HABITAT Y               THROUGH AN      Foraging Ecology of Red vented Bulbul               INDICATOR(Pycnonotus cafer), i...
Red vented bul bul (Pycnonotus cafer)                 Morphology                 -Short crest giving the head a           ...
Habitats-Dry scrubs-Open forests-Plains and cultivated landsFood-Fruits-Petals of flowers- Nectar- insects and occasionall...
The research problem. The Red vented Bulbul is one of the most common birds. Has a wide distribution Found in all types...
Objectives To identify the foraging behavior of Red vented Bulbul in the study site. To determine the recourse use and e...
Study site This study was confined to the faculty premises of Faculty of Applied Sciences Rajarata University of Sri Lank...
Study site                       Sri Lanka,                       North central                       province            ...
Methodology Observations were taken along transect of 300m in length and 50m width Scan sampling method was used to obse...
Methodology contd… For each foraging attempt, microhabitat details such as,       -height above the ground       -substra...
Methodology contd… Mainly the frequencies of pecking and swallowing  were observed other activities as preening, resting...
Results and discussion  Food preferenceBulbuls are dominant or important frugivores and seed dispersers of opensecondary ...
Insect association with the fruits consumed byRed vented Bulbul  Fruiting tree               Presence or Absence of       ...
Special observation They prefer the unripe fruit of Ficus caulocarpa Refuse the ripe fruit of the same tree When fruits...
Utilization of plants
Azadirachta indica   Bauhinia racemosa
Utilization of plants
Schleichera oleosa   Drypetes sepairia
Niche occupancy of Red vented Bulbul Height classes   A: 0m   B: 0-2m   C: 2.1-4m   D: 4.1-6m   E: 6.1-8m   F: 8.1-...
Niche occupancy of Red vented Bulbul                       Height clusters with different behaviours (January)       •Two ...
•Two major clusters                   Height clusters with different behaviours (February)               •Occupancy simila...
•Similarity 59.64%                   Height clusters with different behaviours                                          De...
Conclusion Niche occupancy   All the height classes have been used for feeding    except H (<12m)   Mostly for feeding ...
Conclusion contd… Plant preference    Red vented Bulbuls show a heights preference in     Asadirachta indica for feeding...
Conclusion contd… There is no considerable adverse impact of Red vented Bulbul foraging behavior on the vegetation in the...
Recommendations… To increase the duration of the study to increase the accuracy. To compare the niche occupancy of Red v...
Special Thanks to…. Dr. Asanga Wijethunga Mr. Duminda S. B. Dissanayake Mr. Aruna Senevirathne Mr. Supun Wellappuliara...
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Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka

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Shalini Rajakaruna,
Rajarata University of Sri Lanka.
International Forestry and Environment Symposium 2011 Annual Symposium organized by Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka http://fesympo.sjp.ac.lk/

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Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in University premises and nearby forest patch in Mihinthale, Sri Lanka

  1. 1. HABITAT Y THROUGH AN Foraging Ecology of Red vented Bulbul INDICATOR(Pycnonotus cafer), in university premises and near by SPECIES- forest patch, in cafer Pycnonotus Mihinthale , Sri Lanka. S.L. Rajakaruna, S.wickramasinghe Faculty of Applied sciences, S.L. Rajarata Rajakaruna, S.wickramasinghe University of Sri Faculty of Applied sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka,Mihinthale Lanka,Mihinthale.
  2. 2. Red vented bul bul (Pycnonotus cafer) Morphology -Short crest giving the head a squarish appearance -Body is dark brown with a scaly pattern -The rump is white -The vent is red -The black tail is tipped in white
  3. 3. Habitats-Dry scrubs-Open forests-Plains and cultivated landsFood-Fruits-Petals of flowers- Nectar- insects and occasionally geckos.-They have also been seen feedingon the leaves of Medicago sativa..(Dinesh Bhatt and AnilKumar,2001)
  4. 4. The research problem. The Red vented Bulbul is one of the most common birds. Has a wide distribution Found in all types of habitats Omnivorous bird who represents the foraging behaviors of many birds. But no evidence about the ecological role of this bird in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.
  5. 5. Objectives To identify the foraging behavior of Red vented Bulbul in the study site. To determine the recourse use and extent of partitioning while foraging. To analyze the impact of the foraging behavior red vented Bulbul on the vegetation.
  6. 6. Study site This study was confined to the faculty premises of Faculty of Applied Sciences Rajarata University of Sri Lanka which is at the periphery of the Mihinthale sanctuary. (LAT 8° 19 60" N / LON 80° 31 0" E) It is within the dry zone of Sri Lanka Annual rainfall is less than 1000mm Average temperature 33-35 0c.
  7. 7. Study site Sri Lanka, North central province Faculty of Mihintale forest Applied SciencesMihintale DivisionalSecretariat Mihintale forest1:18000
  8. 8. Methodology Observations were taken along transect of 300m in length and 50m width Scan sampling method was used to observe the foraging behavior No counts were made during heavy rains
  9. 9. Methodology contd… For each foraging attempt, microhabitat details such as, -height above the ground -substrate from which food is taken and -the plant species used for feeding were recorded
  10. 10. Methodology contd… Mainly the frequencies of pecking and swallowing were observed other activities as preening, resting, roosting, and social behavior also were concerned Vegetation analysis was done to identify the plants preferred by Red vented Bulbul
  11. 11. Results and discussion  Food preferenceBulbuls are dominant or important frugivores and seed dispersers of opensecondary vegetation throughout tropical and subtropical Asia (Lever 1987,Corlett 1998).
  12. 12. Insect association with the fruits consumed byRed vented Bulbul Fruiting tree Presence or Absence of insects Grewia flavescens NO Bauhinia racemosa YES Azadirachta indica YES Areca triandra NO Ficus caulocarpa (unripe) YES Lantana camara NO
  13. 13. Special observation They prefer the unripe fruit of Ficus caulocarpa Refuse the ripe fruit of the same tree When fruits were plucked, opened and observed ,fig wasps were present in the unripe fruit
  14. 14. Utilization of plants
  15. 15. Azadirachta indica Bauhinia racemosa
  16. 16. Utilization of plants
  17. 17. Schleichera oleosa Drypetes sepairia
  18. 18. Niche occupancy of Red vented Bulbul Height classes  A: 0m  B: 0-2m  C: 2.1-4m  D: 4.1-6m  E: 6.1-8m  F: 8.1-10m  G: 10.1-12m  H: <12m
  19. 19. Niche occupancy of Red vented Bulbul Height clusters with different behaviours (January) •Two major clusters HEIGHT CLUTER WITH OTHER BEAHVIORS (JANUARY) •H,G.F 33.33 •C,D,E • Occupancy similarity in 2 major clusters 33.33% 55.56 •H,G classes occupancyS im ila r it y similarity 100% •H & G differs from F in 55.56% 77.78 H,G - Resting F- Resting 100.00 AH BG C F D E ED F C E- Feeding, Preening and Observations Resting D- Feeding , Preening C- preening
  20. 20. •Two major clusters Height clusters with different behaviours (February) •Occupancy similarity HEIGHT CLUTER WITH OTHER BEAHVIORS IN FEBRUARY 36.55% •A,E, F similarity is 36.55 higher •B,G,H similarity is higher 57.70 •C,D similarity isS im ila r it y higher 78.85 A- Feeding E- Feeding F- Feeding 100.00 B-Preening A A E E F F B B G G H C C D D Observations G-Feeding D-Roosting
  21. 21. •Similarity 59.64% Height clusters with different behaviours Dendrogram •Occupancy of the H (March) Single Linkage, Euclidean Distance height class is less similar to other classes. 59.64 A- Feeding B-Feeding 73.09 C-FeedingS im ila r it y E- Feeding F-Feeding, Resting H-Resting 86.55 •Two major clusters  End of the rainy 100.00 season and the A B C G D E F H Observations Beginning of the breeding season
  22. 22. Conclusion Niche occupancy  All the height classes have been used for feeding except H (<12m)  Mostly for feeding – E (6.1-8 m)  Mostly for Resting – H(<12m)  Mostly for preening- B(0-2m), C(2.1-4m),D(4.1-6)  The height class preferred the most by Red vented Bulbul is E, (6.1-8.m)
  23. 23. Conclusion contd… Plant preference  Red vented Bulbuls show a heights preference in Asadirachta indica for feeding.  Scleichera oleosa for resting.  Drypetes sepairia for roosting. Food preference  Consumed most frequently insects (59%),  Then fruits ( 21.9%)
  24. 24. Conclusion contd… There is no considerable adverse impact of Red vented Bulbul foraging behavior on the vegetation in the study site. As the important plants in the study site, for the survival of birds have been identified, the findings of this study can be used for the habitat refreshment of the ecosystem too.
  25. 25. Recommendations… To increase the duration of the study to increase the accuracy. To compare the niche occupancy of Red vented Bulbul with the niche occupancy of other species of Bulbuls. To carry out the same study in an undisturbed forest patch and compare the two sites.
  26. 26. Special Thanks to…. Dr. Asanga Wijethunga Mr. Duminda S. B. Dissanayake Mr. Aruna Senevirathne Mr. Supun Wellappuliarachchi Mr. Adrian Gabriel Mr. Ravi Muthukrishna Mr. Lasith Rajakaruna
  27. 27. Thank you!
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