Ebolavirus
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  • the reservoir is unknown....dont use wiki..unreliable
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  • 1. Ebolavirus By Cyrus E. Kuschner and Nate Chumley
  • 2. Pathogen Filoviridae family Structure Threadlike Bacteria 80nm in diameter Contains a lipid bilayer which projects spikes (7-10 nm) from its surface Allows the attachment to host cell RNA is contained within the bilayer 288 Amino Acids long
  • 3. Pathogenesis Targets Endothelial cells, Mononuclear Phagocytes, and Hepatocytes After a cell is infected, the host secretes the Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) GP binds to other endothelial cells sGP creates a dimer which interferes with White blood cell signals Cell budding causes a release of Cytokines Causes Fever and inflammation Degeneration of Endothelial cells results in a loss of vascular integrity. Causes coagulopathy
  • 4. Symptoms 1-6 Days Fever Muscle Pain Inflammation of the Pharynx After 6 Days Vomiting Bloody Diarrhea Maculopapular Rashes Bleeding from Bodily Orifices Dissolution of Skin
  • 5. Symptoms Continued Incubation period: 2-21 days Fatility rate Zaire Virus: 90% Sudan ebolavirus:60%
  • 6. Diagnosis Since early symptoms are similar to other diseases Ebola is often mistaken for Malaria, Typhoid Fever, or Influenza Saliva and Urine samples can be used to diagnosis Ebola by using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay tests (ELISA) In ELISA antibodies are applied to the antigen allowing them to bind. A substance is added so that the tester can see which antibodies have bound to the antigen.
  • 7. Transmission -Ebola is transmitted through bodily fluids (Saliva, vomit, semen, blood, etc.) -Bat populations are Ebola's reservoir: the bats drop partially eaten fruit and mammals (Most commonly gorillas) eat the fruit and become infected. -In most cases, outbreaks have occurred when humans have come in contact with living/dead gorillas infected with ebola -Humans can definitely transmit the disease to one another through bodily fluids.
  • 8. Epidemiology -The virus is named after the Ebola River Valley in the Congo -The first outbreak was in 1976, where it had a 90% fatality rate -It has appeared in the Congo several times since then -Ebola was contained to Africa, until the 1989 outbreak in Reston, Virginia -Monkeys that had the Ebola virus where transported to Virginia, however the virus was non-pathogenic to humans -This outbreak made Ebola virus known around the world. -There are several different Ebola viruses, each with different fatality rates: Zaire virus (90%), Sudan Ebolavirus (50-60%), Reston (0%, in humans), Cote d'Ivorie Ebolavirus (0%, only one person contracted it and she did not die), Bundibugyo Ebolavirus (24.83%).
  • 9. In-Class Discussion It is now 1976, the first known outbreak of Ebola has been diagnosed in the Ebola River Valley. You are among the first doctors sent into the Congo to help treat the epidemic. When you arrive you notice that all of the village gathers to bury each victim individually. What would you change? Why? What measures would you take to stop the spread of the disease? How would you treat the patients who already have Ebola?
  • 10. Treatment & Prevention -At first Ebola virus is not -Vaccines have been created easily diagnosed and to treat non-human carriers symptoms are general such as monkeys -However as the virus -Studies have begun on progresses the symptoms humans become severe, and the host can easily pass Ebola on to others, therefore patients must be contained in quarantines -There are no cures for Ebola, however, patients can survive the disease with proper nutrition and hydration
  • 11. Current & Future -Since Ebola has high infectiousness and infectivity rate many people have believed that it could be used as a biological weapon -It is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as category A bioterrorism agent by the CDC -The effectiveness is compromised by its rapid lethality, since patients die off before they can pass it on
  • 12. Ebola Virus Video (Disregard the German) -Take a look at what goes into quarantining the patients and what symptomal criteria they have to meet to go into the ward.
  • 13. Works Cited -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola -https://newsline.llnl. gov/_rev02/articles/2009/sep/images/091809_images/bw_haza rd.png -http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=iVVQPcMdUnY&feature=player_embedded