Sustaining Aquatic
Biodiversity
Ch. 11, part 1
Biodiversity is highest at:
 Coral reefs, estuaries, and deep ocean
 Near coast since more producers there
 At bottom s...
Threats to Aquatic Biodiversity

HIPPCO
H = habitat loss & degradation
 Mostly in coral reefs and mangroves
used by humans

Damage done
by trawling
 51% of
freshwater
species
threatened
with
extinction the most of
any group
I - invasive species

Water
hyacinth in
Lake
Victoria

 84% of coastal
waters invaded
 Causes 2/3 of
all fish
extinction...
P = population growth
 By 2020 - 80% of world’s people will live
in coastal cities
Rio de Janeiro

Lebanon
P = pollution
 Just 4% of world’s oceans unaffected
by pollution
 Most pollution comes from land
activities
 Pesticides...
C = climate change
 Causes sea levels to rise
 CO2 “sinks” coral reefs, swamps, wetlands
 Store CO2 – out of air

 Put...
O = overfishing
 Industrialized fishing
depletes populations
quickly
 Fishprint - area of
ocean needed to
sustain our fi...
Bycatch
Fish farming in cage

Trawler fishing

Spotter airplane
Sonar

Purse-seine fishing

Drift-net fishing
Long line fishing

F...
The numbers

 35% of marine species
 71% of freshwater species
 May go extinct in our lifetime
 The MOST AFFECTED GROU...
 Dolphin and
whale slaughter
by Japan
Shark finning
What we can do to help

 Laws and treaties

 Difficult to enforce
 Most of ocean is not owned by anyone tragedy of the ...
Some laws/treaties you should
know
CITES - 1975 - trade in endangered species
Global Treaty on Migratory Species - 1979
US...
Who owns the seas?
 A country owns from its coast to 200
miles out
 Beyond is the high seas - international
laws and tre...
Marine Sanctuaries & Marine
Protected Areas (MPAs)
 4000 worldwide; 200 in US
waters
 Offer only partial protection
 Mo...
The Ecosystem Approach

 Establish marine reserves all over, especially coastal
areas
 They work! - in 2-4 years see mar...
What can you do?

 Purchase only sustainably harvested
seafood (WalMart)
 Support businesses that develop and
use resour...
Fisheries Management

 Step 1: figure out what we have out there!
 Step 2: switch from old model - Max. sustained
yield ...
What’s actually happening
1. Comanagement - local communities
regulate coastal fishing, government
regulates offshore
2. G...
3. Individual transfer rights (ITRs)
 Gov’t gives each vessel of % of the total allowable catch for
the year; companies c...
End part 1
APES Ch. 11, part 1
APES Ch. 11, part 1
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  • Figure 11.7
    Major commercial fishing methods used to harvest various marine species. These methods have become so effective that many fish species have become commercially extinct.
  • APES Ch. 11, part 1

    1. 1. Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity Ch. 11, part 1
    2. 2. Biodiversity is highest at:  Coral reefs, estuaries, and deep ocean  Near coast since more producers there  At bottom since more food and habitats
    3. 3. Threats to Aquatic Biodiversity HIPPCO
    4. 4. H = habitat loss & degradation  Mostly in coral reefs and mangroves used by humans Damage done by trawling
    5. 5.  51% of freshwater species threatened with extinction the most of any group
    6. 6. I - invasive species Water hyacinth in Lake Victoria  84% of coastal waters invaded  Causes 2/3 of all fish extinctions  Cost USA ~$14 million/year  Often arrive in ballast water
    7. 7. P = population growth  By 2020 - 80% of world’s people will live in coastal cities Rio de Janeiro Lebanon
    8. 8. P = pollution  Just 4% of world’s oceans unaffected by pollution  Most pollution comes from land activities  Pesticides/fertilizers  Plastics  Oil
    9. 9. C = climate change  Causes sea levels to rise  CO2 “sinks” coral reefs, swamps, wetlands  Store CO2 – out of air  Puts coastal cities underwater
    10. 10. O = overfishing  Industrialized fishing depletes populations quickly  Fishprint - area of ocean needed to sustain our fish consumption  Currently at 157%  Commercial extinction no longer profitable to fish since so few left
    11. 11. Bycatch
    12. 12. Fish farming in cage Trawler fishing Spotter airplane Sonar Purse-seine fishing Drift-net fishing Long line fishing Float Buoy lines with hooks Deep sea aquaculture cage Fish caught by gills Stepped Art Fig. 11-7, p. 256
    13. 13. The numbers  35% of marine species  71% of freshwater species  May go extinct in our lifetime  The MOST AFFECTED GROUP of all species by humans
    14. 14.  Dolphin and whale slaughter by Japan
    15. 15. Shark finning
    16. 16. What we can do to help  Laws and treaties  Difficult to enforce  Most of ocean is not owned by anyone tragedy of the commons  Economic Incentives - tourism  Long term gain vs. short term profit
    17. 17. Some laws/treaties you should know CITES - 1975 - trade in endangered species Global Treaty on Migratory Species - 1979 US Marine Mammal Protection Act - 1972 US Endangered Species Act - 1973 US Whale Conservation and Protection Act 1976  International Convention on Biological Diversity - 1995     
    18. 18. Who owns the seas?  A country owns from its coast to 200 miles out  Beyond is the high seas - international laws and treaties apply here - but who enforces them?
    19. 19. Marine Sanctuaries & Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)  4000 worldwide; 200 in US waters  Offer only partial protection  Most still allow dredging, trawler fishing, drilling, etc  CA is leading  Most extensive network of MPAs with most restrictions
    20. 20. The Ecosystem Approach  Establish marine reserves all over, especially coastal areas  They work! - in 2-4 years see marked improvement  Increase tourism  Help fishing industry  Only .1% of ocean is protected (so we have reserved 99.9% for us)  Costs $12-14 billion/year to make reserves
    21. 21. What can you do?  Purchase only sustainably harvested seafood (WalMart)  Support businesses that develop and use resources sustainably  Ecotourism  NO Shell shops thanks
    22. 22. Fisheries Management  Step 1: figure out what we have out there!  Step 2: switch from old model - Max. sustained yield - to new model - optimum sustained yield (take species interactions into account)  Step 3: don’t forget the Precautionary Principle
    23. 23. What’s actually happening 1. Comanagement - local communities regulate coastal fishing, government regulates offshore 2. Government subsidies - gov’t (i.e. taxes) support fisheries to keep them in business; encourage expansion (uh…)
    24. 24. 3. Individual transfer rights (ITRs)  Gov’t gives each vessel of % of the total allowable catch for the year; companies can trade with each other  Problems:  Fishing co. “owns” waters, but public still responsible for cleaning up messes  Harder for small operations to compete  Too many ITRs given out - so still overfishing  Successes  1995, Alaskan halibut, fishing season went from 2 days to 260
    25. 25. End part 1
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