Aquatic Biodiversity
Ch. 8
In general - aquatic ecosystems
 71% of planet is ocean
 4 major oceans
 Pacific - largest
 Atlantic
 Arctic
 Indian...
Aquatic Life Zones
 Marine (saltwater)
 Oceans, estuaries, coastal wetlands,
shorelines, coral reefs, mangrove forests

...
Zones
 3 major zones - names
vary so in general:
 Top (photic) - lots of
light, warmest
 Middle - some light
 Bottom (...
Important Organism Types
 Plankton!!! - they live in the
top
 3 types
 Phytoplankton - photosynthetic primary producers...
Important Organism Types
 Nekton - the
swimmers like
turtles, fish, whales
- they live in the
middle
Important Organism Types
 Benthos - bottom dwellers like oysters,
crabs, sea stars - they live at the bottom
Important Organism Type
 Decomposers - mostly bacteria - mostly
at the bottom
Layers
 Distinguished by:
 Temperature
 Dissolved oxygen
content
 Availability of food
 Amount of light
 Amount of n...
Top Layer
 Called the photic
zone or euphotic
zone
 Where
photosynthesis
occurs
 Depth of this zone
influenced by
turbi...
Ocean vs. Fresh
 Ocean - lots of light
but pretty low
nutrients
 Fresh - plenty of
nutrients from runoff
but less light ...
Ocean Resources - Coastal Zone

We have the biggest
impact on the coastal zone

 Over $12 trillion per
year
 makes up <1...
Open Sea
 From edge of continental shelf
 Has photic zone on top
 Bathyl zone in middle
 Abyssal zone at bottom
 Orga...
Human Impacts on the Ocean
Urban development
Overfishing
Runoff - nonpoint source pollution
Point source pollution from oi...
The Great Pacific Garbage Patch
APES Ch. 8, part 1
APES Ch. 8, part 1
APES Ch. 8, part 1
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APES Ch. 8, part 1

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Transcript of "APES Ch. 8, part 1"

  1. 1. Aquatic Biodiversity Ch. 8
  2. 2. In general - aquatic ecosystems  71% of planet is ocean  4 major oceans  Pacific - largest  Atlantic  Arctic  Indian  2.2% freshwater
  3. 3. Aquatic Life Zones  Marine (saltwater)  Oceans, estuaries, coastal wetlands, shorelines, coral reefs, mangrove forests  Freshwater  Lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, inland wetlands
  4. 4. Zones  3 major zones - names vary so in general:  Top (photic) - lots of light, warmest  Middle - some light  Bottom (aphotic) - low to no light
  5. 5. Important Organism Types  Plankton!!! - they live in the top  3 types  Phytoplankton - photosynthetic primary producers to support all food chains  Zooplankton - feed on plankton and other organisms - from single cell to jellies  Ultraplankton - photosynthetic bacteria
  6. 6. Important Organism Types  Nekton - the swimmers like turtles, fish, whales - they live in the middle
  7. 7. Important Organism Types  Benthos - bottom dwellers like oysters, crabs, sea stars - they live at the bottom
  8. 8. Important Organism Type  Decomposers - mostly bacteria - mostly at the bottom
  9. 9. Layers  Distinguished by:  Temperature  Dissolved oxygen content  Availability of food  Amount of light  Amount of nutrients for plants
  10. 10. Top Layer  Called the photic zone or euphotic zone  Where photosynthesis occurs  Depth of this zone influenced by turbidity - how cloudy the water is  Cloudy water may result from algal growth or excessive silt runoff
  11. 11. Ocean vs. Fresh  Ocean - lots of light but pretty low nutrients  Fresh - plenty of nutrients from runoff but less light when turbid
  12. 12. Ocean Resources - Coastal Zone We have the biggest impact on the coastal zone  Over $12 trillion per year  makes up <10% of all ocean but has 90% of all species  provides most of our fish  intertidal zone, estuaries, mangrove forests, coral reefs all part of coastal zone  Very high NPP due to lots of light and nutrients
  13. 13. Open Sea  From edge of continental shelf  Has photic zone on top  Bathyl zone in middle  Abyssal zone at bottom  Organisms at bottom often feed on marine snow
  14. 14. Human Impacts on the Ocean Urban development Overfishing Runoff - nonpoint source pollution Point source pollution from oil tankers, cruise ships  Trawling  Invasive species  Climate change     Raw sewage being released directly into the ocean
  15. 15. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch
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