Subordination مليحة ابراهيم


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Subordination مليحة ابراهيم

  1. 1. Subordination Presented by: Maleeha Meedi Instructor D . Shadia Banjar Syntax Lane 334
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is a clause? </li></ul><ul><li>(a) - An independent clause ( Main clause ) </li></ul><ul><li>(S1) (the cat loves dogs) </li></ul><ul><li>(b) - A dependent clause (Subordinate clause ) </li></ul><ul><li>(S2) ( which is lying on the mat ) </li></ul><ul><li>- A clause may exists alone as in (a) and (b) or it may join up with other clauses as in the example : </li></ul><ul><li>(the cat which is lying on the mat loves dogs) </li></ul>Maleeha Meedi
  3. 3. <ul><li>The subordinate clause is often less important than the main clause, and can often be deleted . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. - The cat that is mad loves dogs </li></ul><ul><li>-We can delete the subordinate clause that is mad . </li></ul><ul><li>- The cat loves dogs ( the main clause ) </li></ul><ul><li>- that is mad is the ( subordinate clause ) introduced by a Subordinator , the relative pronoun that . </li></ul>Maleeha Meedi
  4. 4. <ul><li>Types of subordinate clause </li></ul><ul><li>Finite Clauses: are clauses where the verbs carry tense. </li></ul><ul><li>- Relative Clause (adjective clause) </li></ul><ul><li>- Adverbial Clause </li></ul><ul><li>- Noun Clause </li></ul><ul><li>- Complement Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Finite Clauses: are clauses where the verbs do not carry tense. </li></ul><ul><li>- Post - modifier </li></ul><ul><li>- Adverbial </li></ul><ul><li>- Subject </li></ul><ul><li>- Direct Object </li></ul><ul><li>- Complement of Adj </li></ul>Maleeha Meedi
  5. 5. <ul><li>Finite Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>1 - Relative Clause </li></ul><ul><li>The relative clause post-modifies the head noun of a noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The cat that loves dogs is mad </li></ul><ul><li>-The relative clause is that loves dogs </li></ul><ul><li>- that loves dogs is post-modifies the noun cat . </li></ul>S P s C Maleeha Meedi
  6. 6. -The subordinate clause that loves dogs is EMBEDDED in the main clause The cat is mad - The cat that loves dogs is mad - [ S1 The cat [ S2 that loves dogs ] is mad ] - This embedded is a feature of all subordinate clauses -A subordinator can be optional in relative clause. e . g . [ S1 The film [ S2 that I saw last night ] was really good ] [ S1 The film [ S2 I saw last night ] was really good] Maleeha Meedi
  7. 7. <ul><li>2- Adverbial Clause </li></ul><ul><li>- Subordinate adverbial clauses add information in relation to manner, time, place and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>-Adverbial clauses tend to answer the questions How? When? Where? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. We must be careful because there’s a ghost </li></ul><ul><li>- A subordinator cannot be optional in adverbial clause </li></ul><ul><li>We must be careful because there’s a ghost </li></ul><ul><li>- The function of subordinate adverbial clauses is adverbial </li></ul><ul><li>I will give you the next clue when you are ready . </li></ul>S P i O d O A Maleeha Meedi
  8. 8. <ul><li>3- Noun Clause : </li></ul><ul><li>- It is possible for clauses to function as subjects or objects . -These types of clauses are called noun clauses . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I know (that) they like me . </li></ul><ul><li>-In this example the subordinate clause is the direct object of a transitive verb . ( transitive verb normally has to have a direct object to be complete ) </li></ul><ul><li>- A subordinate clause functioning as direct object is dominated by VP. </li></ul>d O P S Maleeha Meedi
  9. 9. <ul><li>- The subordinator is not always essential as with relative clauses . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I know (that) they like me </li></ul><ul><li>- A noun clause function as an obligatory element in a sentence, that is as a subject or an object . </li></ul><ul><li>- The main clause cannot stand on its own, this is different from the main clauses in sentences containing a subordinate relative or adverbial clause . </li></ul><ul><li>The main clause is incomplete : [ I know [ S 2 ] ] </li></ul>Maleeha Meedi
  10. 10. <ul><li>4- Complement Clause </li></ul><ul><li>1- Subject complement 2- Complement of Adjective </li></ul><ul><li>1 - Subject complement </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinate clause can also appear with an intensive verb and function as the subject complement . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The most important thing is that you’re happy . </li></ul><ul><li>- The subordinate clause is functioning as an obligatory part of the sentence, so the main clause appears incomplete . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. [ The most important thing is [ S 2 ] ] </li></ul>s C P S Maleeha Meedi ( Intensive verb is the verb relates back to the subject )
  11. 11. <ul><li>2- Complement of Adj </li></ul><ul><li>- Subordinate clause can also complement adjectives . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. He made her sorry that she knew him </li></ul><ul><li>-In this example the subordinate clause forms part of the adjective phrase and takes on the same function within the sentence. </li></ul>S P d O o C Maleeha Meedi
  12. 12. Thank you Thank you Maleeha Meedi