing is. In recent times, companies are also using virtual reality to test product concepts. This entails the use of sensory devices to stimulate reality.
    37. 37. Test MarketingTest Marketing Test Market The ultimate way to test a new consumer product is to put it into full-blown test markets. The company chooses a few representative cities, and the sales force tries to sell the trade on carrying the product and giving it good shelf exposure, full advertising and promotional strategy, similar to the one use in the home market. - Simulated Test Marketing This entails finding 30 to 40 qualified shoppers and questioning them about brand familiarity and preference in a specific product category.
    38. 38. Test MarketingTest Marketing - Controlled Test Marketing In this method, the number of geographic locations are tested. The product is delivered to the participating stores and the product is placed in a strategic position. Sales results will be measured electronically through scanners at the checkout.
    39. 39. Market-entry timing is critical. A company may be faced with the challenge of trying to enter a market with a new product and learns that a competitor is nearing the end of its development work. The company faces three choices: First entry Parallel entry Late entry Timing of New Product Introduction
    40. 40. Timing of New Product Introduction continuedTiming of New Product Introduction continued First Entry The first firm entering a market usually enjoys first mover advantages of locking up key distributors and customers while gaining the reputation of product leader. If the product is rushed before to market before it is thoroughly debugged, the product can acquire a flawed image.
    41. 41. Timing of New Product IntroductionTiming of New Product Introduction ContinuedContinued Parallel Entry The firm might time its entry to coincide with the competitor’s entry. The market may pay more attention when two companies are advertising the new product. Late Entry The firm might delay its launch until after the competitor has entered. The competitor will have borne the cost of educating the market. The competitor’s product may review faults the late entrant can avoid.
    42. 42. Timing of New Product Introduction continuedTiming of New Product Introduction continued Timing decisions involves additional considerations - If the new product replaces an older product, the company might delay the introduction until the old product’s stock is drawn down. - If the product is highly seasonal, it might be delayed until the right season arrives.

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