Type 2 Diabetes
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  • 1. Type 2 Diabetes and Associated Genes    Konstantine and Nate
  • 2. Type 2 Basics
      • It is the most common form of diabetes.
      • Two possibilities: 
        • The body does not produce enough insulin
        • The body cells ignore the insulin
    • image from
    • savvyhealthfitness.com
  • 3. Type 2 Terms- What's involved?
      • Pancreas
        • Involved in digestion
        • Creates Insulin
      • Insulin
        • A hormone
          • Protein secreted by islet cells in the Pancreas
        •   Necessary for the body to use glucose for energy
      • Body cells
      • Blood
  • 4. Why is insulin so important?
      • When a person eats food
        • Sugars/ Carbs from food are broken down into glucose
          • Glucose::Fuel, ATP
        • Insulin carries glucose into cells to provide Energy.
      • In a person with Type 2...
      • The glucose does not enter the cells (refer to slide 2)
        • This leads to...
    • image from www.biochem.arizona.edu
  • 5. Signs and Symptoms
    • If there is a shortage of glucose in the cells
      • Immediate response: the cells will become starved for energy
        • In the form of ATP
        • A person with Type 2 will feel tired
      • Over time: high blood glucose levels may hurt the
        • Eyes, kidneys, nerves, or heart
  • 6. Treatment
      • Meal planning
      • Exercise and weight loss
        • This may not lead to effective lowering of glucose levels
      • Pills are available
        • There is a variety of pills available
        • The pills help in lowering blood glucose levels
        • Example: Meglitinides
          • These are pills that increase insulin production
          • Thus, blood glucose levels indirectly decrease
          • Therefore more glucose is available for cells to use 
  • 7. Type 2 vs. Type 1
      • In Type 1
        • The body produces no insulin
        • Constant insulin injections are required 
        • Usually diagnosed at young age 
      • Our blog article discusses Type 2 and genetic variations linked to the disorder 
  • 8. Article-Recap
    • ELA (Ensemble Learning Approach)
      • can detect SNPs, or "nucleotide polyporphisms," a.k.a. genes that may code for disease-related genes. 
      • 11 SNPs are associated with Type 2 diabetes
        • Many genes involved, like Parkinson's and ALS (Lou Gehrig's)
      • Basic function of the ELA: 
        • Narrows "field of potentially dangerous genes"
        • Applies "statistical methods to determine which SNPs act on their own and which act in combination".
  • 9. Article-Recap, continued 2
    • Another Method to analyzing genes: 
    • TTFP:
      • examines genotypes of family members going back generations. 
    • Socratic Seminar :
    • Outer circle please use chatzy
    • Inner circle please talk a lot--voice what you think
  • 10. Socratic Seminar Questions
    • 1.    Why do you think that Type 2 diabetes is most prevalent in races such as African American, Hispanic/ Latino, American Indian, and Asian American?  
    • 2.    If scientists are now able to identify 11 genetic variations that are linked to Type 2 diabetes, how do you think this will affect possible treatments in the future for diabetes and disease in general?  
    • 3.    Do you believe that with enough research and testing with ELAs that these nervous system disorders can ever be treated or cured?  
    • 4.    Do you find any moral/ ethical issues in testing human’s DNA for genes about a disease that may be to no avail or possibly help cure that disease?  
    • 5.    If you think that ELAs are helpful to possibly find cures for diseases, do you believe that one’s DNA should be subject to governmental use and/ or experimentation to locate genes associated with diseases?
  • 11. Works Cited:
      • Michigan Technological University. &quot;Eleven Genetic Variations Linked To Type 2 Diabetes.&quot; ScienceDaily 19 October 2009. 19 October 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com­/releases/2009/10/091006121115.htm>.
      •   savvyhealthfitness.com
      •   www.biochem.arizona.edu
      •   http://www.diabetes.org/type-2-diabetes.jsp
      •   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rPDa2ACtog 
      •   http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/DM/PUBS/statistics/