Introduction into Social Media

12,428 views
12,110 views

Published on

Great definition and classification scheme for different social media types. Also advises of how to make best use of social media

Published in: Business, Technology

Introduction into Social Media

  1. 1. Social Media – Theoretical module Andreas M. Kaplan Mail: kaplan@escpeurope.eu This presentation is mainly based upon : Kaplan, Andreas M., Haenlein, Michael (2010) Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
  2. 2. 1) Defining - 2) Classifying - 3) Applying Social Media Defining Social Media Social Media is a group of Internet-based applications that build on 1) the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content (UGC) (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010, p. 61) Classifying Social Media Social presence / Media richness 2) Self- presentation Blogs & Microblogs Social networking site Virtual social worlds / Self- Collaborative Content Virtual game disclosure projects communities worlds Applying Social Media Social media = Media + Social 3) Media Social Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 2
  3. 3. 1) Definition and importance of Social Media 2) Classification of Social Media 3) Application of Social Media: 10 pieces of advice Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 3
  4. 4. Defining social media and differentiating it from Web 2.0 & User-Generated Content (UGC) Social Media is a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content (UGC) (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010, p. 61) Web 2.0 User Generated Content (UGC) • Term first used in 2004 to describe 3 characteristics of UGC: a new way to use the WWW, i.e. as a platform in which content and • Published on a publicly accessible applications are no longer created website or on a social networking and published by individuals but site accessible to a selected group instead are continuously modified by of people all users in a participatory and collaborative fashion • Shows a certain amount of creative effort • Web 2.0 does not refer to any specific technical update of the • Has been created outside of WWW. However, there is a set of professional routines and practices basic functionalities that are necessary for its functioning (Adobe Flash, RSS, AJAX) Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 4
  5. 5. Importance of social media (1): Consumers change their behavior Users trust more in UGC than in corporate content According to Deloitte Consumer Product Group (2008), about 8 in 10 shoppers trust brands which offer customer ratings / reviews more than those that do not Users migrate from traditional to social media Over 100 million blogs exist; 120 000 new blogs launched every day; 1.5 million posts per day; If Myspace was a country, it would be the 8th largest country in the world, etc. (Source: Technorati 2009) Users take over control in the cyberspace and become prosumers* Negative public relations (PR) of a Comcast technician sleeping on a client’s couch went through the press world-wide. The client filmed the technician and put the video on Youtube in 2006 (Several million consumers have seen this video and talked about it – and still do) * Prosumer = Producer + Consumer Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 5
  6. 6. Importance of social media (2): Companies enter the social media landscape How important are these services What is the biggest barrier to you to your business? employing Marketing 2.0? 3,2% 8,5% 22,3% 35,1% 23,4% Budget Technology Staffing Knowledge Exec Buy-in Community is not receptive Pursuit Group 2009 Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 6
  7. 7. 1) Definition and importance of Social Media 2) Classification of Social Media 3) Application of Social Media: 10 pieces of advice Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 7
  8. 8. Classification of social media Social presence/ Media richness Low Medium High Blogs and Social networking Virtual social High microblogs sites worlds (e.g. Twitter) (e.g. Facebook) (e.g. Second Life) Self- presentation/ Self- disclosure Virtual game Collaborative Content worlds Low projects communities (e.g. World of (e.g. Wikipedia) (e.g. Youtube) Warcraft) Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010, p. 62 Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 8
  9. 9. Classification of social media Social media differ in the degree of “social presence” (i.e. acoustic, visual, and physical contact that can be achieved) and in the degree of “media richness” they possess (i.e. the amount of information they allow to be transmitted in a given time interval) Social media differ in the Social presence/ Media richness degree of “self-disclosure” it requires (i.e. the conscious or unconscious revelation of personal information that is consistent with the image Self- one would like to give) and disclosure/ the type of self-presentation Self- it allows (i.e. the desire to presentation control the impressions other people form of oneself) Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 9
  10. 10. Collaborative projects (e.g. Wikipedia) Collaborative projects enable the joint creation of content by many end- users. Within collaborative projects one differentiates between wikis (e.g. Wikipedia), i.e. websites that allow users to add, remove, and change text- based content, and social bookmarking sites (e.g. Delicious), which enable the group-based collection and rating of Internet links of media content. Exemplary marketing functions performed via collaborative projects E.g. the computer software producer Adobe Systems improves its marketing intelligence by maintaining a Marketing research list of bookmarks to company-related websites and conversations on Delicious E.g. Intuit (company developing financial and tax preparation software) maintains a free collaborative Relationship marketing tax resource and research wiki (Tax Almanac) which helps to create long-term client relationships E.g. consumers who desire information about a Communication company or brand often have a first look at the respective Wikipedia entry Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 10
  11. 11. Blogs and Microblogs (e.g. Twitter) Blogs, which represent the earliest form of social media, are special types of websites that usually display date-stamped entries in reverse chronological order. Also microblogs (e.g. Twitter) which differ from a traditional blog in that their content is typically much smaller (nothing but e.g. a short sentence), belong to this category of social media. Exemplary marketing functions performed via blogs and microblogs E.g. the coffeehouse chain Starbucks uses its corporate Product development blog ‘MyStarbucksIdea’ to collect customer ideas in order to create new products E.g. Jonathan Schwartz, CEO of Sun Microsystems, Communication maintains a personal blog to improve the transparency of his company E.g. the low-cost airline Jet Blue Airways sends out its weekly “cheeps” each Monday morning, i.e. Twitter Pricing messages about special promotions on available seats in flights on the following weekend Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 11
  12. 12. Content communities (e.g. Youtube) Content communities offer the possibility of sharing media content between users. They exist for a wide range of different media types including text (e.g. Bookcrossing), photos (e.g. FlickR), videos (e.g. Youtube), and PPT presentations (e.g. Slideshare). Exemplary marketing functions performed via content communities E.g. the alcoholic spirits producer, Absolut Wodka, Relationship marketing strengthens its customer relationships through its own Youtube channel E.g. several companies, such as the car manufacturer Communication BMW, put their company profile in PPT format on Slideshare ready to use for the interested consumer E.g. the computer manufacturer Apple (via ITunes) Distribution proposes consumers to buy their favorite song directly from Youtube Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 12
  13. 13. Social networking sites (e.g. Facebook) Social networking sites (e.g. Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace) are applications that enable users to connect by creating personal information profiles, inviting friends and colleagues to have access to those profiles and sending e-mails and instant messages between each other. Exemplary marketing functions performed via social networking sites E.g. Zappos, online shoe and clothing retailer, analyses Marketing research consumer comments on their social networking sites for marketing research purposes E.g. Warner Brothers, entertainment company, promoted its movie ‘Fred Claus’ through a Facebook Communication profile via which visitors could watch trailers, download graphics, and play games E.g. the Internet florist 1-800-Flowers.com offers a Facebook widget ‘Gimme Love’ whereby users can send Distribution virtual bouquets to friends, or be directly transferred to the company’s website to send real flowers Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 13
  14. 14. Virtual game worlds (MMORPG) (e.g. World of Warcraft) Virtual game worlds (e.g. World of Warcraft) are a subgroup of virtual worlds and require their users to behave according to strict rules in the context of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG). Exemplary marketing functions performed via virtual game worlds E.g. McDonalds enables Sims Online players to operate a McDonald's kiosk and earn "Simoleons" as a virtual Marketing research business. Eating at virtual McDonald's will satisfy a Sim's hunger and hedonic desires E.g. car manufacturer Toyota used pictures and mechanics from the World of Warcraft application in its Communication latest Tundra commercial to reach the 2.5 million players in the US alone E.g. Pizza Hut permits participants in the EverQuest II Distribution fantasy, virtual game world to order food for delivery from Pizza Hut Inc.'s Internet site Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 14
  15. 15. Virtual social worlds (e.g. Second Life) Virtual social worlds (e.g. Second Life) are the second subgroup of virtual worlds and allow residents to choose their behavior more freely and to, essentially, live a virtual life similar to their real life. Exemplary marketing functions performed via virtual social worlds E.g. the hospitality company Starwood Hotels & Resorts pretested its new hotel ‘Aloft’ virtually within Marketing research Second Life to obtain feedback of potential customers – which resulted in the decision to build radios in the guest rooms’ showers E.g. the bank Wells Fargo is present on the Active Communication Worlds, communicating with current and potential future customers E.g. shoe and apparel manufacturer Nike sells virtual Distribution shoes on the social world There.com Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 15
  16. 16. 1) Definition and importance of Social Media 2) Classification of Social Media 3) Application of Social Media: 10 pieces of advice Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 16
  17. 17. Social media have both a social- and a media- component Social media = Media + Social Media Social Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 17
  18. 18. Ten pieces of advice for companies deciding to use social media (1) 5 points about using media Choose carefully the type of social media you want to use Give all employees Pick the application access to social you want to rely on – media applications or make your own Integrate social media Ensure that social into your traditional media activities are media plan aligned with each other Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 18
  19. 19. Ten pieces of advice for companies deciding to use social media (2) 5 points about being social Be active: Ensure that your content is fresh and engage in discussions Be honest: Be interesting: Never expect that social media Listen to clients and post users won’t find out you lying content fitting their expectations Be unprofessional: Be humble: Avoid overly-professional Learn the basic rules Content offerings before participating Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 19
  20. 20. Further reading • Carter Sandy (2009) The new language of Marketing 2.0 – How to use angels to energize you market, IBM Press. • Kaplan, Andreas M., Haenlein, Michael (2011) The early bird catches the…news: Nine things you should know about micro-blogging, Business Horizons. • Kaplan, Andreas M., Haenlein, Michael (2010) Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons. 53(1), 59-68. • Kaplan, Andreas M., Haenlein, Michael (2009) The fairyland of Second Life – About virtual social worlds and how to use them, Business Horizons, 52(6), 563-572. Andreas M. Kaplan 2010 20

×