1. Introduction Some morphologic sentence elements are commonly grouped into : . The Noun Cluster . The Verb Cluster
2. The noun cluster divides into two categories Principal Secondary Nouns Numerals Pronouns Adjectives Articles
3. ADJECTIVES <ul><li>" Adjective " is the sentence element used to qualify/determine a noun or a noun-equivalent construction. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to clarify nouns . </li></ul><ul><li>It can be one word or a group of words . </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be used with certain verbs (such as the verb "to be"). </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to clarify the subject that is doing the action . </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to describe color, material, shape, size, amount, price, quality, origin, personality, weight, temperature, age, direction, etc . </li></ul>
4. CATEGORIES OF ADJECTIVES <ul><li>First of all, adjectives are : </li></ul>Qualifying qualifying adjectives are (generally) employed as: Possessive Demonstrative Relative Interrogative Indefinite Predicative Adjectives Attributes Determining The group of determining adjectives is a bit more complex; it includes :
5. POSITIONING QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES WITHIN THE SENTENCE STRUCTURE The man was alive . In this case "alive" refers to the noun "man" although it is positioned near the copulative verb "was" . After particular verbs Syntactically, these are Predicative Adjectives Note: although they are position near the verb, these adjectives still qualify the noun, only. The new house welcomes us . The house aflame was a terrible loss. Before or after the noun they qualify Syntactically, they are Attributes Examples Position
6. COMPARING ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Only Qualifying adjectives may be compared. </li></ul><ul><li>The comparison is performed for: A. Inferiority B. Equality C. Superiority </li></ul><ul><li>The points A and C above take three " Degrees of Comparison " , as follows: </li></ul>POSITIVE SUPERLATIVE COMPARATIVE
7. POSITIVE no comparison is performed Example: The tall man went into the restaurant. The word tall is an adjective . It describes the noun , man . It is very common to use adjectives with nouns . Adjectives are used to describe the noun .
8. COMPARATIVE simple comparison What are comparative adjectives? Comparative adjectives are used to clarify the difference between 2 objects / nouns . Comparative adjectives are used to compare 2 nouns . To state that one noun has more of something then the 2nd noun . Examples : The black dog is old er than the white dog . My house is big ger than my sister's house . The yellow hat is more expensive than the green hat .
9. SUPERLATIVE Relative Absolute qualities related to others qualities of all Examples : The summer is the hott est time of the year . Your family is the nice st that I have ever met .
10. A - Comparison with - er /- est How to Use Comparative Adjectives and Superlative Adjectives We use - er /- est with the following adjectives : 1- adjectives with one syllable 2- adjectives with two syllables and the following endings : 2 a- adjectives with two syllables , ending in - y 2 b- adjectives with two syllables , ending in – er 2 c- adjectives with two syllables , ending in - le cheap est cheap er cheap new est new er new clean est clean er clean pretti est pretti er prett y happi est happi er happ y easi est easi er eas y dirti est dirti er dirt y clever est clever er clev er simpl est simpl er simp le
11. 2 d- adjectives with two syllables , ending in - ow B - Comparison with more/less – most/least narrow est narrow er narr ow <ul><li>difficult - most/least difficult </li></ul><ul><li>honest – most/least honest </li></ul><ul><li>modern – most/least modern </li></ul><ul><li>expensive – most/least expensive </li></ul><ul><li>comfortable – most/least comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>difficult - more/less difficult </li></ul><ul><li>honest – more/less honest </li></ul><ul><li>modern – more/less modern </li></ul><ul><li>expensive – more/less expensive </li></ul><ul><li>comfortable - more /less comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>" more/less - most/least " is used for words that : </li></ul><ul><li>have 2 syllables , if the word doesn't end in - y . </li></ul><ul><li>* have 3 or more syllables </li></ul>
12. C - Irregular adjectives D - Special adjectives Some adjectives have two possible forms of comparison . smallest smaller little least less little countable nouns most more many uncountable nouns most more much worst worse bad best better good surest / most sure surer / more sure sure subtlest subtler / more subtle subtle stupidest / most stupid stupider / more stupid stupid simplest / most simple simpler / more simple simple politest / most polite politer / more polite polite pleasantest / most pleasant pleasanter / more pleasant pleasant likeliest / most likely likelier / more likely likely commonest / most common commoner / more common common
13. Difference in meaning with adjectives : Eng 142 / grammar (2) Prepared and presented by: Samah Eid References : http :// www . englisch - hilfen . de http :// www . corollarytheorems . com / Grammar http :// www . english - the - easy - way . com / Adjectives / Adjectives_Page . htm The instructor : Dr. Shadia Banjar order next x distance nearest nearer near people ( family ) eldest elder people and things oldest older old last x x latter latest later late distance or time furthest further distance farthest farther far