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Course Title Grammar (2) …

Course Title Grammar (2)
Course Code& Number Eng 142
Credit hours 2X2= 4 hrs
Pre-requisite Eng 141
Instructor Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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  • 1. Introduction Some morphologic sentence elements are commonly grouped into : . The Noun Cluster . The Verb Cluster
  • 2. The noun cluster divides into two categories Principal Secondary   Nouns Numerals   Pronouns Adjectives Articles
  • 3. ADJECTIVES
    • " Adjective " is the sentence element used to qualify/determine a noun or a noun-equivalent construction.
    • It is used to clarify nouns .
    • It can be one word or a group of words .
    • It can also be used with certain verbs (such as the verb "to be").
    • It is used to clarify the subject that is doing the action .
    • It is used to describe color, material, shape, size, amount, price, quality, origin, personality, weight, temperature, age, direction, etc .
  • 4. CATEGORIES OF ADJECTIVES
    • First of all, adjectives are :
    Qualifying qualifying adjectives are (generally) employed as: Possessive Demonstrative Relative Interrogative Indefinite Predicative Adjectives   Attributes Determining The group of determining adjectives is a bit more complex; it includes :
  • 5. POSITIONING QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES WITHIN THE SENTENCE STRUCTURE The   man  was  alive . In this case "alive" refers to the noun "man" although it is positioned near the copulative verb "was" . After particular verbs Syntactically, these are Predicative Adjectives Note: although they are position near the verb, these adjectives still qualify the noun, only. The   new   house   welcomes us . The  house   aflame  was a terrible loss. Before or after the noun they qualify Syntactically, they are Attributes Examples Position
  • 6. COMPARING ADJECTIVES
    • Only  Qualifying adjectives  may be compared.
    • The comparison is performed for: A. Inferiority B. Equality C. Superiority
    • The points A and C above take three  " Degrees of Comparison " , as follows:  
    POSITIVE SUPERLATIVE COMPARATIVE
  • 7. POSITIVE no comparison is performed Example: The tall man went into the restaurant. The word tall is an adjective . It describes the noun , man . It is very common to use   adjectives   with   nouns . Adjectives   are used to describe the   noun .
  • 8. COMPARATIVE simple comparison What are comparative adjectives? Comparative adjectives are used to clarify the difference between 2 objects / nouns . Comparative adjectives are used to compare 2 nouns . To state that one noun has more of something then the 2nd noun . Examples : The black dog is old er than the white dog . My house is big ger than my sister's house . The yellow hat is more expensive than the green hat .
  • 9. SUPERLATIVE Relative Absolute qualities related to others qualities of all Examples : The summer is the hott est time of the year . Your family is the nice st that I have ever met .
  • 10. A - Comparison with - er /- est How to Use Comparative Adjectives and Superlative Adjectives We use - er /- est with the following adjectives : 1- adjectives with one syllable 2- adjectives with two syllables and the following endings : 2 a- adjectives with two syllables , ending in - y 2 b- adjectives with two syllables , ending in – er   2 c- adjectives with two syllables , ending in - le cheap est cheap er cheap new est new er new clean est clean er clean pretti est pretti er prett y happi est happi er happ y easi est easi er eas y dirti est dirti er dirt y clever est clever er clev er simpl est simpl er simp le
  • 11. 2 d- adjectives with two syllables , ending in - ow B - Comparison with more/less – most/least narrow est narrow er narr ow
    • difficult - most/least difficult
    • honest – most/least honest
    • modern – most/least modern
    • expensive – most/least expensive
    • comfortable – most/least comfortable
    • difficult - more/less difficult
    • honest – more/less honest
    • modern – more/less modern
    • expensive – more/less expensive
    • comfortable - more /less comfortable
    • " more/less - most/least " is used for words that :
    • have 2 syllables , if the word doesn't end in - y .
    • * have 3 or more syllables
  • 12. C - Irregular adjectives D - Special adjectives Some adjectives have two possible forms of comparison .   smallest smaller little   least less little countable nouns most more many uncountable nouns most more much   worst worse bad   best better good surest / most sure surer / more sure sure subtlest subtler / more subtle subtle stupidest / most stupid stupider / more stupid stupid simplest / most simple simpler / more simple simple politest / most polite politer / more polite polite pleasantest / most pleasant pleasanter / more pleasant pleasant likeliest / most likely likelier / more likely likely commonest / most common commoner / more common common
  • 13. Difference in meaning with adjectives : Eng 142 / grammar (2) Prepared and presented by: Samah Eid References : http :// www . englisch - hilfen . de http :// www . corollarytheorems . com / Grammar http :// www . english - the - easy - way . com / Adjectives / Adjectives_Page . htm The instructor : Dr. Shadia Banjar order next x distance nearest nearer near people ( family ) eldest elder people and things oldest older old   last x   x latter   latest later late distance   or time furthest further distance farthest farther far