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APES Ch. 3, part 1

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  • 1. Hey APES  Any more lab reports?  Ch. 3, continued.  Color?
  • 2. Ecosystems: What are they and how do they work? Ch. 3 Miller and Spoolman, 16th ed.
  • 3. Big Idea # 1  Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment.
  • 4. Organization of Life All living things are made of 1 or more cells
  • 5. Organization of Life  A population is members of the same species, that live in a particular place at a particular time  Who, where, when  The variation among members of a population is due to its genetic diversity (DNA)
  • 6. Organization of Life  A community is all the populations in an area  Populations in a community interact with each other  Feeding relationships, competition, nutrient cycles, etc
  • 7. Organization of Life  An ecosystem is the community plus all the abiotic factors in the area  Biotic - living or recently living  Abiotic - nonliving
  • 8. Organization of Life  The biosphere is all the ecosystems… our whole world… where we all live
  • 9. Cells  All living things are made of one or more cells…  You should know the basics about cell types
  • 10. Cell types  There are 2 basic cell types: prokaryotic & eukaryotic
  • 11. Prokaryotic Cells  Most simple  BACTERIA & Archaea Protein construction and energy conversion occur without specialized internal structures DNA (no nucleus)  No nucleus  No organelles  DNA, ribosomes, cell wall, cell membrane  VERY DIVERSE & SUCCESSFUL  FOUND EVERYWHERE
  • 12. Eukaryotic Cells  Larger  More complex  Nucleus for DNA Nucleus (DNA) Protein construction Energy conversion  Specialized organelles  Plants, animals, fungi, protists  Animals and some protists do not have cell walls
  • 13. Summary Check  What are the biological levels of organization? (say it)  Venn diagram: prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells (put it in your notes)
  • 14. Big Idea # 2  Life is sustained by 3 things:  The flow of energy from the sun through the biosphere  The cycling of nutrients within the biosphere  gravity
  • 15. 4 Spheres of Life  All 4 spheres interact with each other  We need all four to keep us alive 1. 3. 4. 2.
  • 16. Sphere 1 - the atmosphere  Atmosphere = Thin layer surrounding the earth’s surface  Closest to land is the troposphere (ground level to 4-11 miles up)  Has most of our air  Air is:  78% N2  21% O2  1% methane, CO2, H2O - greenhouse
  • 17. The Atmosphere, cont’d  Next layer up is the stratosphere (11-31 miles)  Has ozone layer - filters out most UV radiation
  • 18. Sphere 2 - the hydrosphere  Hydrosphere = all the water on earth  Liquid (on surface and underground)  Solid (ice)  Water vapor (in atmosphere)  Most in oceans - covers ~ 71% of the planet
  • 19. Sphere 3 - the geosphere  Geosphere = super hot core, thick, fluid mantle, thin outer crust  Contains our fossil fuels and minerals (nonrenewable) and soil nutrients (renewable)
  • 20. Sphere 4 - the biosphere  All the living things on earth  Life exists from ~ 6 miles above the earth’s surface to the bottom of the ocean
  • 21. Biomes  Large regions of land that have characteristic climate and species adapted to them
  • 22. Terrestrial Biomes  Tropical forest  Savanna  Desert  Chaparral  Temperate grassland  Temperate broadleaf forest  Coniferous forest  Tundra  Taiga  High mountains  Polar ice
  • 23. Terrestrial Biomes  Vertical stratification important  Plants provide the stratification  Canopy  Low trees  Shrubs  Litter layer (forest floor)  Many organisms adapted to a particular layer
  • 24. Terrestrial Biomes  Don’t have clear, defined boundaries  Ecotone - area where one biome grades into another  Find different organisms here
  • 25. Summary Check  What is a biome?  What biome do you live in?
  • 26. Biomes  Also aquatic life zones  Freshwater - lakes, rivers, streams  Marine - oceans, coral reefs, estuaries
  • 27. The environment limits the distribution of species – or – not everyone can live everywhere  Dispersal – movement out of a high density area  Natural range expansions  Species transplants – intentional or accidental introduction of a species to a new area  Actual range vs. potential range
  • 28. Climate  Major components:  Temperature  Water  Sunlight  Wind  Macroclimate – global/regional  Microclimate – very small (like under a fallen log)
  • 29. Macroclimate  Affected by  Water  Large bodies of water have a moderating effect  Currents carry warm or cold air
  • 30. Climate  Affected by  Mountains  Windward vs. leeward sides
  • 31. Climate  Affected by  Seasonality  Due to changing angle of sun  Causes turnover in lakes that mixes water - essential for life
  • 32. Summary Check  How might climate affect the evolution of species over time?
  • 33. The Flow of Energy  It all starts with the sun  Ozone layer absorbs 95% of incoming solar radiation
  • 34. The Flow of Energy  Sunlight that does reach the surface warms the planet, drives the water cycle, generates wind
  • 35. The Flow of Energy  Less than 0.1% of incoming solar radiation used by plants and protists for photosynthesis
  • 36. The Greenhouse Effect  Heat radiated up off the surface of the earth makes the greenhouse effect  Yay! Makes life possible on earth  The heat increases the kinetic energy of the greenhouse gases, thus raising their temperature
  • 37. Big Idea # 3  Ecosystems are made up of both biotic and abiotic components including producers, consumers, and decomposers
  • 38. Populations thrive under different conditions  Every population has a range of tolerance - variations within the preferred chemical and physical environment
  • 39. Populations are affected by limiting factors  Limiting factors affect the number of organisms in a population  Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can be a limiting factor 1.1. What are some abiotic factors?What are some abiotic factors? 2.2. Use one abiotic factor to explain aUse one abiotic factor to explain a situation in which too much or too littlesituation in which too much or too little of it limits population growth, even if allof it limits population growth, even if all other factors are in the range ofother factors are in the range of tolerancetolerance
  • 40. Density-Dependent Factors • Competition for resources • Predation • Parasitism • Disease • Poisoning
  • 41. Density-Independent Factors • Natural disasters • Global warming ? • Ozone depletion ?
  • 42. Density Controls
  • 43. Summary Check  What are some limiting factors that would affect a population of:  Polar bears?  Butterflies?  Humans?
  • 44. Trophic Levels  Trophic level = feeding level  3 main types:  Producers  Consumers  Decomposers
  • 45. Producers  Producers - aka autotrophs  Self- feeders  Mostly plants  Also algae (protists) and plankton in water  Make their own food through photosynthesis (use CO2 and sunlight)  Some do chemosynthesis - bacteria in deep ocean (use H2S & heat)  START ALL FOOD WEBS 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy  C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • 46. Consumers  Consumers - aka heterotrophs  Consume producers or other organisms for energy  Several levels
  • 47. Levels of Consumers  Primary Consumers (herbivores) - the first consumers in a food web - they eat producers  Examples: rabbits, cows, horses, some birds, grasshoppers, etc
  • 48. Levels of Consumers  Secondary Consumers - omnivores (eat both plants and animals) and carnivores (only eat other animals  They eat the primary consumers
  • 49. Levels of Consumers  Tertiary (and beyond) consumers - omnivores and carnivores  They eat the secondary consumers
  • 50. Levels of Consumers  Decomposers - 99% are bacteria and fungi  Consumer dead organisms to get their energy  Feed by secreting enzymes  RETURN NUTRIENTS IN THE ORGANISMS TO THE EARTH!
  • 51. Levels of Consumers  Detritivores - aka detritus feeders or scavengers  Feed on wastes or dead organisms
  • 52. Summary Check  So what’s the difference between decomposers and detritivores?
  • 53. Levels of Consumers  Organisms can occupy more than one level
  • 54. How we harvest that energy  Both producers and consumers go through respiration to harvest the energy from their food  Aerobic - uses oxygen, needs mitochondria  Anaerobic - does not need oxygen or mitochondria  We store the energy from our food as ATP molecules
  • 55. Summary Check  What does a food web diagram show?  What is the ultimate source of energy for most ecosystems?  What is the exception to the second question?
  • 56. Big Idea # 4  Energy flows through ecosystems in food webs  Energy is lost as it flows from one tropic level to the next
  • 57. Plants, animals, and decomposers make up food chains  A food chain is a pathway that tells us what eats what  Food chains are over-simplified models of nature
  • 58. Food webs  A food web is more realistic  It shows us how several food chains overlap and connect to each other
  • 59. Limits on Food Webs  A food web can only go so far  It usually does not go beyond the level of tertiary or quaternary consumer
  • 60. Energy Why?  It’s all about energy!  Every time energy is passed from one organism to another, some of that energy is lost  The amount of energy transferred from one level to the next is called ecological efficiency
  • 61.  Ecological efficiency varies, but a good rule of thumb is 10%  This means 90% of the energy is lost and only 10% makes it to the next level
  • 62. Why only 10%?  1. Not everything gets eaten  There may be 1000 pounds of clover in a field, but the rabbit does not eat it all  Good thing, too, or else there would be no clover left to make new clover
  • 63.  2. Not everything that is eaten gets digested  In other words, some of what you eat is lost as waste (poo).  Some animals actually eat their own poo to get some more nutrition out of it! Ew.
  • 64.  3. The most important reason: energy is always being lost as HEAT  Whenever something does WORK, it creates HEAT  Your body is always working (heart beat, breathing, etc)
  • 65. New energy must constantly enter the system  Since energy is always being lost, new energy is always needed.  This energy comes from the sun (which feeds the grass, which feeds the cow, which feeds the person, etc.)
  • 66. Energy Pyramids  We can show how energy is lost at each stage of a food web in an energy pyramid.
  • 67.  In an energy pyramid:  Producers are at the bottom, because they have the most available energy. (They got it right from the source)
  • 68.  The next level is the primary consumers. They got 10% of the energy in the plants.
  • 69.  Since only 10% of the energy moves on, it takes a lot of producers to support the primary consumers.
  • 70.  The next level is the secondary consumers. They got 10% of the energy in the primary consumers.
  • 71.  It takes a lot of primary consumers to support a secondary consumer
  • 72. Energy Pyramid Practice  If there is 10,000 kcal of energy available in the plants at the bottom of the pyramid, how much energy will make it to the zebras, and how much will make it to the lion? 10,000 1000 100
  • 73. An energy Pyramid Gets smaller as it goes up since there is less and less energy as you go up
  • 74. Pyramid ofPyramid of numbersnumbers How many organisms are at each level Usually mostly producers, then primary consumers, then secondary and so on 100,000 plants 1000 voles 1 owl
  • 75. Pyramid ofPyramid of numbersnumbers Could look like this: 1 oak tree supports lots of primary consumers, which support fewer secondary consumers, then even fewer tertiary, etc. 1 oak tree 1000 caterpillars 50 bluetits 1 sparrow hawk
  • 76. Pyramid ofPyramid of biomassbiomass How much everything weighs at each level Always pyramid shaped
  • 77. Interdependence  All living things are connected to other living things, both directly and indirectly.  Living things eat and/or get eaten  Living things obtain chemicals that came from other living things  The actions of living things affect other organisms
  • 78. GPP and NPP  Gross Primary Productivity – all the light energy that is converted to chemical energy in an ecosystem  Not all of this is available to consumers though, because the plants need some for themselves  Net Primary Productivity – the chemical energy available to consumers
  • 79. NPP  Expressed as:  Energy per unit area per unit time (J/m2 /yr)  Biomass of vegetation added to the ecosystem per unit area per unit time (g/m2 /yr)  Not the total biomass – the amount added  Total biomass called standing crop  Forests have high total biomass, but relatively low NPP
  • 80. Ecosystems with high NPP  Tropical rain forests  Estuaries  Coral reefs  Open ocean (just because so much of the planet is covered in it)
  • 81. Aquatic Ecosystems and NPP  Light is important but…  Nutrients are more important  Nitrogen and phosphorus  Tend to be low in photic zones and high in aphotic zones  Upwelling brings these nutrients up and increases NPP
  • 82.  Fertilizers and sewage runoff bring nutrients in to aquatic ecosystems  Too much nitrogen and phosphorus leads to algal blooms and high numbers of cyanobacteria  This leads to eutrophication  Depletes water of oxygen and thus most life
  • 83. Summary Check  Choose 1 word to represent what this chapter is about.  Explain why you chose that word. Be thorough in your explanation.