The European Union THE EUROPEAN UNION50 Years of Peace, Prosperity and Partnership
The European Union Celebrating the European Union: A Half Century of Change and Progress • Since the creation of the EU half a century ago, Europe has enjoyed the longest period of peace in its history. • European political integration is unprecedented in history. • EU enlargement has helped overcome the division of Europe – contributing to peace,European Union prosperity, and stability across the continent.United in diversity • A single market and a common currency conditions for companies and consumers. • EU has united the citizens of Europe – while preserving Europe’s diversity.
The European Union What is the European Union? • Shared values: liberty, democracy, respect 27 Member States for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law. Combined • Largest economic body in the world. population of EU Member 490 • World’s most successful model for advancing States million peace and democracy. • A unique institution – Member States Percent of world’s voluntarily cede national sovereignty in many7 population areas to carry out common policies and governance. Percent of global GDP 30 • Not a super-state to replace existing states, nor just an organization for international cooperation. Percent of combined55 worldwide Official Development Assistance • World’s most open market for goods and commodities from developing countries.
The European Union EU Institutions European Commission • 27 Commissioners, representing the European perspective, each responsible for a specific policy area. • EU’s executive branch proposes legislation, manages Union’s day-to-day business and budget, and enforces rules. • Negotiates trade agreements and manages Europe’s multilateral development cooperation. Council of the European Union • EU’s main decision-making body, comprised ofEuropean Commission President ministers of 27 Member States, representing Member José Manuel Barroso State’s point of view. • Decides on foreign policy issues. • Council presidency rotates among Member States every six months.
The European Union EU Institutions European Parliament • Voice of European citizens – members elected for five-year terms. • With the Council, passes EU laws and adopts EU budgets. • Approves EU Commissioners.European Parliament in session European Court of Justice • Highest EU judicial authority. • Ensures all EU laws are interpreted and applied correctly and uniformly. • Can act as an independent policy maker but unlike the U.S. Supreme Court, the ECJ can only deal with matters covered by the Treaties.
The European Union European Central Bank • The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for Europes single currency, the euro. • The ECB’s main task is to maintain the euros purchasing power and thus price stability in the euro area. • The euro area comprises the 15 EuropeanThe euro was introduced in 1999 Union countries that have introduced the euro since 1999. • The ECB operates independently from Member State governments.
The European UnionUnited in Diversity - The €uro
The European Union The €uro€ In 1999, the euro area was established as a currency in eleven of the then fifteen EU Member States.€ Of the 27 EU Member States today, fifteen have adopted the euro.€ One of the striking benefits of a single European currency are low interest rates due to a high degree of price stability.€ The euro is as stable and credible as the best- performing currencies previously used in the euro area countries.
The European Union 1951: European Coal and Steel Community • In the aftermath of World War II, the aim was to secure peace among Europe’s victorious and vanquished nations and bring them together as equals, cooperating within shared institutions. • Based on a plan by French Foreign MinisterJean Monnet and other leaders with Robert Schuman.the first “European” ingot of steel • Six founding countries – Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands – signed a treaty to run heavy industries (coal and steel) under common management.
The European Union 1957: Treaty of Rome • The six founding countries expanded cooperation to other economic sectors, creating theSigning of the Treaty of Rome European Economic Community (EEC) – or “common market.” • As a result, people, goods, services, and capital today move freely across the Union.
The European Union 1951FoundingMembers Belgium France Germany ItalyLuxembourgNetherlands
The European Union 1973 Denmark IrelandUnited Kingdom
The European Union1981Greece
The European Union 1986Portugal Spain
The European Union November 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall sets the stage for unifying Europe and EUenlargement
The European Union1995AustriaFinlandSweden
The European Union 2004 CyprusCzech Republic Estonia Hungary Latvia Lithuania Malta Poland Slovakia Slovenia
The European Union 2007BulgariaRomania
The European UnionCandidate Countries Croatia Former YugoslavRepublic of Macedonia Turkey PotentialCandidate Countries AlbaniaBosnia & Herzegovina MontenegroSerbia including Kosovounder UN Security Council Resolution 1244
The European Union 50 Years of EU Integration Enlargement has:“Enlargement has been a • Inspired reforms and consolidated commonsuccess story for the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for humanEuropean Union and rights, fundamental freedoms, the rule of law, andEurope as a whole. It hashelped to overcome the market economy.division of Europe andcontributed to peace and • Enhanced the EU’s weight in the world and made itstability throughout the a stronger and more attractive internationalcontinent.” partner. European Council Declaration Dec. 15, 2006 1957 2007 Member States 6 27 Population 174 million 493 million Languages 4 23
The European Union The EU in the World The EU is a global player. Its soft power promotes stability, prosperity, democracy and human rights, delivers concrete results in the fight to eradicate poverty, and in achieving sustainableUN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, High Representative development.for the Common Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana,and EU Commissioner Benita Ferrero-Waldner
The European UnionAddressing Global Challenges• Peace & Security – Works for global peace and security alongside the United States and multilateral organizations – including NATO and the United Nations. – Undertakes humanitarian and peacekeeping missions and has provided military forces for crisis management around the globe.• Counterterrorism & Homeland Security – Taken steps to improve intelligence sharing, enhance law enforcement and judicial cooperation, curtail terrorist financing. – Boosts trade and transport security to support the struggle against terrorism.
The European UnionAddressing Global Challenges• Democracy & Human Rights – Works globally for free elections and open democratic processes. – Fights racism and intolerance at home and abroad. – Campaigns globally against capital punishment.• Development Assistance & Humanitarian Relief – The EU and its Member States are the world’s largest aid donor, providing 55% of total official development assistance. – Provides billions of dollars in humanitarian aid to more than 100 countries in response to crises and natural disasters.
The European Union Addressing Global Challenges• Trade – European Commission represents all 27 EU Member States before the World Trade Organization. – Supports free trade and open markets, within the rules-based structure of the WTO, to promote growth and jobs in both industrialized and developing countries. – The worlds most open market for products and commodities from developing countries – 40% of all EU imports are from developing countries.
The European Union Addressing Global Challenges • Environmental Protection – A leader in global efforts to protect the environment, maintaining rigorous and comprehensive systems at home. – Plays a key role in developing and implementing international agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change. – Executing a “cap and trade” system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions – Takes the lead in the fight against global warming with the adoption of binding energy targets (cutting 20% of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2020).Source: German Information Center USA
The European Union The European Union and the United States “The relationship between the United States and Europe is the “Our strong friendship is world’s strongest, most essential to peace and comprehensive, andprosperity around the globe. strategically important No temporary debate, to partnership. The United States, passing disagreement and a united Europe – this is among nations, no power really the indispensableon earth, will ever divide us.” partnership.”President George W. Bush President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso
The European Union Partners in Global Leadership • EU and U.S. work together to develop international standards: – Fighting terrorism and transnational crime – Advancing global trade liberalization – Combating piracy and intellectual property violationsEU Commissioner Benita Ferrero- – Spreading benefits of globalizationWaldner & U.S. Secretary of StateCondoleezza Rice • EU and its Member States are helping restore peace and stability in Afghanistan. • EU and U.S. work together in the Middle East Quartet to advance the peace process. • When the EU and U.S. agree, others tend to follow.
The European UnionShared Values and Responsibilities• Freedom & Democracy Support free elections, good governance, human rights, and the rule of law around the world.• Security Cooperate to fight terrorism, limit the spread of nuclear weapons, and work for global peace.• Development Together, EU and U.S. provide 80% of global development assistance and an even larger share of global humanitarian aid in times of disaster and conflict.
The European Union A Dynamic Transatlantic Economy• EU and U.S. together account for 40% of total global trade (more than $1.5 billion in transatlantic trade every day).• The $3 trillion EU-U.S. transatlantic economy employs 14 million workers on both sides of the Atlantic.• In 2005, Europe accounted for roughly two- thirds of total global investment flows into the U.S. – by far the most significant source of foreign investment in the U.S. economy.
The European Union • European companies are the leading foreign investors in the U.S. – The UK, Germany, France, and the Netherlands – top four sources of jobs created by foreign investment in the United States.BMW’s assembly plant is South Carolina’s largest private sector employer. • American companies invest far more in EU countries than in Asia. – U.S. businesses make 5 times the profit in the Netherlands - alone - as they make in China. – In 2005, EU investments in Texas alone surpassed all U.S. investments in China and Japan, combined.
The European Union Future of Transatlantic Relations• EU and U.S. face common challenges that are global in origin and impact. With global challenges, come global responsibilities.• EU and U.S., with our shared values and common interests, are natural partners to give a lead in four key areas: – Promote peace, human rights and democracy worldwide. – Confront global challenges, including security and non-proliferation. – Foster prosperity and opportunity. – Advance strategic cooperation on energy security, climate change and sustainable development.
The European Union“Since no single nation can efficientlyand effectively deal with globalchallenges such as climate change,counterterrorism, non-proliferation,pandemics and natural disasters on itsown, we commit ourselves tostrengthening our cooperation toaddress these challenges.” EU-U.S. Summit Declaration Vienna, July 2006
The European Union Education & Research • EU and U.S. cooperate on science and technology education through: – Exchange programs – More than 700 institutional partnerships – Vocational trainingEU supports R&D to – Scholarship programsincrease Europe’sgrowth and global – R&D cooperativescompetitiveness. • EU and U.S. provide joint or dual higher educational degree programs. • EU funds Centers of Excellence at leading U.S. universities.