Giraffes eat the grass
Lions eat the giraffes
And when they die, they
become part of the soil
and feed the grass
Wait…seriously…this is mind
blowing stuff!
 Everything here has always been here
 I know.
 Wait? What?
Biogeochemical Cycles
 Water
 Carbon
 Nitrogen
 Phosphorus
 Sulfur
Does any of this look familiar?
The Water Cycle
 Water comes down as
precipitation, goes into the
earth (groundwater) or the
oceans, and is taken up by
p...
Water gets cleaned through this
cycle
 Evaporation leaves the other stuff behind
 Flowing water naturally filtered - mos...
Human Impact
1. We take too much fresh water - faster than
it can be replenished naturally
2. We clear plants and replace with concrete -
this increases soil erosion and landslide
risk, increases flooding risk, re...
Carbon, Carbon, everywhere
 The carbon cycle is a series of processes
through which all carbon atoms in existence
rotate
...
Where is the Carbon?
 Carbon is found in the environment as:
– CO² gas in the atmosphere (air)
– dissolved CO2 in the oce...
Carbon moves from the air into
plants
 Carbon moves from
the atmosphere into
plants through a
process called
photosynthes...
Review - Photosynthesis
Plants take CO2 + water + energy from the sun
And make
Glucose (sugar) and oxygen
CO2 + H2O C6H12O...
Carbon is in animals
Animals get their carbon when
they eat
How does carbon get back into the
air?
 Carbon is returned to the atmosphere when
an organism does cellular respiration
...
Decomposers
When decomposers
break down dead
things, they return
the carbon in those
dead organisms to
the air
Summing it up
 What is the GEO part of this cycle (where is
the carbon on earth?)
 What is the BIO part of this cycle?
...
 If an organism dies
and is buried very
quickly, before
decomposers can get
to it, the carbon in
the organism may
turn in...
Human Impact
 When fossil fuels
are burned, the
carbon in them is
released into the
atmosphere
 When we burn trees, we release the carbon in
them.
 The carbon gets put into the air.
Carbon diffuses into water
 Carbon in the atmosphere diffuses into the
oceans
 Forms carbonic acid
– CO2 + H20  H2CO3
...
Human Impact
 Removal of trees and other plants reduces
the amount of CO2 that can be removed
from the atmosphere through...
Let’s Review
 How does Carbon get into the atmosphere?
– every living thing gives off CO2
– burning of organic matter lik...
Diagram the Carbon Cycle
 Work in pairs to diagram the carbon cycle
 Include:
 Respiration
 Burning/Combustion
 Fossi...
Do nowDo now
1. Get out the
Carbon Cycle
Game
2. Fill in as much as
you can about the
waterwater and
carboncarbon cycles o...
The Nitrogen Cycle
Where is the nitrogen?
 Most of the
nitrogen (the main
reservoir) is in the
air.
– 78% of our air is
nitrogen gas
 The n...
How does the nitrogen get fixed?
 There are 2 ways:
– Lightning can fix the
nitrogen in the air
– Lightning causes
nitrog...
Fixing
Nitrogen
 Most of the nitrogen
that is fixed is done by
special bacteria
 These bacteria live in
the roots of leg...
Nitrogen Fixation
 Nitrogen Fixation: Lighting = 10% Bacteria = 90%
– N2 is combined with H to make ammonia
– Bacteria us...
Nitrification
 Ammonia in soil (NH3) &ammonium (NH4
+
)
converted by bacteria to nitrate ions (NO3
-
),
which plants happ...
Because crop plants
generally require large
amounts of nitrogen
for growth, nitrogen
frequently becomes
the limiting soil
...
Nitrogen needs
 Farmers and
gardeners add
nitrogen back into
the soil by
commercial
fertilizers and,
more naturally, by
c...
 Plants take up
nitrates and convert
it to amino acids,
nucleic acids,
vitamins. Animals
acquire all of their
nitrogen wh...
All living things need
nitrogen.
Plants use nitrogen
to make important
molecules such as
proteins, nucleic
acids (DNA) and...
Returning Nitrogen to the Earth
 When animals and plants die nitrogen is
released back to the soil by decomposers.
 This...
Ammonification
Animal waste products
(urine and manure)
also return nitrogen to
the soil.
Urine from animals
contains exce...
 Denitrification
 The usual form of nitrogen
returned to the soil in animal
waste or by decomposers is
ammonia. The ammo...
What returns nitrogen to the air?
Bacteria that are
called denitrifying
bacteria act on
nitrate molecules
and put nitrogen...
Human Impact
Algae bloom resulting from
excess nitrates from farm runoff
(manures).
Burning fossil fuels puts NO2 &
HNO3 i...
 Just as nitrogen acts as an excellent
fertilizer for agricultural crops, it
also acts as a fertilizer in aquatic
ecosyst...
Human Impact
 Put N2O into the atmosphere
when anaerobic bacteria feed
on animal waste and fertilizer
 This is a greenho...
Take a few minutes
To fill in as much as you
can about the nitrogen
cycle on your table.
The Phosphorus Cycle
Where is the phosphorus?
 A major difference with this cycle is that there is nothere is no
atmospheric component.atmosph...
Where is the phosphorus?
 Most of our phosphorus
is stored in rocks andstored in rocks and
sedimentsediment.
 It is rele...
What about us?
 All consumers get theirAll consumers get their
phosphorus through their foodphosphorus through their food...
Decomposers
 Decomposers also help put phosphorus inDecomposers also help put phosphorus in
the soilthe soil and water by...
Waste
 Waste productsWaste products,,
especially fish eating
bird guano, is highhigh
in phosphorusin phosphorus and
contr...
Trapped phosphorus
 Weathering andWeathering and
erosion washerosion wash
phosphorusphosphorus
from rocks intofrom rocks ...
Problems
associated with the
phosphorus cycle
 Since phosphorusphosphorus is needed for plant growth, it
is often added i...
Take a few minutes
To fill in as much as you
can about the phosphorus
cycle on your table.
The Sulfur Cycle
 Most of the sulfur is stored underground in
rocks and minerals (sulfate ions - SO4
2-
)
Sulfur to the air
 From volcanoes
and anaerobic
decomposers in wet
ecosystems
(swamps, etc)
 As H2S - hydrogen
sulfide -...
Sulfur and clouds
 Some plankton make
dimethyl sulfide (DMS
or CH3SCH3)
– These serve as nuclei for
condensation of water...
Completing the cycle
 Bacteria in low oxygen environments
convert sulfate ions to sulfide ions (S2-
)
 Sulfide reacts wi...
Human Impacts
 Burning coal and oil puts sulfur into the
atmosphere
 We refine sulfur containing petroleum which puts
su...
Take a few minutes
To fill in as much as you
can about the sulfur cycle
on your table.
Human Impact on Ecosystems
1. Nutrient enrichment – adding
excess nutrients to aquatic
ecosystems
2. Acid precipitation – ...
APES Ch. 3, part 2
APES Ch. 3, part 2
APES Ch. 3, part 2
APES Ch. 3, part 2
APES Ch. 3, part 2
APES Ch. 3, part 2
APES Ch. 3, part 2
APES Ch. 3, part 2
APES Ch. 3, part 2
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Transcript of "APES Ch. 3, part 2"

  1. 1. Giraffes eat the grass Lions eat the giraffes And when they die, they become part of the soil and feed the grass
  2. 2. Wait…seriously…this is mind blowing stuff!  Everything here has always been here  I know.  Wait? What?
  3. 3. Biogeochemical Cycles  Water  Carbon  Nitrogen  Phosphorus  Sulfur
  4. 4. Does any of this look familiar?
  5. 5. The Water Cycle  Water comes down as precipitation, goes into the earth (groundwater) or the oceans, and is taken up by plants. It returns to the air by evaporation and transpiration.  Earth to plants (geo and bio) transpiration The water that comes out of plants!
  6. 6. Water gets cleaned through this cycle  Evaporation leaves the other stuff behind  Flowing water naturally filtered - mostly by decomposers
  7. 7. Human Impact 1. We take too much fresh water - faster than it can be replenished naturally
  8. 8. 2. We clear plants and replace with concrete - this increases soil erosion and landslide risk, increases flooding risk, reduces groundwater replenishment, decreases transpiration
  9. 9. Carbon, Carbon, everywhere  The carbon cycle is a series of processes through which all carbon atoms in existence rotate  All the carbon on earth and in living things gets recycled over and over again.
  10. 10. Where is the Carbon?  Carbon is found in the environment as: – CO² gas in the atmosphere (air) – dissolved CO2 in the oceans (water) – Carbon in organic molecules in every living thing – Carbon is in fossil fuels and sedimentary rocks
  11. 11. Carbon moves from the air into plants  Carbon moves from the atmosphere into plants through a process called photosynthesis
  12. 12. Review - Photosynthesis Plants take CO2 + water + energy from the sun And make Glucose (sugar) and oxygen CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2
  13. 13. Carbon is in animals Animals get their carbon when they eat
  14. 14. How does carbon get back into the air?  Carbon is returned to the atmosphere when an organism does cellular respiration  All living things give off CO2
  15. 15. Decomposers When decomposers break down dead things, they return the carbon in those dead organisms to the air
  16. 16. Summing it up  What is the GEO part of this cycle (where is the carbon on earth?)  What is the BIO part of this cycle?  In other words, what are the reservoirs of carbon?
  17. 17.  If an organism dies and is buried very quickly, before decomposers can get to it, the carbon in the organism may turn into coal, gas, or oil.  We call this fossil fuel.
  18. 18. Human Impact  When fossil fuels are burned, the carbon in them is released into the atmosphere
  19. 19.  When we burn trees, we release the carbon in them.  The carbon gets put into the air.
  20. 20. Carbon diffuses into water  Carbon in the atmosphere diffuses into the oceans  Forms carbonic acid – CO2 + H20  H2CO3  Too much CO2 in oceans leads to ocean acidification
  21. 21. Human Impact  Removal of trees and other plants reduces the amount of CO2 that can be removed from the atmosphere through photosynthesis Alaska Brazil
  22. 22. Let’s Review  How does Carbon get into the atmosphere? – every living thing gives off CO2 – burning of organic matter like wood – burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil – through the decomposition of dead plants and animals  How does carbon get out of the atmosphere? – By plants through photosynthesis
  23. 23. Diagram the Carbon Cycle  Work in pairs to diagram the carbon cycle  Include:  Respiration  Burning/Combustion  Fossil fuels  Decomposition  Photosynthesis  Exchange with oceans/ocean acidification  Digestion  LABEL all processes with arrow that show the direction carbon is moving
  24. 24. Do nowDo now 1. Get out the Carbon Cycle Game 2. Fill in as much as you can about the waterwater and carboncarbon cycles on your graphic organizer. Cycle Name Reservoirs Major Processes How it moves from the earth into living things How it is returned to the earth Human Impact on the cycle/Environmental Concerns Water Cycle Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Phosphor us Cycle Sulfur Cycle
  25. 25. The Nitrogen Cycle
  26. 26. Where is the nitrogen?  Most of the nitrogen (the main reservoir) is in the air. – 78% of our air is nitrogen gas  The nitrogen is the air cannot be used as it is by most organisms – It has to be “fixed” first.
  27. 27. How does the nitrogen get fixed?  There are 2 ways: – Lightning can fix the nitrogen in the air – Lightning causes nitrogen and oxygen in the air to combine into nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This will fall with the rain to the soil.
  28. 28. Fixing Nitrogen  Most of the nitrogen that is fixed is done by special bacteria  These bacteria live in the roots of legumes – Legumes are plants like alfalfa, clover, and soybeans  The bacteria live in root nodules of these plants.  There, they fix nitrogen into a usable form for the plant
  29. 29. Nitrogen Fixation  Nitrogen Fixation: Lighting = 10% Bacteria = 90% – N2 is combined with H to make ammonia – Bacteria use some, put the rest in the soil for plants – Plants can convert ammonia (NH3) to ammonium (NH4 + ) – Remaining ammonia goes through nitrification
  30. 30. Nitrification  Ammonia in soil (NH3) &ammonium (NH4 + ) converted by bacteria to nitrate ions (NO3 - ), which plants happily take up
  31. 31. Because crop plants generally require large amounts of nitrogen for growth, nitrogen frequently becomes the limiting soil nutrient for plant growth.
  32. 32. Nitrogen needs  Farmers and gardeners add nitrogen back into the soil by commercial fertilizers and, more naturally, by crop rotation.
  33. 33.  Plants take up nitrates and convert it to amino acids, nucleic acids, vitamins. Animals acquire all of their nitrogen when they eat plants (and other animals).
  34. 34. All living things need nitrogen. Plants use nitrogen to make important molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids (DNA) and other major cellular components
  35. 35. Returning Nitrogen to the Earth  When animals and plants die nitrogen is released back to the soil by decomposers.  This process is known as ammonification
  36. 36. Ammonification Animal waste products (urine and manure) also return nitrogen to the soil. Urine from animals contains excess nitrogen which is returned to the soil. When an organism dies, the nitrogen molecules return to the soil. Plants reuse these nitrates and ammonia molecules
  37. 37.  Denitrification  The usual form of nitrogen returned to the soil in animal waste or by decomposers is ammonia. The ammonia is somewhat toxic, but is converted into nitrates by nitrate bacteria. The nitrate can be then be used by plants and the cycle continues.
  38. 38. What returns nitrogen to the air? Bacteria that are called denitrifying bacteria act on nitrate molecules and put nitrogen back into the air as N2. Atmospheric Nitrogen N2 NO3 -
  39. 39. Human Impact Algae bloom resulting from excess nitrates from farm runoff (manures). Burning fossil fuels puts NO2 & HNO3 into the air = acid deposition
  40. 40.  Just as nitrogen acts as an excellent fertilizer for agricultural crops, it also acts as a fertilizer in aquatic ecosystems. When too much nitrogen is washed into a waterway, it promotes an explosion of plant and algae growth, knocking the system out of balance. The plants and algae grow very fast and deplete the available oxygen supply.  The worst-case scenario is the creation of so-called dead zones, where nothing can live. The Gulf of Mexico, Chesapeake Bay, and Black Sea all have dead zones, with devastating consequences to marine life and the livelihoods of those who depend on the fisheries.
  41. 41. Human Impact  Put N2O into the atmosphere when anaerobic bacteria feed on animal waste and fertilizer  This is a greenhouse gas  This breaks down the ozone layer
  42. 42. Take a few minutes To fill in as much as you can about the nitrogen cycle on your table.
  43. 43. The Phosphorus Cycle
  44. 44. Where is the phosphorus?  A major difference with this cycle is that there is nothere is no atmospheric component.atmospheric component.  This process tends to be slow and local in nature.
  45. 45. Where is the phosphorus?  Most of our phosphorus is stored in rocks andstored in rocks and sedimentsediment.  It is released through weathering and erosion. Plants can then take itPlants can then take it up through the soilup through the soil and water.
  46. 46. What about us?  All consumers get theirAll consumers get their phosphorus through their foodphosphorus through their food.  Phosphorus is used to build bonesused to build bones and teeth in animals, and DNAand teeth in animals, and DNA in all living things
  47. 47. Decomposers  Decomposers also help put phosphorus inDecomposers also help put phosphorus in the soilthe soil and water by breaking down dead organisms and their waste.  Phosphatizing bacteria are important in converting this phosphorus into a more usable form for plants.
  48. 48. Waste  Waste productsWaste products,, especially fish eating bird guano, is highhigh in phosphorusin phosphorus and contributes a little bit to the overall cycle.
  49. 49. Trapped phosphorus  Weathering andWeathering and erosion washerosion wash phosphorusphosphorus from rocks intofrom rocks into the oceanthe ocean.  There it can sink to the bottom, become part of the sediment, and be trapped out of circulation for some time.
  50. 50. Problems associated with the phosphorus cycle  Since phosphorusphosphorus is needed for plant growth, it is often added inin the form of fertilizersfertilizers.  Just like nitrogen, too much phosphorus can pollute waterwayspollute waterways and lead to euthrophication (dead zones).
  51. 51. Take a few minutes To fill in as much as you can about the phosphorus cycle on your table.
  52. 52. The Sulfur Cycle  Most of the sulfur is stored underground in rocks and minerals (sulfate ions - SO4 2- )
  53. 53. Sulfur to the air  From volcanoes and anaerobic decomposers in wet ecosystems (swamps, etc)  As H2S - hydrogen sulfide - rotten egg  As SO2 - suffocating
  54. 54. Sulfur and clouds  Some plankton make dimethyl sulfide (DMS or CH3SCH3) – These serve as nuclei for condensation of water into droplets in clouds – So changes in DMS = changes in clouds!
  55. 55. Completing the cycle  Bacteria in low oxygen environments convert sulfate ions to sulfide ions (S2- )  Sulfide reacts with metals to make metallic sulfides which form rocks
  56. 56. Human Impacts  Burning coal and oil puts sulfur into the atmosphere  We refine sulfur containing petroleum which puts sulfur into the air  We convert sulfur containing mineral ores into metals like copper, zinc, lead and out sulfur into the air  All this = acid deposition
  57. 57. Take a few minutes To fill in as much as you can about the sulfur cycle on your table.
  58. 58. Human Impact on Ecosystems 1. Nutrient enrichment – adding excess nutrients to aquatic ecosystems 2. Acid precipitation – pH less than 5.6, harms trees, aquatic ecosystems, 3. Biological magnification – toxins accumulate in the tissues of organisms, PCBs and DDT 4. Rising atmospheric CO2– global warming 5. Depletion of the ozone layer – CFCs, burns leaves and skin
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