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الدرس الجديد 2
 

الدرس الجديد 2

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    الدرس الجديد 2 الدرس الجديد 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Grammar Eng142
      connectors
      Present by :
      Eetelaf Mohammed Surati
      Instructor:
      Dr.Shadia Banjar
    • On the other hand
      Whereas
      However
      While
      Nevertheless
      In contrast
      connectors
      But
      so
      Therefore
      Because
      Although
      Even though
      As aresult
      since
    • Connector = Transition signal
      Connector is a word that is joining two :
      words , phrases or clauses together.
      connectors help you write clear sentences by connecting words or group of words in a sentence .
      The short boy andthe tall girlare student .
      Ali and Omar are
      beautiful.
      It was raining hard , and there was a strong wind .
      We will talk about three kinds of connectors :
      Subordinating conjunctions .
      Coordinating conjunctions .
      Transitions ( conjunctive adverbs ) .
    • 1- Subordinating conjunctions :
      Subordinating conjunctions make the clause dependent .
      Subordinating conjunction is the first word in a dependent clause.
      e.g. (Reem is still hungry even though she ate a large dinner ).
      We find subordinating conjunction in a complex sentence .
      Acomplex sentenceis:
      ( one independentclause + one (or more) dependentclause ).
      ( complete ) (fragment )
      ( incomplete )
      ( Subordinate clause )
      ( Adverbclause )
      (adverbial)
    • An adverb clause is a dependent clause that acts as an adverb.
      These are introduced by subordinating conjunctions.
      I read becauseI love stories. ( adverb of reason )
      That adverb clause is modifying the verb read.
      The general role in Subordinating conjunctions is this:
      Put a comma after a dependent clause but not in front of one .
      When I was doing my homework , the phone rang .
      The phone rang when I was doing my homework .
    • 2- Coordinating conjunctions:
      Coordinating conjunctions connect grammatically equal parts of a sentence . The parts can be words , phrases or clauses .
      We findCoordinating conjunction in a compound sentence .
      Acompound sentence is ( two independentclause joined together bycoordinating conjunction ).
      e.g.The soup was good , but it wasn’t hot .
      Rana and Maha are beautiful.
      It was raining hard , and there was a strong wind .
      The tall boyandthe short girlarestudent .
    • Coordinating conjunctionscome in the middle .It is preceded by a comma .
      ( main clause+( , )+ coordinating conjunction + main clause )
      e.g. The soup was good , but it wasn’t hot .
    • 3- Transition signal : ( conjunctive adverb )
      To improve your writing you need to make sure that your ideas, both in sentences and paragraphs, stick together or have coherence .
      Transition words will make your sentences and paragraphs together.
      The general role is this :
      They connect two ideas ( independent clauses).
      ((;) + transition signal + (,)) don’t capitalize it .
      e.g.Ahmad is rich ; on the other hand , Ali is poor.
      Or: (Transition signal + ( ,)) capitalize it .
      e.g. Ahmad is rich . In contrast , Ali is poor .
    • Connectors=Transitionsignals
      Connectors give us several meaning , such as :
      Connectors of contrast :Aconcession
      Bopposition
      Connectors of reason and result
    • Connectors of contrast
      Contrast is to show point of dissimilarity or difference between two things .
      Connectors of contrast :Aconcession
      B opposition
      A concession : ( unexpected result ).
      Concession signal words indicate that the information in one clause is not the result you expect from the information given in the other clause .
      e.g.Although I studied all night , I failed the exam .
      B opposition : ( to introduce an opposite idea ).
      The second group of contrast signal words shows that two things are direct opposites.
      e.g.He is tall , whereas his brother is short.
      Unexpected result
    • Connectors of contrast
      A - concession
    • Connectors of contrast
      B - opposition
    • Connectors = Transition signals
      Connectors give us several meaning , such as :
      1- Connectors of contrast :Aconcession
      Bopposition
      2-Connectors of reason and result
    • Connectors of reason and result
    • Goodluck
    • REFERENCES:
      Interactions ( 2 ) Grammar book.
      Betty SchrampferAzar . UNDERSTANDING AND USING ENGLISH GRAMMER . 3rd Edition.
      Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue. Writing Academic English,
      4th edition, Pearson Education Inc, New York, 2006.
      Keith S. Folse. Great Essays , 2nd edition , Heinle , Cengage Learning 2002 .
      http://www.english-grammar revolution.com/subordinate-clause.html
    • Connectors of contrast
      A - concession
      2 - Subordinating
      conjunction
      1- Coordinating
      conjunction
      3 - transitions
      But
      ( But )comes in the middle of the sentence and is usually preceded by a comma .
      e.g. I t was cold , but I went swimming .
    • Connectors of contrast
      A - concession
      2 - Subordinating
      conjunction
      1- Coordinating
      conjunction
      3 - transitions
      Although
      Eventhough
      Although and even though can begin a sentence or come in the middle. Notice the position of the comma .
      e.g.Although it was cold , I went swimming .
      or: I went swimming even though it was cold .
    • Connectors of contrast
      A - concession
      2 - Subordinating
      conjunction
      1- Coordinating
      conjunction
      3 - transitions
      However
      nevertheless
      Like other transitions however and neverthelessusually begin
      the second sentence and are followed by a comma .
      e.g. It was cold . However , I went swimming .
      Transitions may also be preceded by a semi- colon. In this case, don’t capitalize the transitions.
      semicolon + conjunctive adverb + comma
      e.g. It was cold; nevertheless , I went swimming .
    • Connectors of contrast
      B - opposition
      2 - Subordinating
      conjunction
      1- Coordinating
      conjunction
      3 - transitions
      But
      ( But )comes in the middle of the sentence and is usually preceded by a comma .
      e.g.Ahmad is rich , but Ali is poor.
    • Connectors of contrast
      B - opposition
      2 - Subordinating
      conjunction
      1- Coordinating
      conjunction
      3 - transitions
      Whereas
      while
      Whereas and while can begin a sentence or come in the middle. Notice the position of the comma .
      e.g. While Ahmad is rich , Ali is poor.
      e.g. Ahmad is rich whereas Ali is poor.
    • Connectors of contrast
      B - opposition
      2 - Subordinating
      conjunction
      1- Coordinating
      conjunction
      3 - transitions
      On the other hand
      In contrast
      Like other transitions On the other hand and in contrast usually begin the second sentence and are followed by a comma.
      e.g. Ahmad is rich . In contrast , Ali is poor.
      Transitions may also be preceded by a semi- colon. In this case, don’t capitalize the transitions.
      e.g. Ahmad is rich ; on the other hand , Ali is poor.
    • Connectors of reason and result
      2 - Subordinating
      conjunction
      1- Coordinating
      conjunction
      3 - transitions
      so
      ( So ) comes before the result. It is preceded by a comma .
      e.g.He was hungry , so he sat and started to eat.
    • Connectors of reason and result
      2 - Subordinating
      conjunction
      1- Coordinating
      conjunction
      3 - transitions
      Because
      since
      Because and since are used with the reason. They may be placed either at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. However, notice the difference in punctuation.
      e.g.He's thin because he hasn’t eaten enough .
      main clause + Ø + subordinate clause.
      e.g.Since we live near the sea , we often go sailing .
      subordinate clause + ( , ) + main clause.
    • Connectorsof reason and result
      2 - Subordinating
      conjunction
      1- Coordinating
      conjunction
      3 - transitions
      Therefore
      Asaresult
      These transitions are used before the result. Like all transitions, they normally begin a sentence and are followed by a comma.
      e.g.You have an exam. Therefore , you must work hard.
      Transitions may also be preceded by a semi- colon. In this case, don’t capitalize the transition.
      e.g. You have an exam ; as a result , you must work hard.