• Meaning Of Culture In a restricted sense, culture
refers to the advance development of human
body, mind, and spirit. Culture is the sum total of
human achievements, material as well as non-
material, capable of transmission. The literature,
religion and social practices of the people, reveal
• Anthropologists define culture as an acquired
behaviour in human beings.
• Tylor's definition of culture:
• complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts,
morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society.
• Lassiter’s definition of culture:
• A shared and negotiated system of meaning informed by
knowledge that people learn and put into practice by
interpreting experience and generating behavior
CULTURE IS LEARNED
• Cultural learning is unique to humans.
• Cultural learning is the accumulation of
knowledge about experiences and
information not perceived directly by the
organism, but transmitted to it through
• Culture is learned through both direct
instruction and observation (both conscious
CULTURE IS SHARED
• Culture is located and transmitted in groups.
• The social transmission of culture tends to unify
people by providing us with a common experience.
• The commonalty of experience in turn tends to
generate a common understanding of future
CULTURE IS SYMBOLIC
• The human ability to use symbols is the basis of
• A symbol is anything that is used to represent any
other thing, when the relationship between the
two is arbitrary (e.g., a flag).
• Only humans have elaborated cultural abilities –
to learn, to communicate, to store, to process,
and to use symbols.
CULTURE IS ALL-ENCOMPASSING
•The anthropological concept of
culture is a model that includes all
aspects of human group behavior.
•Everyone is cultured, not just
wealthy people with an elite
CULTURE IS INTEGRATED
• A culture is a system: changes in one aspect will
likely generate changes in other aspects.
• Core values are sets of ideas, attitudes, and beliefs
that are basic in that they provide an organizational
logic for the rest of the culture.
LEVELS OF CULTURE
• National: learned behavioral patterns, beliefs,
values, and institutions shared by the citizens of a
• International: cultural traditions that expand
beyond cultural boundaries.
• Subculture: different traditions practiced by groups
set within a larger culture. Frequently regionally
PRIORITIES OF CULTURAL VALUES
• By introducing new products or ideas and
practices, an international business entity
becomes a change agent.
• this may shift consumption from one product to another,
• it may lead to massive social change
• Many governments take action to protect their
HOW CULTURE AFFECTS
• Centralized vs. Decentralized Decision Making:
• In some societies, top managers make all important
• In others, these decisions are diffused throughout the
enterprise, and middle- and lower-level managers actively
participate in, and make, key decisions.
• Safety vs. Risk:
• In some societies, organizational decision makers are risk
averse and have great difficulty with conditions of
• In others, risk taking is encouraged, and decision making
under uncertainty is common.
• Individual vs. Group Rewards:
• In some countries, personnel who do outstanding work are
given individual rewards in the form of bonuses and
• In others, cultural norms require group rewards, and individual
rewards are frowned upon.
• Informal Procedures vs. Formal Procedures:
• In some societies, much is accomplished through informal
• In others, formal procedures are set forth and followed rigidly.
• High Organizational Loyalty vs. Low Organizational
• In some societies, people identify very strongly with their
organization or employer.
• In others, people identify with their occupational group, such
as engineer or mechanic.
• Cooperation vs. Competition
• Some societies encourage cooperation between their
• Others encourage competition between their people.
• Short-term vs. Long-term Horizons
• Some culture focus most heavily on short-term horizons,
such as short-range goals of profit and efficiency.
• Others are more interested in long-range goals, such as
market share and technologic developments.
• Stability vs. Innovation
• The culture of some countries encourages stability and
resistance to change.
• The culture of others puts high value on innovation and
ONE WORLD CULTURE?
GLOBALIZATION IN THE 21ST
• Cultures are increasingly coming in contact as a
result of improved trade relations, better
communication, and easier travel.
• Multinational corporations and business
“outsourcing” to the Third World are becoming
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