APES Ch. 4, part 1
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  • 1. Biodiversity and Evolution Ch. 4 Miller and Spoolman, 16th ed.
  • 2. Overview of this Topic  Ch. 4 – biodiversity and evolution ofCh. 4 – biodiversity and evolution of living thingsliving things  Ch. 5 – species interactionsCh. 5 – species interactions  Ch. 9 – sustaining biodiversity – focusCh. 9 – sustaining biodiversity – focus on specieson species  Ch. 10 – sustaining biodiversity – focusCh. 10 – sustaining biodiversity – focus on ecosystemson ecosystems
  • 3. Projects and Labs to support this unit  Environmental Law research & presentation  Park lot biodiversity lab  Invasive species most wanted flier/ Endangered species missing flier  Wooly worms lab (outside)  Arthropod diversity lab (out and in)  Also several videos offered after school for extra credit 
  • 4. Big Idea #1 Biodiversity is essential to life (diversity in genes, organisms, and ecosystems)
  • 5. Biodiversity The total variety of Earth’s species, their genetic code, and the places they live Species diversity Genetic diversity Ecosystem diversity
  • 6. Species Diversity How many living things are there? Estimates range from 4 million to 100 million We have classified ~ 1.8 million so far Every year 1000s of new species are identified Smallest snake Smallest sea horse
  • 7. Bug eating slug frogfish Pitcher plant
  • 8. Bonaire Banded Box Jelly, 2011 Dive Bombing Parasitic Wasp, 2011 Spongebob Squarepants Mushroom, 2011 Sneezing monkey (or snub-nosed monkey, 2011
  • 9. Genetic Diversity Differences in genes of same species Allows life to survive changes & adapt over time Earth is dynamic - species must adapt & change with it to survive
  • 10. Ecosystem Diversity Biomes - home to unique species Tundra - home to polar bears Chapparal - home to road runners Savannah - home to rhinoceroses and giraffes
  • 11. Why is diversity important? It supplies us with food, wood, fibers, energy, medicines, nutrients, air, water, fertile soil, and waste disposal Foxglove - digitalis MaHuang - ephedra Brevifola - taxol Velvet bean - L-dopa
  • 12. Quick Think Question  Thinking about the types of biodiversity - what might be some other reasons why protecting diversity is important? Task Generate a list of reasons  At least 1 moral/ethical  At least 1 social/political  At least 1 economic/business  At least 1 personal
  • 13. Big Idea # 2 Evolution explains how life has changed over time
  • 14. Evolution Evolution occurs when the genetic makeup of a population changes
  • 15. A brief history… The concept of evolution - that life changes over time and there are common ancestors between certain species - began with the Greek philosophers and was and has been a common idea Aristotle & Plato
  • 16. Not until Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace did anyone come up with a credible explanation for how
  • 17. How they got there 1. Observed the struggle for existence
  • 18. 2. Observed that those with best traits survive & live long enough to reproduce
  • 19. So they put it together… Natural selection: some individuals in a population have traits that make them more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass those traits on. Over time, the population changes so that most of them have those traits
  • 20. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection So much evidence supports this idea that it has been elevated to the status of a theory However…natural selection is not the only way populations evolve
  • 21. The Modern Synthesis The theory of evolution has been expanded upon & refined over time, leading to the modern synthesis (1950s) Many scientists representing different fields contributed to it
  • 22. How do populations change? 1. Genetic mutations - leads to new traits
  • 23. 2. Natural selection - the differential survival and reproductive success of individuals in a population
  • 24. Summary Genes mutate Individuals are selected Populations evolve that are better suited to the environment
  • 25. Quick ThinkQUESTIO N  How does Natural Selection tie in with biodiversity? TASK  Create a graphic that helps answer the question (concept map, Venn diagram, etc)
  • 26. Natural Selection has limits First - the environment is constantly changing So what is best fit now may not be for long Populations must adapt, leave, or die
  • 27. Populations can only adapt with traits that are already present in their gene pool or mutations of existing traits Many species reproduce slower than the environment changes - can’t adapt fast enough
  • 28. Quick Think Question  Explain why genetic diversity is so important to the health of a population Task  Develop a fictional case study that illustrates the answer If a population of frogs lacked genetic diversity, then…
  • 29. Big idea #3 Geologic processes have changed the Earth and created opportunities for the evolution of species
  • 30. Plate Tectonics The rigid lithospheric plates of the crust of the Earth that move slowly over the Earth’s liquid mantle
  • 31. Impacts of Plate Tectonics 1. Has changed where land IS, and thus the climate 2. Moving plates help species move into new areas - or separate them
  • 32. 4 major impacts 1. Earthquakes - create fissures, mountains that separate species 2. Volcanoes - wipe out existing species, make way for new ones 3. Climate change - ice ages, periods of warming- some species go extinct, others flourish 4. Catastrophes -wipe out species and ecosystems
  • 33. Quick Think QUESTION  How would you summarize what today’s lesson was about? TASK  Choose 1 word that embodies the concepts of this lecture then explain why that word was chosen