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Culture multicultural management


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  • 1. 1 CULTURE
  • 2. INTRODUCTION • Meaning Of Culture In a restricted sense, culture refers to the advance development of human body, mind, and spirit. Culture is the sum total of human achievements, material as well as non- material, capable of transmission. The literature, religion and social practices of the people, reveal their culture. • Anthropologists define culture as an acquired behaviour in human beings. 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Tylor's definition of culture: • complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. • Lassiter’s definition of culture: • A shared and negotiated system of meaning informed by knowledge that people learn and put into practice by interpreting experience and generating behavior 3
  • 4. 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE • Learned • Shared • Trans-generational • Symbolic • Adaptive
  • 5. CULTURE IS LEARNED • Cultural learning is unique to humans. • Cultural learning is the accumulation of knowledge about experiences and information not perceived directly by the organism, but transmitted to it through symbols. • Culture is learned through both direct instruction and observation (both conscious and unconscious). 5
  • 6. CULTURE IS SHARED • Culture is located and transmitted in groups. • The social transmission of culture tends to unify people by providing us with a common experience. • The commonalty of experience in turn tends to generate a common understanding of future events. 6
  • 7. CULTURE IS SYMBOLIC • The human ability to use symbols is the basis of culture • A symbol is anything that is used to represent any other thing, when the relationship between the two is arbitrary (e.g., a flag). • Only humans have elaborated cultural abilities – to learn, to communicate, to store, to process, and to use symbols. 7
  • 8. CULTURE IS ALL-ENCOMPASSING •The anthropological concept of culture is a model that includes all aspects of human group behavior. •Everyone is cultured, not just wealthy people with an elite education. 8
  • 9. CULTURE IS INTEGRATED • A culture is a system: changes in one aspect will likely generate changes in other aspects. • Core values are sets of ideas, attitudes, and beliefs that are basic in that they provide an organizational logic for the rest of the culture. 9
  • 10. LEVELS OF CULTURE • National: learned behavioral patterns, beliefs, values, and institutions shared by the citizens of a nation. • International: cultural traditions that expand beyond cultural boundaries. • Subculture: different traditions practiced by groups set within a larger culture. Frequently regionally based. 10
  • 12. CHANGE AGENTS • By introducing new products or ideas and practices, an international business entity becomes a change agent. • this may shift consumption from one product to another, or • it may lead to massive social change • Many governments take action to protect their culture-specific industries. 12
  • 13. 13 HOW CULTURE AFFECTS MANAGERIAL APPROACHES • Centralized vs. Decentralized Decision Making: • In some societies, top managers make all important organizational decisions. • In others, these decisions are diffused throughout the enterprise, and middle- and lower-level managers actively participate in, and make, key decisions.
  • 14. 14 • Safety vs. Risk: • In some societies, organizational decision makers are risk averse and have great difficulty with conditions of uncertainty. • In others, risk taking is encouraged, and decision making under uncertainty is common.
  • 15. 15 • Individual vs. Group Rewards: • In some countries, personnel who do outstanding work are given individual rewards in the form of bonuses and commissions. • In others, cultural norms require group rewards, and individual rewards are frowned upon.
  • 16. 16 • Informal Procedures vs. Formal Procedures: • In some societies, much is accomplished through informal means. • In others, formal procedures are set forth and followed rigidly.
  • 17. 17 • High Organizational Loyalty vs. Low Organizational Loyalty • In some societies, people identify very strongly with their organization or employer. • In others, people identify with their occupational group, such as engineer or mechanic.
  • 18. 18 • Cooperation vs. Competition • Some societies encourage cooperation between their people. • Others encourage competition between their people.
  • 19. 19 • Short-term vs. Long-term Horizons • Some culture focus most heavily on short-term horizons, such as short-range goals of profit and efficiency. • Others are more interested in long-range goals, such as market share and technologic developments.
  • 20. 20 • Stability vs. Innovation • The culture of some countries encourages stability and resistance to change. • The culture of others puts high value on innovation and change.
  • 21. ONE WORLD CULTURE? GLOBALIZATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY • Cultures are increasingly coming in contact as a result of improved trade relations, better communication, and easier travel. • Multinational corporations and business “outsourcing” to the Third World are becoming more commonplace. 21