Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka

740

Published on

Shalini Rajakaruna, …

Shalini Rajakaruna,
Rajarata University of Sri Lanka.
International Forestry and Environment Symposium 2011 Annual Symposium organized by Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka http://fesympo.sjp.ac.lk/

Published in: Education, Travel, Technology
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
740
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. HABITAT Y THROUGH AN Foraging Ecology of Red vented Bulbul INDICATOR(Pycnonotus cafer), in university premises and near by SPECIES- forest patch, in cafer Pycnonotus Mihinthale , Sri Lanka. S.L. Rajakaruna, S.wickramasinghe Faculty of Applied sciences, S.L. Rajarata Rajakaruna, S.wickramasinghe University of Sri Faculty of Applied sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka,Mihinthale Lanka,Mihinthale.
  • 2. Red vented bul bul (Pycnonotus cafer) Morphology -Short crest giving the head a squarish appearance -Body is dark brown with a scaly pattern -The rump is white -The vent is red -The black tail is tipped in white
  • 3. Habitats-Dry scrubs-Open forests-Plains and cultivated landsFood-Fruits-Petals of flowers- Nectar- insects and occasionally geckos.-They have also been seen feedingon the leaves of Medicago sativa..(Dinesh Bhatt and AnilKumar,2001)
  • 4. The research problem. The Red vented Bulbul is one of the most common birds. Has a wide distribution Found in all types of habitats Omnivorous bird who represents the foraging behaviors of many birds. But no evidence about the ecological role of this bird in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.
  • 5. Objectives To identify the foraging behavior of Red vented Bulbul in the study site. To determine the recourse use and extent of partitioning while foraging. To analyze the impact of the foraging behavior red vented Bulbul on the vegetation.
  • 6. Study site This study was confined to the faculty premises of Faculty of Applied Sciences Rajarata University of Sri Lanka which is at the periphery of the Mihinthale sanctuary. (LAT 8° 19 60" N / LON 80° 31 0" E) It is within the dry zone of Sri Lanka Annual rainfall is less than 1000mm Average temperature 33-35 0c.
  • 7. Study site Sri Lanka, North central province Faculty of Mihintale forest Applied SciencesMihintale DivisionalSecretariat Mihintale forest1:18000
  • 8. Methodology Observations were taken along transect of 300m in length and 50m width Scan sampling method was used to observe the foraging behavior No counts were made during heavy rains
  • 9. Methodology contd… For each foraging attempt, microhabitat details such as, -height above the ground -substrate from which food is taken and -the plant species used for feeding were recorded
  • 10. Methodology contd… Mainly the frequencies of pecking and swallowing were observed other activities as preening, resting, roosting, and social behavior also were concerned Vegetation analysis was done to identify the plants preferred by Red vented Bulbul
  • 11. Results and discussion  Food preferenceBulbuls are dominant or important frugivores and seed dispersers of opensecondary vegetation throughout tropical and subtropical Asia (Lever 1987,Corlett 1998).
  • 12. Insect association with the fruits consumed byRed vented Bulbul Fruiting tree Presence or Absence of insects Grewia flavescens NO Bauhinia racemosa YES Azadirachta indica YES Areca triandra NO Ficus caulocarpa (unripe) YES Lantana camara NO
  • 13. Special observation They prefer the unripe fruit of Ficus caulocarpa Refuse the ripe fruit of the same tree When fruits were plucked, opened and observed ,fig wasps were present in the unripe fruit
  • 14. Utilization of plants
  • 15. Azadirachta indica Bauhinia racemosa
  • 16. Utilization of plants
  • 17. Schleichera oleosa Drypetes sepairia
  • 18. Niche occupancy of Red vented Bulbul Height classes  A: 0m  B: 0-2m  C: 2.1-4m  D: 4.1-6m  E: 6.1-8m  F: 8.1-10m  G: 10.1-12m  H: <12m
  • 19. Niche occupancy of Red vented Bulbul Height clusters with different behaviours (January) •Two major clusters HEIGHT CLUTER WITH OTHER BEAHVIORS (JANUARY) •H,G.F 33.33 •C,D,E • Occupancy similarity in 2 major clusters 33.33% 55.56 •H,G classes occupancyS im ila r it y similarity 100% •H & G differs from F in 55.56% 77.78 H,G - Resting F- Resting 100.00 AH BG C F D E ED F C E- Feeding, Preening and Observations Resting D- Feeding , Preening C- preening
  • 20. •Two major clusters Height clusters with different behaviours (February) •Occupancy similarity HEIGHT CLUTER WITH OTHER BEAHVIORS IN FEBRUARY 36.55% •A,E, F similarity is 36.55 higher •B,G,H similarity is higher 57.70 •C,D similarity isS im ila r it y higher 78.85 A- Feeding E- Feeding F- Feeding 100.00 B-Preening A A E E F F B B G G H C C D D Observations G-Feeding D-Roosting
  • 21. •Similarity 59.64% Height clusters with different behaviours Dendrogram •Occupancy of the H (March) Single Linkage, Euclidean Distance height class is less similar to other classes. 59.64 A- Feeding B-Feeding 73.09 C-FeedingS im ila r it y E- Feeding F-Feeding, Resting H-Resting 86.55 •Two major clusters  End of the rainy 100.00 season and the A B C G D E F H Observations Beginning of the breeding season
  • 22. Conclusion Niche occupancy  All the height classes have been used for feeding except H (<12m)  Mostly for feeding – E (6.1-8 m)  Mostly for Resting – H(<12m)  Mostly for preening- B(0-2m), C(2.1-4m),D(4.1-6)  The height class preferred the most by Red vented Bulbul is E, (6.1-8.m)
  • 23. Conclusion contd… Plant preference  Red vented Bulbuls show a heights preference in Asadirachta indica for feeding.  Scleichera oleosa for resting.  Drypetes sepairia for roosting. Food preference  Consumed most frequently insects (59%),  Then fruits ( 21.9%)
  • 24. Conclusion contd… There is no considerable adverse impact of Red vented Bulbul foraging behavior on the vegetation in the study site. As the important plants in the study site, for the survival of birds have been identified, the findings of this study can be used for the habitat refreshment of the ecosystem too.
  • 25. Recommendations… To increase the duration of the study to increase the accuracy. To compare the niche occupancy of Red vented Bulbul with the niche occupancy of other species of Bulbuls. To carry out the same study in an undisturbed forest patch and compare the two sites.
  • 26. Special Thanks to…. Dr. Asanga Wijethunga Mr. Duminda S. B. Dissanayake Mr. Aruna Senevirathne Mr. Supun Wellappuliarachchi Mr. Adrian Gabriel Mr. Ravi Muthukrishna Mr. Lasith Rajakaruna
  • 27. Thank you!

×