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APES Ch. 11, part 1
 

APES Ch. 11, part 1

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  • Figure 11.7 <br /> Major commercial fishing methods used to harvest various marine species. These methods have become so effective that many fish species have become commercially extinct. <br />

APES Ch. 11, part 1 APES Ch. 11, part 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity Ch. 11, part 1
  • Biodiversity is highest at:  Coral reefs, estuaries, and deep ocean  Near coast since more producers there  At bottom since more food and habitats
  • Threats to Aquatic Biodiversity HIPPCO
  • H = habitat loss & degradation  Mostly in coral reefs and mangroves used by humans Damage done by trawling
  •  51% of freshwater species threatened with extinction the most of any group
  • I - invasive species Water hyacinth in Lake Victoria  84% of coastal waters invaded  Causes 2/3 of all fish extinctions  Cost USA ~$14 million/year  Often arrive in ballast water
  • P = population growth  By 2020 - 80% of world’s people will live in coastal cities Rio de Janeiro Lebanon
  • P = pollution  Just 4% of world’s oceans unaffected by pollution  Most pollution comes from land activities  Pesticides/fertilizers  Plastics  Oil
  • C = climate change  Causes sea levels to rise  CO2 “sinks” coral reefs, swamps, wetlands  Store CO2 – out of air  Puts coastal cities underwater
  • O = overfishing  Industrialized fishing depletes populations quickly  Fishprint - area of ocean needed to sustain our fish consumption  Currently at 157%  Commercial extinction no longer profitable to fish since so few left
  • Bycatch
  • Fish farming in cage Trawler fishing Spotter airplane Sonar Purse-seine fishing Drift-net fishing Long line fishing Float Buoy lines with hooks Deep sea aquaculture cage Fish caught by gills Stepped Art Fig. 11-7, p. 256
  • The numbers  35% of marine species  71% of freshwater species  May go extinct in our lifetime  The MOST AFFECTED GROUP of all species by humans
  •  Dolphin and whale slaughter by Japan
  • Shark finning
  • What we can do to help  Laws and treaties  Difficult to enforce  Most of ocean is not owned by anyone tragedy of the commons  Economic Incentives - tourism  Long term gain vs. short term profit
  • Some laws/treaties you should know CITES - 1975 - trade in endangered species Global Treaty on Migratory Species - 1979 US Marine Mammal Protection Act - 1972 US Endangered Species Act - 1973 US Whale Conservation and Protection Act 1976  International Convention on Biological Diversity - 1995     
  • Who owns the seas?  A country owns from its coast to 200 miles out  Beyond is the high seas - international laws and treaties apply here - but who enforces them?
  • Marine Sanctuaries & Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)  4000 worldwide; 200 in US waters  Offer only partial protection  Most still allow dredging, trawler fishing, drilling, etc  CA is leading  Most extensive network of MPAs with most restrictions
  • The Ecosystem Approach  Establish marine reserves all over, especially coastal areas  They work! - in 2-4 years see marked improvement  Increase tourism  Help fishing industry  Only .1% of ocean is protected (so we have reserved 99.9% for us)  Costs $12-14 billion/year to make reserves
  • What can you do?  Purchase only sustainably harvested seafood (WalMart)  Support businesses that develop and use resources sustainably  Ecotourism  NO Shell shops thanks
  • Fisheries Management  Step 1: figure out what we have out there!  Step 2: switch from old model - Max. sustained yield - to new model - optimum sustained yield (take species interactions into account)  Step 3: don’t forget the Precautionary Principle
  • What’s actually happening 1. Comanagement - local communities regulate coastal fishing, government regulates offshore 2. Government subsidies - gov’t (i.e. taxes) support fisheries to keep them in business; encourage expansion (uh…)
  • 3. Individual transfer rights (ITRs)  Gov’t gives each vessel of % of the total allowable catch for the year; companies can trade with each other  Problems:  Fishing co. “owns” waters, but public still responsible for cleaning up messes  Harder for small operations to compete  Too many ITRs given out - so still overfishing  Successes  1995, Alaskan halibut, fishing season went from 2 days to 260
  • End part 1