Subordination - Syntax LANE 334

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Subordination - Syntax LANE 334

  1. 1. Subordination by: Shahad F. Al-Nemari Instructor: Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar Lane 334
  2. 2. We saw in chapter 5 that it is possible to have more than one sentence node in a sentence. e.g. the cat which is lying on the mat loves dogs. The example consist of MAIN CLAUSE (S 1 ) ( the cat loves dogs ) and a SUBORDINATE CLAUSE (S 2 ) ( which is lying on the mat ). What is the word clause, subordinate, hypotactic and paratactic ?? A CLAUSE may exist alone or it may join up with other clauses. SUBORDINATE is to joining clauses together. A style of speech or writing using lots of subordination is called HYPOTACTIC. A style using little subordination is called PARATACTIC.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Subordination </li></ul><ul><li>Kate hugged the baby. </li></ul><ul><li>Jenny hit me. </li></ul><ul><li>The dog found a bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of our example sentences have consisted of one clause. That is we have taken different subjects and said one thing about them. </li></ul><ul><li>The cat is mad. </li></ul><ul><li>The cat loves dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>We can join the clauses together to form one sentence by subordinate one clause to another. </li></ul><ul><li>The cat that is mad loves dogs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. e.g. The cat that is mad loves dogs. In this example, the cat loves dogs becomes the main clause , and that is mad is the subordinate clause . THAT is the relative pronoun . e.g. The cat that loves dogs is mad. The cat loves dogs has become less important than the cat is mad In other words subordinate clause is often less important than the main clause . Material in a subordinate clause can often be deleted if necessary. e.g. The cat loves dogs. The cat is mad.
  5. 5. S 1 NP VP DET N’ Vgp Adj P N S 2 AUX V Adj TENS The cat that (pres) loves dogs (pres) is mad [intens]
  6. 6. <ul><li>Types of Subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Clause: </li></ul><ul><li>The relative clause post-modifies the head noun of a noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>In the example of the cat that loves dogs is mad the relative clause (that loves dogs) and (it) post-modifies the noun cat . </li></ul><ul><li>The whole unit the cat that loves dogs is a noun phrase functioning as the subject of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>The cat that loves dogs (pres) is mad. </li></ul><ul><li>S P sC </li></ul><ul><li>To be sure that it is functioning as one constituent by substituting the pronoun it. </li></ul><ul><li>It is mad. </li></ul><ul><li>The subordinate clause that loves dogs is EMBEDDED in the main clause the cat is mad. </li></ul><ul><li>This embedded is a feature of all subordinate clauses. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Another way of showing embedding without the elaboration of a tree diagram is by the use of square brackets. e.g. [ S1 The cat [ S2 that is mad] loves dogs] One feature of relative clauses is that it is not necessary in every case for them to be introduced by a subordinator this can be optional. e.g. [ S1 The film [ S2 that I saw last night ] was really good] [ S1 The film [ S2 I saw last night ] was really good] A relative clause always forms part of a larger NP and so takes on the function of that NP. e.g. { The cat that is mad } (pres) loves dogs S P dO
  8. 8. <ul><li>Adverbial Clause: </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate adverbial clause add information in relation to manner, time, place and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to answer the questions How? When? Where? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I’ll give you the next clue when you’re ready. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbial clauses begin with a subordinator. In example the subordinator is when. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no option to omit the subordinator in adverbial clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>[ S1 [ S2 When you’re ready] I’ll give you the next clue] </li></ul><ul><li>The subordinate clause (S 2 ) dominated by S 1 and not VP. </li></ul><ul><li>The function of subordinate adverbial clauses is adverbial </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I will give you the next clue when you are ready. </li></ul><ul><li>S P iO dO Adv </li></ul>
  9. 9. S 1 NP VP S 2 Vgp NP NP [ditrans] AUX V PRO DET N’ MOD AdjP N Adj I will give you the next clue when you’re ready
  10. 10. <ul><li>Noun Clause: </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible for clauses rather than phrases to function as subjects or objects . </li></ul><ul><li>These types of clauses are called noun clauses . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I know (that) they like me. </li></ul><ul><li>In this example the subordinate clause is the direct object of a transitive verb. </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinate clause functioning as direct object is dominated by VP. </li></ul>
  11. 11. S 1 NP VP PRO Vgp S 2 [trans] AUX V TENS I (pres) know they like me S P dO
  12. 12. You can see from example that, as with some relative clauses, the subordinator is not always essential. Because a noun clause function as an obligatory element in a sentence, that is as a subject or an object. The main clause cannot stand on its own, this is different from the main clauses in sentences containing a subordinate relative or adverbial clause.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Complement Clause: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject complement: </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinate clause can also appear with an intensive verb and function as the subject complement. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The most important thing (pres) is that you’re happy. </li></ul><ul><li>S P sC </li></ul><ul><li>The subordinate clause is functioning as an obligatory part of the sentence, so the main clause appears incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. [ The most important thing is [ S 2 ]] </li></ul>
  14. 14. S 1 NP VP DET N’ Vgp S 2 [intens] AdjP N AUX V AdvP Adj TENS deg The most important thing (pres) is that you are happy
  15. 15. <ul><li>Complement of Adjective: </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate clause can also complement adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I am sure that she must have known him. </li></ul><ul><li>In this example the subordinate clause form part of the adjective phrase and takes on the same function within the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I (pres) am sure that she must have known him. </li></ul><ul><li>S P sC </li></ul>
  16. 16. S 1 NP VP PRO Vgp AdjP [intens] AUX V adj S 2 TENS I (pres) am sure that she must have known him

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