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Climate & Terrestrial
Biodiversity
Ch. 7
What is Climate?
◊ Weather - short term; today
◊ Climate - general atmospheric or
weather conditions over time
Climate is ...
Climate varies over the
surface of the earth
◊ 2 main factors:
• Wind - air circulation
• Ocean currents

◊ Move warm & co...
Focus on AIR
◊ Air circulates
warmth &
moisture
from the
tropics to
other places
Focus on AIR
3 forces responsible:
1. Tilt of the earth - Earth is heated
unevenly
Focus on AIR
3 forces
responsible Earth on its axis
2. Rotation of the
◊
◊

equator spins faster than poles
Warm air risin...
Quick Demo
◊ What happened to the line as you rotated the
whiteboard?
◊ What happens to the line as you get further
toward...
Focus on AIR
3 forces responsible

3. The water cycle
◊
heat from the sun
evaporates ocean water
and transfers it to air
◊...
Focus on OCEAN
CURRENTS
◊ Prevailing winds blow over ocean &
move surface water --> currents
Focus on OCEAN
CURRENTS
◊ Currents move warm water to other
places
• Changes vegetation & climate of the area,
especially ...
Focus on OCEAN
CURRENTS
◊ Continents and wind currents shape
path of ocean currents
Focus on OCEAN
CURRENTS
◊ Currents go clockwise in Northern
Hemisphere
◊ Currents go counterclockwise in
Southern Hemisphe...
Focus on OCEAN
CURRENTS

◊ Also vertical mixing of water
• Cold water sinks - more dense, saltier
• Warm water rises - les...
OCEAN CURRENTS + AIR
CURRENTS 4EVER
◊ Ocean currents
affected by wind
◊ Heat from ocean
affects air
circulation patterns
For Example
◊ El Niño Southern Oscillation
(ENSO)
◊ Changes global weather
over 2/3 of the planet due to
a relatively smal...
So…

◊ Air circulation + winds
+ ocean currents +
continents in the way =
6 giant convection cells
that shape climate
◊ (3...
The Atmosphere
◊ Greenhouse gases warm the Earth
• H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O
How they work

◊ Light from sun passes
through atmosphere
◊ Surface absorbs heat
◊ Heat radiates back up
◊ Some escapes to...
Climate Change (global warming)

◊ LOTS and LOTS of
evidence supports the
hypothesis that humans are
contributing excess
g...
Earth’s Surface Features also
affect climate
◊ Rain shadow effect
• Windward side wet
• Leeward side dry
All of this creates BIOMES
High Mountains

Polar Ice

Arctic Tundra

Temperate
Grassland

Tropical
grassland
(savanna)

Ch...
All of this creates BIOMES
High Mountains

Polar Ice

Arctic Tundra

Temperate
Grassland

Tropical
grassland
(savanna)

Ch...
APES Ch. 7
APES Ch. 7
APES Ch. 7
APES Ch. 7
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APES Ch. 7

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Transcript of "APES Ch. 7"

  1. 1. Climate & Terrestrial Biodiversity Ch. 7
  2. 2. What is Climate? ◊ Weather - short term; today ◊ Climate - general atmospheric or weather conditions over time Climate is what we expect; weather is what we get.
  3. 3. Climate varies over the surface of the earth ◊ 2 main factors: • Wind - air circulation • Ocean currents ◊ Move warm & cold moisture from one place to another, but unevenly
  4. 4. Focus on AIR ◊ Air circulates warmth & moisture from the tropics to other places
  5. 5. Focus on AIR 3 forces responsible: 1. Tilt of the earth - Earth is heated unevenly
  6. 6. Focus on AIR 3 forces responsible Earth on its axis 2. Rotation of the ◊ ◊ equator spins faster than poles Warm air rising over equator goes N or S then deflected E or W ◊ creates “prevailing winds” - major surface winds that blow almost continuously
  7. 7. Quick Demo ◊ What happened to the line as you rotated the whiteboard? ◊ What happens to the line as you get further toward the edge?
  8. 8. Focus on AIR 3 forces responsible 3. The water cycle ◊ heat from the sun evaporates ocean water and transfers it to air ◊ this creates convection cells that circulate heat, air, and moisture
  9. 9. Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Prevailing winds blow over ocean & move surface water --> currents
  10. 10. Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Currents move warm water to other places • Changes vegetation & climate of the area, especially near the coastline
  11. 11. Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Continents and wind currents shape path of ocean currents
  12. 12. Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Currents go clockwise in Northern Hemisphere ◊ Currents go counterclockwise in Southern Hemisphere
  13. 13. Focus on OCEAN CURRENTS ◊ Also vertical mixing of water • Cold water sinks - more dense, saltier • Warm water rises - less dense, less salty
  14. 14. OCEAN CURRENTS + AIR CURRENTS 4EVER ◊ Ocean currents affected by wind ◊ Heat from ocean affects air circulation patterns
  15. 15. For Example ◊ El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ◊ Changes global weather over 2/3 of the planet due to a relatively small change in wind speed
  16. 16. So… ◊ Air circulation + winds + ocean currents + continents in the way = 6 giant convection cells that shape climate ◊ (3 in north, 3 in south) ◊ Warm wet air rises ◊ Cool dry air sinks
  17. 17. The Atmosphere ◊ Greenhouse gases warm the Earth • H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O
  18. 18. How they work ◊ Light from sun passes through atmosphere ◊ Surface absorbs heat ◊ Heat radiates back up ◊ Some escapes to space ◊ Some absorbed by greenhouse gases - its good! :)
  19. 19. Climate Change (global warming) ◊ LOTS and LOTS of evidence supports the hypothesis that humans are contributing excess greenhouse gases to the atmosphere - altering earth’s climate ◊ 90-99% sure of this ◊ Why not 100% ◊ Precautionary Principle
  20. 20. Earth’s Surface Features also affect climate ◊ Rain shadow effect • Windward side wet • Leeward side dry
  21. 21. All of this creates BIOMES High Mountains Polar Ice Arctic Tundra Temperate Grassland Tropical grassland (savanna) Chaparral Temperate Coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Tropical rainforest Tropical dry forest Tropical Desert Temperate rain forest Temperate desert Cold desert Taiga Tropical and subtropical coniferous forest Pond Inland wetlands (swamps, marshes, prarie potholes) Mangrove forest Riparian (rivers and surrounding area)
  22. 22. All of this creates BIOMES High Mountains Polar Ice Arctic Tundra Temperate Grassland Tropical grassland (savanna) Chaparral Temperate Coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Tropical rainforest Tropical dry forest Tropical Desert Temperate rain forest Temperate desert Cold desert Taiga Tropical and subtropical coniferous forest Pond Littoral, intertidal zone Mangrove forest Kelp forest Coral reef Neritic zone (coastal waters) Continental shelf Pelagic zone (open sea) Benthic zone (bottom of lakes and oceans) Hydrothermal vents Cold seeps Estuaries Riparian (rivers and surrounding area) Inland wetlands (swamps, marshes, prarie potholes)
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