The Human Population
and Its Impact
Ch. 6, part 1
Jot down the number of people
in the world now
Our Growth Continues
Only in the
last 200
years
has it
been
going up
so
sharply
Question 1, with your pet
buddy:
Hypothesize as to WHY
our population growth
continues to be so high
Why?
3 main reasons
We’ve gotten better at living in more places
Agriculture meant we could feed more
people
Better sanita...
The results of all this
Death rate drops significantly
Birthrate has actually slowed - but it is
not enough to counter the...
Some numbers
The global population is growing
at ~ 1.2%/year
82 million people added to the
population in 2008
Every secon...
Where are all these
people?
We are not evenly spread out
Of the 82 million added in 2008
1.2 million added in the develope...
Developed vs.
Developing Nations
Developed
US
Canada
Japan
Australia
Italy
England
France
Highly
industrialized
High GDP
D...
Developing nations
97% of the population growth from now
to 2050 will occur in these countries
More than 1/2 the people in...
So how big are we going
to get?
?
Projections are 8-11 billion by 2050
Question 2 with your holiday
buddy: Vote!
Should the United States adopt a population
control policy? Defend your position.
How many people can the
Earth support?
Low estimates - 2
billion
High estimates -
30 billion
Is this even the
right questi...
Another way of looking at
it
Many analysts think we should be
asking:
What is the optimum sustainable
population based on ...
Some basics
High births -- low
deaths = high
growth
Low births -- high
deaths = decline
Equal births and
deaths = stable
p...
3 rates control human
population size
Birth rate
Death rate
Migration rate
We calculate the population change by
subtracti...
Rates
We don’t use raw
numbers usually, we use
RATES
Birth rate - the number of
births per 1000 per year
Death rate - the ...
Who has the most
people?Number 1: China at 1.5 billion
Number 2: India at 1.1 billion
Number 3: USA at 300 million
Number ...
Women are having fewer
babies
Fertility rate - the
number of children
born to a woman
during her lifetime
2 types
1. Replacement level fertility rate - the
number of children a couple must
have to replace themselves
1. 2.1 in de...
2 types
2. Total fertility rate - the average number of
children born to women in a population during
their reproductive y...
Question 3
WHY 2.WHY 2.
something? Whysomething? Why
not just 2?not just 2?
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
1. Children in the
work force
1. Developing
nations tend to
have more
children in th...
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
2. The cost of raising and
educating children
- birth rate lower in
developed countr...
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
3. Private and public
pension systems (or
lack thereof)
Pensions reduce the
need for...
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
4. Urbanization -
urban areas have
more family
planning clinics -->
less kids
rural ...
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
5. Education for
women
fertility rate lower
when women are
educated
marriage is
dela...
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
6. Infant Mortality Rate
- the number of children per 1000 births who
die before age...
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
7. Age at marriage
More or less kids?More or less kids?
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
8. Ability to have abortions
each year ~ 190 million pregnancies
~ 46 million aborti...
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
9. Availability of birth
control methods
More or less kids?More or less kids?
10 Factors that affect the birth
rate
10. Religious beliefs,
traditions, culture More or less kids?More or less kids?
Question 4
Is it rational for a poor couple
in a developing country such
as India to have 4 or 5
children?
Explain your th...
Put this number next to your
name
Jot down the number of people in the
world now
How many people were added during our
les...
APES Ch. 6
APES Ch. 6
APES Ch. 6
APES Ch. 6
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APES Ch. 6

  1. 1. The Human Population and Its Impact Ch. 6, part 1 Jot down the number of people in the world now
  2. 2. Our Growth Continues Only in the last 200 years has it been going up so sharply
  3. 3. Question 1, with your pet buddy: Hypothesize as to WHY our population growth continues to be so high
  4. 4. Why? 3 main reasons We’ve gotten better at living in more places Agriculture meant we could feed more people Better sanitation, medicines, and vaccines keeps disease under control
  5. 5. The results of all this Death rate drops significantly Birthrate has actually slowed - but it is not enough to counter the death rate
  6. 6. Some numbers The global population is growing at ~ 1.2%/year 82 million people added to the population in 2008 Every second 5 people are born, 2 people die - a net gain of 3 people That’s over 260,000 people per day
  7. 7. Where are all these people? We are not evenly spread out Of the 82 million added in 2008 1.2 million added in the developed nations 80.8 million added in the developing nations
  8. 8. Developed vs. Developing Nations Developed US Canada Japan Australia Italy England France Highly industrialized High GDP Developing Most of Africa Most of Asia Most of Latin America China India Brazil Turkey Thailand Mexico Highly agricultural Low GDP What is theWhat is the differencedifference between thesebetween these two groups?two groups?
  9. 9. Developing nations 97% of the population growth from now to 2050 will occur in these countries More than 1/2 the people in the world live in extreme poverty (less than $2/day; 17% of those on less than $1/day)
  10. 10. So how big are we going to get? ? Projections are 8-11 billion by 2050
  11. 11. Question 2 with your holiday buddy: Vote! Should the United States adopt a population control policy? Defend your position.
  12. 12. How many people can the Earth support? Low estimates - 2 billion High estimates - 30 billion Is this even the right question to ask?
  13. 13. Another way of looking at it Many analysts think we should be asking: What is the optimum sustainable population based on a cultural carrying capacity The optimum level at which most people can live in comfort and freedom without sacrificing that for future generations
  14. 14. Some basics High births -- low deaths = high growth Low births -- high deaths = decline Equal births and deaths = stable population
  15. 15. 3 rates control human population size Birth rate Death rate Migration rate We calculate the population change by subtracting those who leave (death, emigrants) from those who arrive (births, immigrants)
  16. 16. Rates We don’t use raw numbers usually, we use RATES Birth rate - the number of births per 1000 per year Death rate - the number of death per 1000 per year
  17. 17. Who has the most people?Number 1: China at 1.5 billion Number 2: India at 1.1 billion Number 3: USA at 300 million Number 4: Indonesia at 240 million Number 5: Pakistan at 173 million Together they have 36% of the people
  18. 18. Women are having fewer babies Fertility rate - the number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
  19. 19. 2 types 1. Replacement level fertility rate - the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves 1. 2.1 in developed nations 2. 2.5 in developing
  20. 20. 2 types 2. Total fertility rate - the average number of children born to women in a population during their reproductive years This has been going down Developed nations 1950 - 2.5 2008 - 1.6 Developing nations 1950 - 6.5 2008 - 2.8
  21. 21. Question 3 WHY 2.WHY 2. something? Whysomething? Why not just 2?not just 2?
  22. 22. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 1. Children in the work force 1. Developing nations tend to have more children in the work force More or less kids?More or less kids?
  23. 23. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 2. The cost of raising and educating children - birth rate lower in developed countries where it is much more expensive to raise kids (they don’t work for the family usually) - costs about $290,000 to raise a kid to 18 years old More or less kids?More or less kids?
  24. 24. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 3. Private and public pension systems (or lack thereof) Pensions reduce the need for children to care for adults in their old age More or less kids?More or less kids?
  25. 25. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 4. Urbanization - urban areas have more family planning clinics --> less kids rural families need kids to help raise crops/livestock More or less kids?More or less kids?
  26. 26. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 5. Education for women fertility rate lower when women are educated marriage is delayed also More or less kids?More or less kids?
  27. 27. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 6. Infant Mortality Rate - the number of children per 1000 births who die before age 1 More or less kids?More or less kids?
  28. 28. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 7. Age at marriage More or less kids?More or less kids?
  29. 29. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 8. Ability to have abortions each year ~ 190 million pregnancies ~ 46 million abortions (about half illegal) More or less kids?More or less kids?
  30. 30. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 9. Availability of birth control methods More or less kids?More or less kids?
  31. 31. 10 Factors that affect the birth rate 10. Religious beliefs, traditions, culture More or less kids?More or less kids?
  32. 32. Question 4 Is it rational for a poor couple in a developing country such as India to have 4 or 5 children? Explain your thinking.
  33. 33. Put this number next to your name Jot down the number of people in the world now How many people were added during our lesson?
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