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AP Bio Ch. 11Cell communication, part 1
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AP Bio Ch. 11Cell communication, part 1


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  • 1. Please Staple Together and Turn in assignments 1. Summary Table 2. Photosynthesis Review Photosynthesis Review Worksheet Part A Match the terms below with the correct description Chlorophyll Chloroplast Electromagnetic spectrum Electron transport chain Grana Light-dependant reactions Light-independent reactions Photon Photosynthesis Photosystem Stroma Thylakoid a. __________________ packet of solar energy b. __________________energy-capturing portion of photosynthesis that takes place in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and cannot proceed without solar energy, it produces ATP and NADPH c. __________________green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis d. __________________ large, central compartment in a chloroplast that is fluid filled and contains enzymes used in photosynthesis e. __________________ membrane-bounded organelle with chlorophyll – containing membranous thylakoids; where photosynthesis takes place f. __________________Photosynthetic unit where solar energy is absorbed and high-energy electrons are generated; contains a pigment complex and an electron acceptor g. __________________Passage of electrons along a series of carrier molecules form a higher to a lower energy level; the energy released is used for the synthesis of ATP. h. __________________Process usually occurring within chloroplasts whereby chlorophyll traps solar energy and carbon dioxide is reduced to a carbohydrate. i. __________________ Series of photosynthetic reactions in which carbon dioxide is fixed and reduced in the chloroplast. j. __________________Synthesis portion of photosynthesis that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and does not directly require solar energy; it uses the products of the light dependant reactions to reduce carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate Part B Answer the following questions 1. Explain the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs. Give two examples of each. 2. Below draw a molecule of ATP. Label: ADP, adenosine, adenine, ribose, phosphate groups, chemical bond that would be broken if energy needed to be released. PROCESS Glycolysis Formation of Acetyl CoA Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Chain Chemiosmosis in the mitochondria Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcohol Fermentation Light reactions of photosynthesis Photosystem I Electron transport chain in photosynthesis Photosystem II Carbon Fixation in Calvin Cycle Reduction Phase of Calvin Cycle Regeneration of RuBP in Calvin Cycle C4 plants carbon fixation CAM plant carbon fixation Reactants Products Where it Occurs Other Important Facts
  • 2. Do Now –please • Take out a piece of binder paper • Divide into 4 quadrants 1. top left corner –a TV show or movie you think more people should watch 2. top right corner – Name of the street you’ve lived on the longest 3. bottom left corner – a silly word 4. bottom right corner – favorite animal Don’t take too long – these answers aren’t important The Ellen Show bababooey Amethyst Way tiger
  • 3. Cell Communication Ch. 11 Section 11.1
  • 4. Overview • Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms  Trillions of cells in a human body - there must be a way to coordinate activities
  • 5. Overview • Communication is also important in unicellular organisms
  • 6. Overview • Biologists have discovered universal mechanisms of cell communication • The same small set of cell signaling processes show up across all life forms  More evidence for the interrelatedness of all living things
  • 7. Overview • Cells most often communicate by using chemical signals
  • 8. Some questions to explore 1. What messages are passed from cell to cell? 2. How do cells respond to these messages?
  • 9. An example of Cell Communication in microbes • Microbes like yeast talk about sex • Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) identify potential mates using chemical signals
  • 10. Yeast Sex • There are 2 “sexes” or mating types  a - secretes “a” factor  α - secretes “α” factor  These factors bind to receptor proteins on the other mating type
  • 11. Yeast Sex • Once the mating factors have bound to the receptors the 2 cells grow toward each other • The 2 cells fuse, or mate, to form an a/α cell  Contains genes of both cells  Advantage for future “offspring” since have more genetic resources
  • 12. CRITICAL VOCAB!! • Transduction the conversion of a signal from outside the cell into a form that can bring about a specific cell response Message from outside the cell Transduction to another “form” Cell response
  • 13. Back to yeast sex… • Q: So how does the attachment of the signal molecule on the surface of the yeast cell get transduced into a form that causes the cells to fuse? • A: by a signal transduction pathway
  • 14. CRITICAL VOCAB!! • Signal transduction pathway - a process by which a signal on the cell’s surface is converted into a specific cell response
  • 15. Quick Think • Discuss with a neighbor how yeast cells communicate in order to mate With your silly word buddy
  • 16. Signal Transduction Pathways • They are very similar in yeast and animal cells  Evidence for a common ancestor • Plants and bacteria have similar pathways • Evidence suggests a prokaryotic ancestor that was capable of signaling - this organism was “adopted” for use in single cell eukaryotes and multicellular organisms (similar to the “adoption” of chloroplasts and mitochondria)
  • 17. Cell Communication in multicellular organisms • Communication in multicellular organisms usually involves releasing signaling molecules that target other cells, as we saw in the yeast
  • 18. Direct Contact between cells • Recall from Ch. 6 & 7 that cells may have junctions that connect adjacent cells
  • 19. Direct Contact between cells • With intercellular junctions, substances dissolved in the cytosol of one cell can freely pass into the adjacent cell • Animal cells may communicate via direct contact between membrane surface molecules • Most often used in development of the embryo and during the immune response
  • 20. Local contact • Signaling cell may secrete messenger molecules • These chemical messenges may travel only a short distance and influence cells only in the local vicinity • These chemicals are called local regulators
  • 21. CRITICAL VOCAB!! • Local regulators - a chemical messenger that influences cells in the vicinity
  • 22. Example of a local regulator • Growth factors in animals - stimulate nearby target cells to grow and divide • Many nearby target cells can receive and respond to a local regulator that is secreted by just one messenger cell  This is called paracrine signaling
  • 23. More specialized local signaling • Synaptic signaling occurs in nerve cells • Nerve cell releases a • • Neurotransmitter neurotransmitter It diffuses across the synapse (small gap between 2 neurons) • stimulates the target cell Can also be considered long distance signaling because message is passed from neuron to neuron over a long distance
  • 24. CRITCAL VOCAB!! • Paracrine signaling - when numerous cells simultaneously receive and respond to growth factors produced by a single cell in their vicinity • Synaptic signaling - when a nerve cell releases neurotransmitters into a synapse, stimulating the target cell
  • 25. Local signaling in plants • This is not well understood yet • Must be different somehow from animals due to presence of cell walls in plants
  • 26. Quick Think • With a neighbor, describe paracrine signaling and give an example of it With your TV show buddy
  • 27. Long distance signaling • Both plants & animals use hormones for long distance signaling • In animals - endocrine cells • release hormones into circulatory system - hormones travel to other parts of the body In plants - hormones called growth regulators - may travel in vessels, may travel cell to cell, may travel through the air by diffusion
  • 28. Long distance signaling • Chemical messengers vary • Plant hormone ethylene very small (C2H4) - makes fruit ripen - can pass through cell walls • Animal hormone insulin - 1000s of atoms big - regulates blood sugar - travels in blood stream
  • 29. Quick Think • Discuss with a neighbor how plant and animal cells carry out long distance signaling. • Explain why nerve cells provide an example of both local and long distance signaling With your street buddy
  • 30. What happens when a cell encounters a signal? • The signal must be recognized by the target cell  Target cells have specific receptor molecules on their cell membranes • The information in the chemical signal must be changed into another form Transduced - inside the cell before the cell can respond
  • 31. There are 3 stages of cell signaling 1. Reception - target cell receives chemical signal 2. Transduction - conversion of the signal to a 3. form that brings about a specific cell response Response - the transduced signal finally brings about a cell response
  • 32. Quick Think • Discuss with a neighbor: • Summarize today’s lecture in no more than 3 sentences. With your animal buddy