Types of translation


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  • Is the automatic translation provided by the Microsoft translation widget a 'literal translation' or a 'language translations?' If translations are literal. This question may be moot. Also, are the translations based upon 'conversational' use of each language or formal use of each language. I've hunted around to find a white paper or something non technical that describes how the widget works but cannot find anything. Can you also point me to any non technical papers or resources?
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Types of translation

  1. 1. Types of Translation. Practicum in Translation 462 S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  2. 2. An Introduction:- Due to the continuing evolvement of the translation industry there are now certain terms used to define specialist translations. S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  3. 3. • Literal translation, also known in everyday usage as direct translation, denotes the rendering of text from one language to another “word for word” (Latin: “verbum pro verbo” rather than conveying the sense of the original. However, in translation studies, literal translation denotes technical translation of scientific, technical, technological or legal texts. S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  4. 4. Literal translations are sometimes prepared for a writer who is translating a work written in a language he does not know. For example Richard Pevear worked from literal translations provided by his wife, Larissa Volokhonsky, in their translations of several Russian novels. Literal translation can also denote a translation that represents the precise meaning of the original text but does not attempt to convey its style, beauty, or poetry. There is, however, a great deal of difference between a literal translation of a poetic work and a prose translation. A literal translation of poetry may be in prose rather than verse, but also be error free. S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  5. 5. • Faithful Translation: It attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical deviation from SL norms. It attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text-realization of the SL writer. S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  6. 6. • Communicative and Semantic translation:- Semantic translation [ST] is personal and individual, follows the thought processes of the author, tends to over translate, pursues nuances of meaning, yet aims at concision in order to reproduce pragmatic impact. Communicative translation [CT] is social, concentrates on the message and the main force of the text, tends to under translate, to be simple, clear and brief, and always written in natural and resourceful style. A ST is normally inferior to its original, as there is both cognitive and pragmatic loss. S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  7. 7. CT attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Only ST and CT fulfill the two main aims of translation, which are first, accuracy, and second, economy. S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  8. 8. • Idiomatic translation that conveys the meaning of the original, or source text, by using equivalent language and the forms and structures of the target language, in order to produce a translation that reads that has the meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idiom e.g. He did not left a finger. ‫ساكنا‬ ‫يحرك‬ ‫لم‬ S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  9. 9. • adapative translation: this is the freest form of translation mainly used for plays and poetry e.g. o rose ,thou art sick! The inevasible worm Flies in the night , that In the howling storm, *‫عليلة‬‫ياوردتي‬ *‫التي‬ ‫الخفية‬ ‫فالدودة‬ *‫الليالي‬ ‫في‬ ‫تحوم‬ *‫الذي‬ ‫فراشك‬ ‫على‬ ‫عثرت‬ ‫قد‬ *‫الوردية‬ ‫أفراحه‬ ‫تحوطه‬ *‫والعميق‬ ‫الدفين‬ ‫عشقها‬ ‫لكن‬ Translation by Dr. Mohammad Anani. *‫الرحيق‬ ‫كيانك‬ ‫من‬ ‫يمتص‬ S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  10. 10. • A free translation is a translation that reproduces the general meaning of the original text. it may or may not closely follow the form or organization of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase e.g. you are a bigmouth. ‫األمانة‬ ‫خنت‬ ‫أنت‬ S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010
  11. 11. • Instructor : Dr. Shadia Banjar. S.S.Salem, M.S.Alsubaie & F.Y.Almuntashri. 2010