Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Higher Education
Umm Al-Qura University
College of Arts and Management Sciences
Depart...
ABSTRACT
    The present study is mainly stylistic and exclusively concentrates on the linguistic
analysis of parallelism ...
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺣﺼﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻛﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﻼﻏﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﰲ ﺷﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺇ...
Table of Contents
                                                          Page


 Abstract………………………………………………………………………..…...
Chapter One: Stylistics and the Notion of Parallelism

1.0. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………26

1.1. Style a...
2.3.1.6. Masculine Rhyme...........................................................................................75

   ...
c. Assonance of the Short Vowel /æ/ …….…………....……..….101

                  d. Assonance of the Short Vowel / /………..….………....
e. Assonance of the Diphthong /ə /………………..…..…………111
                    f. Assonance of the Diphthong /eə /………………………………11...
3.2.2.2.1. Simple Declarative Parallel Sentences…………..…….155

           3.2.2.2.2. Simple Negative Parallel Sentences…………...
4.2.1. Synonymous Parallel Lexical Items……………..……….……...……...196

      4.2.2. Antonymous Parallel Lexical Items…………………….…...
5.1. Statistical Findings and Tabulated Results …..……………………………….. 248

      5.1.1. The Phonological Level…………………………………………...
0.0. Introduction

  The analysis of the language of literature has been the subject of study

for many linguists. Many li...
sentences that are similar in structure, in sound or in meaning. It is useful

in the sense that it allows a writer or spe...
0.1. Organization of the Study

The study comprises an introduction and five chapters as follows:

  The introduction pres...
patterns of lexical/semantic parallelism were presented as well as the effect

this type of parallelism achieves in the an...
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Parallelism in selected children’s poems.presented by aisha sa’adi al subhi

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Parallelism in selected children’s poems.presented by aisha sa’adi al subhi

  1. 1. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Higher Education Umm Al-Qura University College of Arts and Management Sciences Department of English Parallelism in Selected Children’s Poems by Eloise Greenfield: A Stylistic Study A thesis submitted to the department of English in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of M.A. in Linguistics Presented by Aisha Sa’adi AL-Subhi Teacher's Assistant in Department of English College of Arts and Management Sciences Umm Al-Qura University Supervised by Dr. Shadia Yousef Saadu-Ldeen Banjar Assistant Professor of Linguistics College of Education- Humanities King Abdul-Aziz University Second Semester 1429-1430 H / 2008- 2009 A.D.
  2. 2. ABSTRACT The present study is mainly stylistic and exclusively concentrates on the linguistic analysis of parallelism as a stylistic device in Eloise Greenfield children's poetry. It adopts a stylistic formalist approach that emphasizes the formal structures of a literary text on different linguistic levels. It examines sound parallelism, grammatical parallelism, and lexical/semantic parallelism in a corpus of twenty- five poems selected from illustrious works of Eloise Greenfield's poetry. Each type is detected in the selected poems, and then stylistically analyzed according to the patterns of parallelism in order to illustrate how parallelism creates unexpected effects upon the readers. The results of the study confirm the prominent existence of parallelism as foregrounded regularities on the three linguistic levels: phonological, grammatical, and semantic. They also show that the effect of parallelism varies according to the type of parallelism. Furthermore, the study has recorded variations of parallelisms on the three linguistic levels. On the phonological level, sound parallelism plays a dominant role over other types of parallelism in the poems. It constitutes 48% out of all parallelisms. Rhyme is the most frequently used pattern. Specifically, masculine rhyme and full rhyme are predominant, whereas broken rhyme is completely absent. Alliteration of the approximant /w/ and the fricative /ð/ are the mostly used sound patterns, whereas alliteration of the affricate /dʒ/ is rare. Assonance of diphthongs has dominance over assonance of long and short vowels. Moreover, consonant parallels of the plosives /t/ & /d/ are used more in comparison with other consonant parallels. On the grammatical level, grammatical parallelism accomplishes a similar statue to sound parallelism and scores 40% of all parallelisms. Morphological parallelism is less used than syntactic parallelism. On the morphological level, parallel nouns and verbs are more frequently used than adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns. On the syntactic level, parallel noun phrases are the most frequent type. In addition, the declarative type of parallel constructions is the dominant type, whereas exclamatory type is the least used. Not surprisingly, simple parallel constructions are the prevailing used structure, whereas complex-compound constructions are totally missing. Moreover, isocolon is the dominant pattern of grammatical parallelism. On the semantic level, lexical/semantic parallelism shows a much lesser existence with only 12% of all parallelisms. Hyponymous parallels show the highest frequency. In addition, anaphoric parallelism is the prevailing pattern, whereas emblematic parallelism is the absent pattern. Interestingly, most of the patterns of lexical/semantic parallelism stand in contrast to one another. The overall results have shown that parallelism activates on different linguistic levels simultaneously. Thus, parallelism operates as a foregrounding device showing the regularities of sounds, words, and structures that characterize the style of Eloise Greenfield. Finally, this study hopes to pave the way for future avenues of investigations in the world of children's literature under the category of stylistics. Student: Supervisor: Dean of College: Aisha Sa'adi AL-Subhi Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar Dr. Anjab Ghulam Nabi Gutbaldeen II
  3. 3. ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺣﺼﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻛﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﻼﻏﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﰲ ﺷﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻳﻠﻮﻱ ﺟﺮﻳﻨﻔﻴﻠﺪ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ. ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﰊ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺍﻷﺩﰊ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ. ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﱄ ﰲ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﲬﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻗﺼﻴﺪﺓ ﳐﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﺇﻳﻠﻮﻱ ﺟﺮﻳﻨﻔﻴﻠﺪ. ﻭﻛﺸﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﰒ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻼ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﻴﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﻟﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻲ ﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ.‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺯ ﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻛﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﻼﻏﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ: ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﱄ. ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ. ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺸﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ. ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ، ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ٨٤% ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ. ﻭﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﻮﺍﻟﺐ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ً ﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻓﻘﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻬﻼﱄ ﻟﺼﻮﰐ /ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ/ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﱯ ﻭ /ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻝ/ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﻛﻲ ﺳﺎﺋﺪﺍ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻧﺪﺭ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻬﻼﱄ ﻟﻸﺻﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺰﺟﻴﺔ. ﻭﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﲢﻘﻘﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺘﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺘﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑﺓ. ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ، ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻟﺼﻮﰐ /ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺀ/ ﻭ /ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻝ/ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﻳﲔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺘﺔ. ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ، ﺣﻘﻖ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎ ﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﻭ ﺷﻜﻞ ٠٤% ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ. ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﰲ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ. ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﰲ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ. ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ، ﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻻﲰﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺒﺎﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ. ﻭ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺠﺒﻴﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ. ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻓﻘﺪﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺒﺔ. ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻹﺯﺩﻭﺍﺟﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﻮﺍﻟﺐ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪﹰﺍ. ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﱄ، ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﱄ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﻴﻪ ﻭﺷﻜﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫٢١% ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ. ﻭﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﻖ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰﻱ. ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳﺸﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﻟﺐ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ. ﻟﺬﻟﻚ، ﻳﻌﺪ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﻼﻏﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻟﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﳝﻴﺰ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﺇﻳﻠﻮﻱ ﺟﺮﻳﻨﻔﻴﻠﺪ. ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﲎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲤﻬﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﺏ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ.‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻴﺪﺓ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻓﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ:‬ ‫ﺩ. ﺃﳒﺐ ﻏﻼﻡ ﻧﱯ ﻗﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩ. ﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺳﻌﺪﻱ ﺭﺟﺎﺀﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺤﻲ‬ ‫‪III‬‬
  4. 4. Table of Contents Page Abstract………………………………………………………………………..……………………….….. II Acknowledgements…………………………………………………….……………………………..Iv Table of contents…………………………………………..…………………………………………….vI List of Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………………...XIII List of tables…………………………………………………………………………………….…..……XIV List of figures…………………………………………………………………………………………….XIX Introduction 0.0. Introduction………………………….………………………….……………………….……………1 0.1. Organization of the Study………………………………………………………….………….3 0.2. Statements of the Problem……………………………………………………………………4 0.3. Reasons for Choosing the Topic……………………..……………………………………4 0.4. Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………………..………….5 0.5. Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………………..….6 0.6. Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………….……………6 0.7. Review of literature…………………………………………………………………………..…..7 0.8. Data and Methodology……………………………………………….……………………….13 0.9. Children's Poetry…………………………………………………………………………………14 0.10. Eloise Greenfield: The Poet…………………………….………………..………………16 VI
  5. 5. Chapter One: Stylistics and the Notion of Parallelism 1.0. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………26 1.1. Style and Stylistics……………………………………………………………………………...26 1.2. Schools of Stylistics……………………………………………………………………………34 1.2.1. Formalist Stylistics……………...…….………………….……………………………37 1.2.2. Foregrounding Theory…………………………….…………….…….…………….38 1.3. The Notion of Parallelism……………………………………………….…………………..42 1.4. The Difference between Parallelism and Repetition…………………………46 1.5. The Rule of Parallelism……………………………………………………………………….47 1.6. Types of Parallelism………………………………………………………….…………………51 Chapter Two: Sound Parallelism 2.0. Introduction……………………………………………….………………………………………. 55 2.1. Sound Parallelism………………………………………………….…………………….……. 55 2.2. Sound Parallelism in the Selected Poems…………………..……………………..57 2.3. Patterns of Sound Parallelism in the Selected Poems………………………..67 2.3.1. Rhyme………………………………………..…………………………...……………….. 67 2.3.1.1. Full Rhyme……………………………………..…………………..………… 68 2.3.1.2. Imperfect Rhyme…………………………………………………...……….72 2.3.1.3. Identical Rhyme…………………………………………………..…………73 2.3.1.4. Internal Rhyme…………...………………………..…………………………74 2.3.1.5. Eye Rhyme………………………………………….…………………..………75 VII
  6. 6. 2.3.1.6. Masculine Rhyme...........................................................................................75 2.3.1.7. Feminine Rhyme.............................................................................................79 2.3.1.8. Triple Rhyme…………………………………….…………………………… 80 2.3.1.9. Broken Rhyme………………………………………..……………………… 81 2.3.2. Alliteration………………………..……………………………………..…………………………83 2.3.2.1. Alliteration of the Voiced Bilabial Plosive /b/………...…….…84 2.3.2.2. Alliteration of the Voiceless Alveolar Plosive /t/………..…...85 2.3.2.3. Alliteration of the Voiced Alveolar Plosive /d/…….…...…......86 2.3.2.4. Alliteration of the Voiceless Velar Plosive /k/……………..…..86 2.3.2.5. Alliteration of the Voiceless Labiodental Fricative /f/..............87 2.3.2.6. Alliteration of the Voiced Dental Fricative /ð/……………….…87 2.3.2.7. Alliteration of the Voiceless Alveolar Fricative /s/…..……....88 2.3.2.8. Alliteration of the Glottal Fricative /h/……………..............……….89 2.3.2.9. Alliteration of the Voiced Bilabial Nasal /m/…….......................90 2.3.2.10. Alliteration of the Voiced Alveolar Lateral /l/………….….....91 2.3.2.11. Alliteration of the Voiced Alveolar Approximant / r/ …..91 2.3.2.12. Alliteration of the Voiced Velar Approximant /w/.…………92 2.3.2.13. Alliteration of the Voiced Alveo-Palatal affricate /dʒ/……....…...93 2.3.3. Assonance…………………………..…………………………..…………………………….……97 2.3.3.1. Assonance of Short Vowels……………...…………………..….………...98 a. Assonance of the Short Vowel / /……..………….……...…..……..99 b. Assonance of the Short Vowel /e/………………….….…………100 VIII
  7. 7. c. Assonance of the Short Vowel /æ/ …….…………....……..….101 d. Assonance of the Short Vowel / /………..….………...………102 e. Assonance of the Short Vowel / /…………………...…...…….103 f. Assonance of the Short Vowel / /……………………..………..103 2.3.3.2. Assonance of Long Vowels…………………..…………………...………..104 a. Assonance of the Long Vowel / i /……...…….....…..…………104 b. Assonance of the Long Vowel / /………………..…........……105 c. Assonance of the Long Vowel / /………………...……...……105 d. Assonance of the Long Vowel / /…………….…….................105 e. Assonance of the Long Vowel /u /………...……….........……..106 2.3.3.3. Assonance of Diphthongs…………………………..…..…………..……….107 a. Assonance of the Diphthong /e /…………….…...….…………107 b. Assonance of the Diphthong /a /……………….…...……..……108 c. Assonance of the Diphthong / /…………….….………..….….110 d. Assonance of the Diphthong /a /……………..………..………110 IX
  8. 8. e. Assonance of the Diphthong /ə /………………..…..…………111 f. Assonance of the Diphthong /eə /………………………………111 2.3.4. Consonance……………………………….………….……………..……..……………114 2.3.4.1. Consonance of the Alveolar Fricatives /s/ - /z/…….....…115 2.3.4.2. Consonance of the Alveo-Palatal Fricative / / & the Affricate /t /...117 2.3.4.3. Consonance of the Alveolar Plosives /t/ & /d/……...…….118 2.3.4.4. Consonance of the Nasals /m/ -/ n / - /ŋ /…………….....…..120 2.3.4.5. Consonance of the Alveolar Approximant /r/……………..121 2.3.4.6. Consonance of the Voiced Alveolar Lateral /l/……...…....121 2.4.The Effect of Sound Parallelism in the Selected Poems…………………….…125 Chapter Three: Grammatical Parallelism 3.0. Introduction…………………………………………………………………...…………………136 3.1. Grammatical Parallelism……..…………………………………………………………. 136 3.2. Grammatical Parallelism in the Selected Poems……………..……………..138 3.2.1. Morphological Parallelism…………………………………..……….………138 3.2.1.1. Parallel Nouns.........................................................................................139 3.2.1.2. Parallel Verbs……………………………………….….………………141 3.2.1.3. Parallel Adverbs…………………………………………..………….144 3.2.1.4. Parallel Adjectives…………………………………..........................144 3.2.1.5. Parallel Pronouns…………………………………………….………146 3.2.2. Syntactic Parallelism…………...………..……………………..………………150 3.2.2.1. Syntactic Parallelism on the Phrase Level…….…..……150 3.2.2.2. Syntactic Parallelism on the Sentence Level……...…153 X
  9. 9. 3.2.2.2.1. Simple Declarative Parallel Sentences…………..…….155 3.2.2.2.2. Simple Negative Parallel Sentences………………….…157 3.2.2.2.3. Simple Interrogative Parallel Sentences…..…...….....157 3.2.2.2.4. Simple Exclamatory Parallel Sentences………...…..158 3.2.2.2.5. Simple Imperative Parallel Sentences.......................….158 3.2.2.2.6. Compound Declarative Parallel Sentences……...….159 3.2.2.2.7. Compound Negative Parallel Sentences……….….…160 3.2.2.2.8. Complex Declarative Parallel Sentences……….....…161 3.2.2.2.9. Complex Iinterrogative Parallel Sentences…….…....….161 3.2.2.2.10. Complex Imperative Parallel Sentences…………….….162 3.3. Patterns of Grammatical Parallelism in the Selected Poems……...164 3.3.1. Antithesis…………………………………..…...….…..….……....…...……….164 3.3.2. Chiasmus……………………………………….……………….………………165 3.3.3. Isocolon Parallelism…………..……………………………...…………….166 3.3.4. Tricolon Parallelism……………………………….……………….………169 3.3.5. Climax…………………………….……………………………………….…….....171 3.3.6. Ellipsis……………………………………………………………..…………........172 3.4. The Effect of Grammatical Parallelism in the Selected Poems…....175 Chapter Four: Lexical/Semantic Parallelism 4.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………...…………194 4.1. Lexical/Semantic Parallelism……..…..…………...………………………………. 194 4.2. Lexical/Semantic Parallelism in the Selected Poems…..………...…..196 XI
  10. 10. 4.2.1. Synonymous Parallel Lexical Items……………..……….……...……...196 4.2.2. Antonymous Parallel Lexical Items…………………….…..…….......…197 4.2.3. Hyponymous Parallel Lexical Items………..…………….....…….…….198 4.2.4. Meronymic Parallel Lexical Items…….…………………...…...…….….199 4.2.5. Paronymic Parallel Lexical Items………..……………….……………....200 4.2.6. Connotative Parallel Lexical Items…………………...…………………201 4.3. Patterns of Lexical/Semantic Parallelism……………….…...…………………..204 4.3.1. Synonymous Parallelism…………………………...………...………….204 4.3.2. Antithetical Parallelism………………..………………………………..209 4.3.3. Zeugma…………………………………..……………………………………….212 4.3.4. Diazeugma………………………………………………………..……………..215 4.3.5. Anaphoric Parallelism……………………………………..……………..219 4.3.6. Epistrophic Parallelism………………………………..…………………221 4.3.7. Polysyndeton……………………………………………………………..……222 4.3.8. Asyndeton……………………………………………………….………......…..223 4.3.9. Syncrisis………………………………………………...………………...……...224 4.3.10. Synthetic Parallelism…………………………...…………….…...……..225 4.3.11. Introverted Parallelism………………………………...….……...……..226 4.3.12. Emblematic Parallelism……………………………...…………...……227 4.4. The Effect of Lexical/Semantic Parallelism in the selected Poems…...230 Chapter Five: Conclusion 5.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………248 XII
  11. 11. 5.1. Statistical Findings and Tabulated Results …..……………………………….. 248 5.1.1. The Phonological Level………………………………………………….……252 5.1.2. The Grammatical Level…………………………………………..……………261 5.1.3. The Semantic Level……………………………………..……………………….271 5.2. The Effect of Parallelism on Greenfield's Style...................................277 5.3. Concluding Statement……………………………………………...………………………281 5.4. Recommendations for Further Studies……………………………………………283 Bibliography…………………………………………….………………………………………………286 List of Abbreviations Adj………………………………………………. Adjective Adv………………………………………………. Adverb Art ……………………………………………….. Article Aux………………………………………………. Auxiliary Be…………………………………………………. Verb To Be Comp…………………………………………… Complement Conj……………………………………………… Conjunction Det……………………………………………….. Determiner Inf………………………………………………… Infinitive Iso P ……………………………………………. Isocolon Parallelism Int P………………………………………………Introverted Parallelism InV ………………………………………………. Intransitive Verb M P ……………………………………………… Morphological Parallelism Neg ………………………………………………. Negative N ………………………………………………… Noun No. ……………………………………………….. Number O ………………………………………………… Object XIII
  12. 12. 0.0. Introduction The analysis of the language of literature has been the subject of study for many linguists. Many linguists have accepted the usefulness of linguistic theories and concepts in the study of literary texts. In this sense, it is possible to say that stylistics examines the use of linguistics in the analysis of literature. Stylistics is the branch of linguistics that studies the use of language in specific contexts and attempts to account for the regularities that mark the language use by individuals or groups. Stylistics or what has been called "literary linguistics" is concerned with the linguistic choices that distinguish genres (poetry, drama, novel…etc) and with the ways in which individual writers exploited language (Hancock 1986:446). This is both a linguistic and a literary exercise, since language is the medium of literature and style contributes to meaning. Thus, stylistics serves as a bridge between linguistic and literary disciplines. According to McMenamin and Dongdoo 2000, linguistic stylistics is the scientific analysis of individual style-markers as observed and identified in the idiolect of a single writer. In fact, the present study tackles the notion of parallelism as a unique style marker that is highly observed on different linguistic levels in the poetry of the African-American poet Eloise Greenfield. Parallelism is the most useful and flexible aspect of poetic language (Leech 1969). It refers to the use of words, phrases, clauses, or 1
  13. 13. sentences that are similar in structure, in sound or in meaning. It is useful in the sense that it allows a writer or speaker to hammer home an idea, image, or relationship, and to force the reader or listener to pay attention. It also imparts grace and power to literary writing. Moreover, it intensifies the reader’s excitement and suspense. More importantly, the vital role parallelism plays in poetry serves to convey the meaning of poetry more comprehensively. In other words, it is basic to meaning. It is where syntactic arrangement most deeply engages with reason. Thus, it is fundamental to the logical structure of language. This poetic feature of rhetorical beauty is most obvious in poetry and proverbs. The balance of verse with verse, is an essential characteristic feature in children’s poetry. The present study is a modest contribution that aims at analyzing selected children’s poems by Eloise Greenfield for exploring parallelism on different linguistic levels. It investigates the notion of parallelism which characterizes the style of Eloise Greenfield in her children's poetry. It adopts a stylistic analysis approach, which according to Davies & Elder: "a way of applying linguistic models to literary texts that pays attention to the formal features of the text" (Davies & Elder 2006: 332). 2
  14. 14. 0.1. Organization of the Study The study comprises an introduction and five chapters as follows: The introduction presents the domain, the objectives of the study, data and methodology, and finally the relevant studies. Chapter one deals with the theoretical preliminaries and the main concepts tackled in the study such as style, stylistics, formalist stylistics, foregrounding theory, and parallelism. Chapter two is devoted to the phonological level and the phonological analysis of parallelism in Eloise Greenfield's poems. A comprehensive investigation of all patterns of sound parallelism was made. The chapter also examines the various effects which result from using patterns of sound parallelism in the poems and shows how these patterns reinforce the poet's message and enhance her art. Chapter three deals with the level of grammar and the grammatical analysis of parallelism in Eloise Greenfield's poems. A detailed analysis of morphological and syntactic parallel structures as well as an investigation of grammatical patterns of parallelism have taken place. The attention is also paid to the numerous effects of grammatical parallelism in the poems. Chapter four displays the semantic level and the analysis of lexical/semantic parallelism in Eloise Greenfield's poems. In this chapter, lexical parallels were discussed under the heading of semantics. Different 3
  15. 15. patterns of lexical/semantic parallelism were presented as well as the effect this type of parallelism achieves in the analyzed poems. Chapter five presents the statistical findings of this study. It also provides the stylistic features of Eloise Greenfield's poetry and some suggestions for further studies. 0.2. Statement of the Problem The study will seek to answer the following research questions: 1- What is the vital role and the effect of parallelism as a foregrounded stylistic device used in children’s poetry? 2- What are the different types of parallelism that are obvious in the selected children’s poems? 3- How does parallelism contribute to the meaning of the poem? 4- How does parallelism characterize Eloise Greenfield’s style? 0.3. Reasons for Choosing the Topic The topic under study is chosen particularly for the following reasons: 1- The area of children’s literature especially children’s poetry is one of the most interesting areas to investigate. 2- Choosing to explore the linguistic patterns of parallelism is due to the fact that parallelism is a strong foregrounded device that captures the reader's attention, serves to deliver the writer's message, and marks the 4

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