APES Ch 5 part 1


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  • The Blue-Ringed Octopus is very small, only the size of a golf ball, but its venom is so powerful that can kill a human. Actually it carries enough poison to kill 26 adult humans within minutes, and there is no antidote. They are currently recognized as one of the world 痴 most venomous animals.Its painless bite may seem harmless, but the deadly neurotoxins begin working immediately resulting in muscular weakness, numbness, followed by a cessation and breathing and ultimately death.They can be found in tide pools in the Pacific Ocean, from Japan to Australia. The puffer fish produce rapid and violent death..Puffer poisoning causes deadening of the tongue and lips, dizziness, vomiting, rapid heart rate, difficulty breathing, and muscle paralysis. Victims die from suffocation as diaphragm muscles are paralyzed. Most of the victims die after four to 24 hours. No known antidote Box Jellyfish. It has caused at least 5,567 recorded deaths since 1954. Their venom is among the most deadly in the world. Its toxins attack the heart, nervous system, and skin cells. And the worst part of it is that jelly box venom is so overpoweringly painful, that human victims go in shock, drown or die of heart failure before even reaching shore. Survivors experience pain weeks after the contact with box jellies.You have virtually no chance to survive the venomous sting, unless treated immediately. After a sting, vinegar should be applied for a minimum of 30 seconds. Vinegar has acetic acid, which disables the box jelly 痴 nematocysts that have not yet discharged into the bloodstream (though it will not alleviate the pain). Wearing panty hose while swimming is also a good prevention measure since it can prevent jellies from being able to harm your legs.Jelly box can be found in the waters around Asia and Australia.
  • APES Ch 5 part 1

    1. 1. Biodiversity, Species Interactions, and Population Control Ch. 5 Miller & Spoolman, 16th ed.
    2. 2. Your Goal for this lecture To be able to explain how interactions between organisms help drive natural selection
    3. 3. Big Idea # 1 Species interactions affect the resource use and sizes of other populations in an area
    4. 4. Species Interactions There are 3 main types of species interactions: Competition Predation Symbiosis
    5. 5. Importance of Species Interactions These types of interactions have a significant impact on each population involved These interactions are agents of natural selection - they influence who survives and is able to reproduce
    6. 6. Competition Competition for resources 2 types: Interspecific - 2 different species compete for the resource Intraspecific - members of the same species compete for the resource
    7. 7. Brainstorm Make a list of resources that species might compete for Morning Buddies
    8. 8. Intraspecific - often fighting involved to “win” the resource Can be very intense
    9. 9. Interspecific - usually no fighting, just better at getting it Less intense since species have slightly different niches
    10. 10. Competitive Exclusion Principle No two species can occupy exactly the same niche because competition for resources would be too intense One species will be better at getting the resources The other species must leave, adapt, or die
    11. 11. Solving the Problem
    12. 12. Resource Partitioning Two species evolve adaptations that allow them to use the same resource in different ways, at different times, or in different places in order to minimize competition
    13. 13. How about humans? Are humans subject to the Principle of Competitive Exclusion? Defend your answer  Yes! Our use of resources directly competes with other organisms, and forces them to leave the area or go extinct in that area (adaptation not possible since we change environment so quickly) Kicked out of class buddies
    14. 14. Predation All consumers feed on other organisms Herbivores feed on live plants Carnivores feed on animals Omnivores feed on both
    15. 15. Predator-Prey Relationships Changes in 1 population leads to changes in other populations
    16. 16. How do changes in population size affect ecosystems? A change in the size of one population will affect the size of other populations
    17. 17. J-curve Exponential Pattern of Growth
    18. 18. Intrinsic Pattern of Growth S-curve
    19. 19. Intrinsic Pattern of Growth
    20. 20. • The size of the predator population affects the prey population and vice versa • Who is controlling the rises and falls of these 2 populations? The Hare or the Lynx?
    21. 21. What is anWhat is an adaptation oradaptation or strategy that wouldstrategy that would be helpful to abe helpful to a predator?predator? What is anWhat is an adaptation oradaptation or strategy that wouldstrategy that would be helpful to a preybe helpful to a prey organism?organism? Song buddies
    22. 22. Structural advantages  Natural Weapons - Fangs, claws  Flexible bodies  Larger Size Predator Strategies
    23. 23. Predator Strategies Ambush- Stalk a victim • Venom Gape & Suck (fish) Keen eyesight
    24. 24. Predator Strategies SPEED & CUNNING • More intelligent than prey • Run faster than prey •Hunt in packs
    25. 25. Predator Strategies Camouflage Sit in plain site
    26. 26. Predator Strategies Chemical warfare venom
    27. 27. Prey Strategies Defense Techniques Inflate Flee Fight Back Stab Poison
    28. 28. Prey Strategies Structural advantages Hard Body Coverings Thorns or Spines Break away body parts Natural Weapons
    29. 29. Chemical Warfare Blinding ink Poison Offensive Smells and Tastes Prey Strategies
    30. 30. Camouflage Color Change Counter-shading Disruptive Patterns Mimicry Prey Strategies
    31. 31. Mimicry • Mostly a prey technique  Optical and sonic illusions  LOOKS like a predator: • School of fish; false eyes; frilled neck and inflation
    32. 32. Batesian mimicry- a harmless animal mimics a harmful or unpalatable one Mullerian mimicy-two or more unpalatable species resemble each other
    33. 33. 2 rules about coloration Small + beautiful = poisonous Beautiful + easy to catch = deadly
    34. 34. Food for thought Think of a local species What adaptations does it have to catch prey or avoid being eaten? food buddies
    35. 35. Predator Prey relationships Predator benefits Prey does not …or does it? Predators strengthen the population in the long term by preying on the weaker individuals
    36. 36. Coevolution When two species have lived together and adapted to each other for a long time such that changes in the gene pool of one species leads to changes in the gene pool of the other species
    37. 37. Symbiosis Symbiosis – when different organism live in close, physical contact with one another Parasitism Mutualism Commensalism
    38. 38. Parasitism A form of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is hurt Leeches, fleas, ticks, tapeworms, etc
    39. 39. Parasitism Simple parasites - fleas, ticks, leeches Move from host to host Or have only one host their whole life Complex parasites - plasmodium (malaria), toxoplasmosis Multiple hosts Multiple life stages
    40. 40. Parasitism and Coevolution Example: malaria Parasite infects red blood cells RBCs are swept into the spleen every few days and destroyed Parasite evolved to latch onto blood vessel with a sticky protein Body recognizes protein as foreign and will attack it Parasite evolves to have many different types of proteins, so body can never catch up
    41. 41. We all get parasites
    42. 42. Mutualism A form of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit
    43. 43. Commensalism A form of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is not harmed or helped Example: sharks and remoras
    44. 44. Summarize Why are population interactions a driving force for natural selection?