APES Ch. 7
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APES Ch. 7

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APES Ch. 7 APES Ch. 7 Presentation Transcript

  • Climate & Terrestrial Biodiversity Ch. 7
  • What is Climate? ◊ Weather - short term; today ◊ Climate - general atmospheric or weather conditions over time Climate is what we expect; weather is what we get.
  • Climate varies over the surface of the earth ◊ 2 main factors: • Wind - air circulation • Ocean currents ◊ Move warm & cold moisture from one place to another, but unevenly
  • Focus on AIR ◊ Air circulates warmth & moisture from the tropics to other places
  • Focus on AIR 3 forces responsible: 1. Tilt of the earth - Earth is heated unevenly
  • Focus on AIR 3 forces responsible Earth on its axis 2. Rotation of the ◊ ◊ equator spins faster than poles Warm air rising over equator goes N or S then deflected E or W ◊ creates “prevailing winds” - major surface winds that blow almost continuously
  • Quick Demo ◊ What happened to the line as you rotated the whiteboard? ◊ What happens to the line as you get further toward the edge?
  • Focus on AIR 3 forces responsible 3. The water cycle ◊ heat from the sun evaporates ocean water and transfers it to air ◊ this creates convection cells that circulate heat, air, and moisture
  • Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Prevailing winds blow over ocean & move surface water --> currents
  • Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Currents move warm water to other places • Changes vegetation & climate of the area, especially near the coastline
  • Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Continents and wind currents shape path of ocean currents
  • Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Currents go clockwise in Northern Hemisphere ◊ Currents go counterclockwise in Southern Hemisphere
  • Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Also vertical mixing of water • Cold water sinks - more dense, saltier • Warm water rises - less dense, less salty
  • OCEAN CURRENTS + AIR CURRENTS 4EVER ◊ Ocean currents affected by wind ◊ Heat from ocean affects air circulation patterns
  • For Example ◊ El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ◊ Changes global weather over 2/3 of the planet due to a relatively small change in wind speed
  • So… ◊ Air circulation + winds + ocean currents + continents in the way = 6 giant convection cells that shape climate ◊ (3 in north, 3 in south) ◊ Warm wet air rises ◊ Cool dry air sinks
  • The Atmosphere ◊ Greenhouse gases warm the Earth • H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O
  • How they work ◊ Light from sun passes through atmosphere ◊ Surface absorbs heat ◊ Heat radiates back up ◊ Some escapes to space ◊ Some absorbed by greenhouse gases - its good! :)
  • Climate Change (global warming) ◊ LOTS and LOTS of evidence supports the hypothesis that humans are contributing excess greenhouse gases to the atmosphere - altering earth’s climate ◊ 90-99% sure of this ◊ Why not 100% ◊ Precautionary Principle
  • Earth’s Surface Features also affect climate ◊ Rain shadow effect • Windward side wet • Leeward side dry
  • All of this creates BIOMES High Mountains Polar Ice Arctic Tundra Temperate Grassland Tropical grassland (savanna) Chaparral Temperate Coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Tropical rainforest Tropical dry forest Tropical Desert Temperate rain forest Temperate desert Cold desert Taiga Tropical and subtropical coniferous forest Pond Inland wetlands (swamps, marshes, prarie potholes) Mangrove forest Riparian (rivers and surrounding area)
  • All of this creates BIOMES High Mountains Polar Ice Arctic Tundra Temperate Grassland Tropical grassland (savanna) Chaparral Temperate Coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Tropical rainforest Tropical dry forest Tropical Desert Temperate rain forest Temperate desert Cold desert Taiga Tropical and subtropical coniferous forest Pond Littoral, intertidal zone Mangrove forest Kelp forest Coral reef Neritic zone (coastal waters) Continental shelf Pelagic zone (open sea) Benthic zone (bottom of lakes and oceans) Hydrothermal vents Cold seeps Estuaries Riparian (rivers and surrounding area) Inland wetlands (swamps, marshes, prarie potholes)