Science, Matter, Energy,
and Systems
Ch. 2
Miller and Spoolman, 16th ed.
The Basic Scientific Method
• 5 steps
 Observation - all 5 senses
 Hypothesis - prediction
about the relationship
betwee...
Levels of certainty
• Hypothesis:
 Prediction
 very specific
 Testable
 falsifiable
• Theory
 supported by tons of ev...
Frontier Science
• New stuff
• Not widely tested yet
• Many scientists skeptical (yay!)
• Examples:
 Advanced alternative...
Reliable Science
• Well tested
• Good experimental design
• Peer reviewed
Unreliable Science
• Not peer
reviewed
(straight to the
public)
• Discarded by
scientists
• BE CRITICAL!
The Limits of Science
• Scientists can
disprove things
• Science cannot
absolutely prove
anything – always
some degree of
...
The Limits of Science
• Researcher bias – our feelings, opinions,
etc sometimes get in the way of impartial
research
 Pee...
Listen…Learn…
• 8 minute radio interview with a
wildlife photographer
• As you listen, think about these
questions:
• Do a...
The Limits of Science
• Statistical tools have
limits
 Can’t actually count all the
fish in the sea!
 Sampling methods u...
The Limits of Science
• The environment is SO
complex
• Scientists use computer
models to simulate
conditions
• Can be hel...
The DayThe Day
theythey
ParachutedParachuted
Cats intoCats into
BorneoBorneo
Where in the world is Borneo?Where in the world is Borneo?
DirectionsDirections
1.1. Read over the different eventsRead over the different events
2.2. LIST them on your paper in the...
Some help…Some help…
 The first event is:The first event is:
W.H.O. sent DDT toW.H.O. sent DDT to
BorneoBorneo
 The last...
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APES Ch. 2

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APES Ch. 2

  1. 1. Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems Ch. 2 Miller and Spoolman, 16th ed.
  2. 2. The Basic Scientific Method • 5 steps  Observation - all 5 senses  Hypothesis - prediction about the relationship between cause & effect  Experiment/Gather Data  Analysis/Interpret Data  Conclusion Research - get as much info as you can before beginning
  3. 3. Levels of certainty • Hypothesis:  Prediction  very specific  Testable  falsifiable • Theory  supported by tons of evidence, widely accepted  Broad  carries a lot of weight in science  falsifiable • Scientific Law  Widely accepted  All evidence supports it here and in the universe So far…
  4. 4. Frontier Science • New stuff • Not widely tested yet • Many scientists skeptical (yay!) • Examples:  Advanced alternative energy technologies  Emerging areas of physics  Space propulsion beyond rockets
  5. 5. Reliable Science • Well tested • Good experimental design • Peer reviewed
  6. 6. Unreliable Science • Not peer reviewed (straight to the public) • Discarded by scientists • BE CRITICAL!
  7. 7. The Limits of Science • Scientists can disprove things • Science cannot absolutely prove anything – always some degree of uncertainty • Instead we say there is a high probability that it is true
  8. 8. The Limits of Science • Researcher bias – our feelings, opinions, etc sometimes get in the way of impartial research  Peer review helps minimize this issue
  9. 9. Listen…Learn… • 8 minute radio interview with a wildlife photographer • As you listen, think about these questions: • Do animals have feelings the way humans do - or – do we anthropomorphize too much? • What evidence do you have (if any) for this position? • Is anthropomorphism helpful to environmentalists?
  10. 10. The Limits of Science • Statistical tools have limits  Can’t actually count all the fish in the sea!  Sampling methods used  Data still important – especially trends in data over time
  11. 11. The Limits of Science • The environment is SO complex • Scientists use computer models to simulate conditions • Can be helpful for large scale things like climate change
  12. 12. The DayThe Day theythey ParachutedParachuted Cats intoCats into BorneoBorneo
  13. 13. Where in the world is Borneo?Where in the world is Borneo?
  14. 14. DirectionsDirections 1.1. Read over the different eventsRead over the different events 2.2. LIST them on your paper in theLIST them on your paper in the order you think they happenedorder you think they happened Bonus pointsBonus points for gettingfor getting pretty closepretty close (less than 3-(less than 3- 4 off)4 off)
  15. 15. Some help…Some help…  The first event is:The first event is: W.H.O. sent DDT toW.H.O. sent DDT to BorneoBorneo  The last event is:The last event is: Cats were parachutedCats were parachuted inin A food web present inA food web present in Borneo: on boardBorneo: on board So you are tryingSo you are trying to figure out:to figure out: WHY did theWHY did the W.H.O. have toW.H.O. have to parachute catsparachute cats into Borneo?into Borneo? What led up toWhat led up to that?!?that?!?
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