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  • 1.  The Theory FOR Creation  Part 1  Presented by Dr. Peter Okimi
  • 2.  The Theory FOR Creation  The Prima Facie (apparent, self evident) case for the literal 7 day creation week and the flood  *
  • 3.  That your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God.  Cor. 2:5 1
  • 4.  Major Premise  God is Omnipotent (all powerful), Omniscient (all knowing) and Omnipresent (everywhere at once). Man CANNOT come, even remotely close; regardless of his intellect, education (read University degrees), knowledge and experience.
  • 5.  Therefore, we start with God, not with man and we bring science to the Bible and measure it by God‘s standard, not vice versa
  • 6.  Three Premises •The theory must fit the Bible •The theory must fit the existing evidence •The theory must follow the laws of science
  • 7.  Purposes for the Theory for Creation 1.To look at evidence for creation from the point of view of Christians who believe in God, the Bible and Science.
  • 8.  To 2. strengthen the faith of the children of God.
  • 9.  First, I want to remind you that in the last days there will be scoffers who will laugh at the truth and do every evil thing they desire. This will be their argument: ―Jesus promised to come back, did he? Then where is he?
  • 10.  Why, as far back as anyone can remember, everything has remained exactly the same since the world was first created.‖ They deliberately forget that God made the heavens by the word of his command, and he brought the earth up from the water and surrounded it with water.
  • 11.  Then he used the water to destroy the world with a mighty flood. And God has also commanded that the heavens and the earth will be consumed by fire on the day of judgment, when ungodly people will perish. 2 Peter 3:3 – 7 New Living Translation (NLT)
  • 12.  To plant a seed in the minds 3. of young people.
  • 13.  To present a Biblically based, 4. scientifically accurate explanation of the existing evidence.
  • 14. 1. To show that God is the Author and Designer of all scientific laws.
  • 15.  ―for as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts‖ Is. 55:9.
  • 16.  ―…avoiding profane [and] vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called.‖ 1 Tim. 6:20
  • 17.  Creator vs Created Is God superior to man? Omnipotent? Omniscient? Omnipresent? Could any man be given such attributes?     
  • 18.  What does the Bible have to say? 1 Corinthians 3:19-21 (NKJV) 19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, “He catches the wise in their own craftiness”; 20 and again, “The Lord knows the thoughts of the wise, that they are futile.” 21 Therefore let no one boast in men. For all things are yours:
  • 19.  Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is stronger than men.  1 Cor. 1:25
  • 20.  John 5:43-44 (NKJV) 43  I have come in My Father‟s name, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, him you will receive. 44 How can you believe, who receive honor from one another, and do not seek the honor that comes from the only God? The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
  • 21.  Science vs Science Falsely So Called •We must learn to distinguish between true science and science falsely so called. •God is the author and designer of all sciences and their individual laws.
  • 22.  True science follows God‘s laws. These are all true, objective, testable, reliable (faithful), and repeatable regardless of time or place.
  • 23.  Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. Col 2:8
  • 24.  The Bible describes these as false science
  • 25. 1.To show that the theory of evolution began with Satan when he turned against God.
  • 26. 1. To demonstrate that the 7 day creation week is inextricably linked to the 10 commandments and the rest of the Bible.
  • 27.  ―Remember to observe the Sabbath day by keeping it holy....For in six days the Lord made the heavens, the earth, the sea, and everything in them; then he rested on the seventh day. That is why the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart as holy. Exodus 20:8 & 11 NLT.
  • 28. John 1:1-5 (NKJV) 1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made.
  • 29. 4 In Him was life, and the life was the The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
  • 30.  Luke 16:31 (NKJV) 31  But he said to him, „If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rise from the dead.‟ ” The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
  • 31. John 5:46-47 (NKJV) 46 For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me. 47 But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My words?‖ The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
  • 32.  Jesus believed in the stories of Creation (See Mark 10:6), of Noah and the Flood (see Matt 24:37 – 39), of the creation of the first couple (see Matt. 19:4). He quoted Genesis 2:24 in Matthew 19:5.
  • 33.  The Fool  The Fool hath said in his heart, there is no God. Ps. 14:1
  • 34.  Selected Messages 3  Science and Revelation
  • 35.  Test Science by God‘s Word  There should be a settled faith in the divinity of God‘s Holy Word
  • 36.  God Can Work Above His Laws  …the Author of nature‘s laws can work above those laws
  • 37.  God‘s Character Interpreted by His Works  Those who judge Him from His handiworks, and not from the suppositions of great men, will see His presence in everything.
  • 38.  Science an Aid to Understand God  All the systems of philosophy devised by men have led to confusion and shame when God has not been recognized and honoured.
  • 39.  God the Designer and Creator  The Lord God commands things into being. He was the first designer.
  • 40.  Things Stood Up Before Him All at His Voice  In the formation of our world, God was not beholden to preexistent substance or matter.
  • 41.  The Theory FOR Creation  Part 2  Presented by Dr. Peter Okimi
  • 42.  Three Premises •The theory must fit the Bible •The theory must fit the existing evidence •The theory must follow the laws of science
  • 43.  Intelligence, knowledge, wisdom James 1:5 (NKJV) 5 If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and without reproach, and it will be given to him. The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
  • 44.  *
  • 45.  Glendive, Montana  Using the Bible, the laws of science and the existing evidence; can we reconstruct what happened?
  • 46.  Sandstone Trees Evidence  Cylindrical form of trees, bark 1. surface  Buried in gumbo clay during the 2. flood  Wood in the trees was 3. destroyed  Absence of bark on upper part 4.
  • 47.  Not petrified wood 5. 1.Clay molds were left 2.Clay molds were filled with sand  Sand became sandstone 8.  Breaks in one sand stone tree 9.
  • 48.  The World Before the Flood  Do we have evidence for what the world was like before the flood?
  • 49.  Existing Evidence 1.Mammoths 2.Quantity of Fossil Fuels 3.Subtropical Arctic and Antarctic Regions 4.Megafauna & Large Dinosaurs 5.Amber with bubbles containing nearly 35% oxygen
  • 50. 1. Much longer life 2. Living Fossils 3. Water above and below the firmament 4. No Rain before the Flood. 5. George F. Dodwell, Australian Government Astronomer 6. Evidence for an ice age (post flood)
  • 51. 1.Mammoths
  • 52.  Mammoths frozen in the north with subtropical vegetation in their mouths and stomachs
  • 53. Jarkov Mammoth •The Jarkov Mammoth was found in 1997, complete, moved to a cave, that remains below freezing, in Khatanga, Siberia in 2000. •One was found in West Siberia, May 22, 1990
  • 54.  Photo by Francis Latreille  Jarkov Mammoth
  • 55. Beresovka Mammoth Beresovka mammoth of Siberia – flesh was edible and stomach contained about 30 lbs of subtropical vegetation in an undigested state and the mouth was filled with partially masticated food.
  • 56.  The eyes and red blood cells were extremely well preserved and the separation of water in the cells – which proceeds rapidly after death— was only partial. H. Howarth: The Mammoth and the Flood (1887) as quoted in The Creation Evolution Controversy – R. L. Wysong
  • 57. What is Important?
  • 58. 1. In order for the mammoths to have flesh on their b 2. In order for them to be frozen quickly, they had to b 3. If they were quick frozen on location, then the regi
  • 59. 1.Quantity of Fossil Fuels
  • 60.  Extensive Fossil Fuel Reserves Much more in the way of both flora and fauna as indicated by existing, extensive fossil fuel reserves.
  • 61.  Carbon Inventory  W. A. Reiners has done a worldwide ‗carbon inventory‘ and found that ―the total amount of carbon in the world today is less than 1/500th of the total amount that is locked into fossil plants and animals within sedimentary rock strata!‖
  • 62. 1.Subtropical Arctic and Antarctic Regions
  • 63.  Coal and fossils of subtropical vegetation found in Antarctica and Tropical Forests found in the Arctic.
  • 64.  Large coal deposits. ―We know there are many minerals. There‘s a lot of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains.‖ National Geographic April, 1990 Vol. 177, No. 4.
  • 65.  Palm leaves, fruit trees and tropical marine crustaceans. Vast forests of luxuriant subtropical plant life are also buried under the polar caps. D. E. Hooker: Those Astounding Ice Ages, p. 44 (N.Y.: EXPOSITION, 1948) as quoted in The Creation Evolution Controversy - R. L. Wysong
  • 66.  Tropical forests found on Axel Heiberg Island birch, cypress, redwood. The Nature of Things with David Suzuki – Global Warming – Turning up the Heat 1996.
  • 67.  A few hundred kms. (100 kms. is 62.5 miles) from the North pole.  *
  • 68. Ellsmere Island
  • 69.  ―Studies Portray Tropical Arctic in Distant Past‖  Andrew Revkin, The New York Times  ―The first detailed analysis of an extraordinary climatic and biological record from the seabed near the North Pole shows
  • 70.  …the Arctic Ocean was much warmer than scientists imagined – a Floridian year-round average of (23 C) 74 degrees.‖ (Current temperatures hover within a few degrees of (0 C) 32 degrees F.)
  • 71.  The Theory FOR Creation  Part 3  Presented by Dr. Peter Okimi
  • 72.  Three Premises •The theory must fit the Bible •The theory must fit the existing evidence •The theory must follow the laws of science
  • 73.  Existing Evidence 1.Mammoths 2.Quantity of Fossil Fuels 3.Subtropical Arctic and Antarctic Regions 4.Megafauna & Large Dinosaurs 5.Amber with bubbles containing nearly 35% oxygen
  • 74. 1.Much longer life 2.Living Fossils 3.Water above and below the firmament 4.No Rain before the Flood. 5. George F. Dodwell, Australian Government Astronomer 6. Evidence for an ice age (post flood)
  • 75.  Megafauna 4. 
  • 76.  Conditions before the flood supported much larger animals. We know this because we have the fossils of the large dinosaurs and other megafauna.
  • 77.  Giant Nautiloid (actinoceratoid nautiloid) 2.44 meters (8 feet) long found by University of Arkansas students
  • 78.  A fossil shark from the genus Carcharodon is approximately 3X longer than the largest living shark in the same genus, the 6.7 meter (22‘) great white shark
  • 79.  Osteodontornis was an oceanic bird related to gannets and cormorants, but had a 4.6 meter (15‘) wingspan.
  • 80.  In the Miocene of Argentina, ―Big Bird‖ was a somewhat vulture-like bird with wings equivalent to those on a Cessna airplane. Big Bird would weigh approximately 90.7 Kg. (200 lbs.) and while standing, could look a 1.8 meter (6‘) man straight in the eye.
  • 81.  No other known flying bird approaches the size of Big Bird.‖ Fossil Giants of the Ancient World Leonard Brand, Loma Linda University Geoscience Reports Fall 1992, No. 15
  • 82.  Giant Dragonfly  Meganeura ( monyi)  Dragonfli es with (2½ oot) 75 cm wingspan
  • 83.  Giant Beaver Fossils  (Castoroides ohioensis)  Estimated Weight -- (480 lbs.) 218 kg.  Estimated Length – (8.2 feet) 2.5 meters
  • 84.  Giant Beaver  Fossils have been found in 29 locations in the U.S.
  • 85.  Giant Ground Sloth  Giant ground sloths that were bigger than a modern elephant.
  • 86.  4.3 meter (14‘) long Australian land turtle, a bear-sized beaver, and a 4.6 meter (15‘) glyptodon as large as a brown bear.‖ Fossil Giants of the Ancient World Dr. Leonard Brand, Chairman of the Department of Natural Sciences at Loma Linda University
  • 87.  Harlan‘s Ground Sloth •Largest and most common ground sloth found at Rancho La Brea Tar Pits. •Over 1.83 meters (6 feet) tall •Weight 1587.6 Kg. (3,500 pounds)
  • 88.  Baluchitherium
  • 89.  Baluchitherium/Paraceratherium
  • 90.  The plains of Nebraska rhinoceros as tall as a house, reconstructed bones of the rhinoceros Baluchitherium (paraceratherium, indricotherium transouralicum) indicate a shoulder height of 5.5 meters (18‘).
  • 91.  Baluchitherium  Found in Pakistan  Estimated weight 13.6 tonnes (15 tons)
  • 92.   Age Ice armadillos the size of cars, fossil shows
  • 93. •He said the animal would have been the size of ―a Volkswagen‖. •Mr. Luna said it was the fifth such fossil found since 1998 in Cusco…‖
  • 94.  Refrigerator-sized armadillos once hung out in Florida •We‘re talking 272 Kg. (600 pounds) and more than 1.8 meters (6 feet) long!
  • 95.  Mega Cockroach
  • 96.  Measuring 9 cm, the fossil cockroach dwarfs the modern American cockroach which averages 4.5 cm in length.
  • 97.  Phoberomys Pattersoni   World‘s Largest Rodent Identified As Ancient Sibling To Guinea Pigs  ―Roughly the size of a buffalo…. The Largest rodent that ever lived, Phoberomys pattersoni, weighed about (1,545 pounds) 700 kilograms
  • 98.  Giant Camel
  • 99.  It is estimated to have stood 12 feet (3.6 meters) tall, which would make it about twice the size of living camels.
  • 100.  Giant Crocodile
  • 101.  ―Peruvian explorers have discovered the fossilized remains of a giant, (46-foot) 14 meter-long crocodile deep in the Amazon Jungle,….
  • 102.  Once weighing 9 tonnes (9.9 tons) and with a (4 foot) 1.3 meter-long head, the crocodile is only the second fossil discovery of its kind in three decades….
  • 103.  Giant Bison  1.83 meter (6foot) horn span
  • 104.  Dromornis Stirtoni  The Demon Duck of Doom
  • 105.  Dromornis Stirtoni
  • 106.  Dromornis Stirtoni
  • 107.  Drom o-rnis Femur and Tibia Compared to Emu Femur and Tibia
  • 108.  Short Faced Bear  Arctodus simus •Stood over 1.5 meter (5 feet) tall at the shoulder making it larger than the grizzly, brown, and polar bears of N. A. •Standing height was over 3.35 meters (11 feet) •Weight was approximately 816.5 Kg. (1800 pounds)
  • 109.  Short-Faced Bear Skull from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits
  • 110.  Diprotodon Optatum  Giant Wombat-like Marsupial •Estimated weight (6,142 pounds) 2,786 kilograms •Perspective – The largest marsupial alive today is the red kangaroo which weighs approximately (187 pounds) 85 kilograms •First found in the fossil record in the 1830‘s
  • 111.  Diprotodon Optatum
  • 112. What is the Importance of the Megafauna?
  • 113. There were insects, birds and mammals that are gigantic by present day standards The Dinosaurs are all reptiles Most people know about the size of the large dinosaurs Not many people realize that there were giant insects, birds and mammals before t    
  • 114.  Large Dinosaurs
  • 115.  Brachiosaurus
  • 116.  Brachiosauru s
  • 117.  Estimated Length 25 meters (82 feet)  Brachiosauru s  Estimated weight 32 – 37 tonnes (Christiansen 1997)
  • 118.  Seismosaurus •Estimated length 32 meters (105 feet) •Estimated weight 22 – 27 tonnes (25 – 30 U.S. tons)
  • 119.  Argentinosaurus huinculensis •Estimated length 22 – 26 meters (72 – 85 feet) •Estimated weight 80 – 100 tonnes
  • 120.  Paralititan stromeri •Estimated length 20 – 24 meters (66 – 79 feet) •Estimated weight 65 – 80 tonnes (72 – 88 tons) •Humerus measures 1.69 meters ( 5.54 feet)
  • 121. •Paralititan stromeri
  • 122.  Supersaurus •Estimated length 40 meters (130 feet) •Scapula stood more than (6 feet) 2 meters tall
  • 123.  Bruhathkayosaurus •Estimated length 40 – 44.1 meters (130 - 145 feet) •Estimated weight 175 – 220 tonnes (190 to 240 tons) •Largest Blue Whale on record was 110 feet long and weighed 177 tonnes (195 tons)
  • 124.  Diplodocus •Estimated length 27 meters (90 feet) of which 6 meters (20 feet) is neck •Estimated weight 10 – 16 tonnes ( 11 – 17.6 tons)
  • 125.  Diplodocus
  • 126.  Diplodocus
  • 127.  Diplodocus
  • 128.  Mamenchisaurus •Estimated length 22 meters (72 feet), half of that is neck (11meters or 36 feet)
  • 129.  Mamenchisaurus
  • 130.  Mamenchisaurus
  • 131.  Mamenchisaurus
  • 132.  Camasaurus •Estimated length 18 meters ( 60 feet) •Estimated weight 18 tonnes (19.8 tons)
  • 133.  Ca masa u r us
  • 134.  Camasaurus
  • 135.  Sauroposeidon •Estimated length 30 meters (98 feet) •Estimated weight 50 – 60 tonnes (55 – 65 tons) •Only 4 vertebrae were found with cervical ribs in place. The largest one measures 1.2 meters (4 feet) in length
  • 136.  What questions do these fossils raise? •What is the largest land animal alive, today? •How much does it weigh? •What allowed the megafauna and large dinosaurs to survive before the flood?
  • 137. •Why are they not alive today? •Why are there no land animals larger than the elephant alive today, when we know that many much larger land animals lived before the flood?
  • 138.  Conclusions •Land animals larger than the elephant cannot survive under present atmospheric conditions. •Therefore, things must have been different before the flood.
  • 139.  The Theory FOR Creation  Part 4  Presented by Dr. Peter Okimi
  • 140.  Three Premises •The theory must fit the Bible •The theory must fit the existing evidence •The theory must follow the laws of science
  • 141.  Existing Evidence 1.Mammoths 2.Quantity of Fossil Fuels 3.Subtropical Arctic and Antarctic Regions 4.Megafauna & Large Dinosaurs 5.Amber with bubbles containing nearly 35% oxygen
  • 142. 1.Much longer life 2.Living Fossils 3.Water above and below the firmament 4.No Rain before the Flood. 5. George F. Dodwell, Australian Government Astronomer 6. Evidence for an ice age (post flood)
  • 143.  Origin of the word Dinosaur •The word ―dinosaur‖ was invented in 1842 by Sir Richard Owen. It means ―marvelous‖ or ―terrible‖ lizard. What were they called before then? -- Dragons •Dragon legends occur in China, Peru, England and many other places around the world.
  • 144.  You Believe in Fire Do Breathing Dragons? •Do you believe in the Bible? •What do we do with Leviathan in Job 41? •Job 41 describes a fire breathing sea dragon!
  • 145.  Leviathan
  • 146. •Leviathan is mentioned 4 times in the KJV. The whole chapter of Job 41 is devoted to it. •Ps. 74:14 & Ps. 104:26 so apparently David knew about and believed in it •Is. 27:1 apparently Isaiah knew about and believed in it.
  • 147. •God implies that He made Leviathan in Job 41. •David clearly states that God made Leviathan in Ps. 104.
  • 148.  The Bombardier Beetle
  • 149. •Hydrogen peroxide & Hydroquinone + catalysts and peroxidases → pquinones + O2 + heat •Boiling temperature •Twin turrets •Sequential firing •360 degrees
  • 150. Bombardier Beetle
  • 151.  Behemoth •What about Behemoth? •Eats grass like an ox •Strength is in his hips •Power is in his stomach muscles
  • 152.  He moves his tail like a cedar!!
  • 153.  Dragons in the Bible •19 references to dragon (singular) in the KJV •6 in the OT refer to dinosaur like creature • 12 in Revelation refer to satan or the devil
  • 154. •16 references to dragons (plural) in the KJV •All are found in the OT •All refer to a dinosaur like creature
  • 155.  Strongs Concordance: 8577 tanniyn, tanniym/tanneen 1. dragon, serpent, sea m
  • 156. •When did Job live? •But weren‘t dinosaurs destroyed in the flood? •When was the Bible written; before or after the Flood?
  • 157.  What Does All This Mean? a.This means that dinosaurs (dragons) are mentioned in the Bible. b.This means that the dinosaurs, including Leviathan and Behemoth, were created by God. c. Dinosaurs lived after the flood.
  • 158.  Amber With Bubbles 5. Containing Nearly 35% Oxygen
  • 159.  Amber Bubbles – increased oxygen levels 50%
  • 160.  USGS  ―Recently, USGS scientists have used a gas QMS (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer) to determine the oxygen level of ancient samples of Earth‘s atmosphere from a most unlikely place amber
  • 161.  ...Analyses of the gases in these bubbles show that the earth‘s atmosphere… contained nearly 35 percent oxygen compared to present levels of 21 percent. Results are based upon more than 300 analyses (emphasis mine) by USGS scientists of Cretaceous, Tertiary and recent-age amber from 16 world sites.‖
  • 162.
  • 163.  ―This chart shows a major decrease in oxygen content in the atmosphere from 35 percent to the present day level of 21 percent. This decrease occurred about the same time that the dinosaurs disappeared….‖ http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/gips/na/am ber.html
  • 164.  Duhhh……The Flood!
  • 165.  LA-ICP-QMS
  • 166.  Much Longer Life 6.  Much longer life as evidenced by the genealogies of the Bible.
  • 167.  Living Fossils 7.  What is a Living Fossil?  A living fossil is an organism that has been found as a fossil in the fossil record, dated to be very old, and then has been found alive today.
  • 168.  And God said, ―Let the earth bring forth every kind of animal— livestock, small animals, and wildlife.‖ And so it was. God made all sorts of wild animals, livestock, and small animals, each able to reproduce more of its own kind. And God saw that it was good. Gen 1:24, 25 NLT
  • 169. Coelacanth  – supposedly extinct for 70 million
  • 170.  Coelacanth
  • 171. Laotian Rock Rat  – Thought to have been extinct for 1
  • 172.  Loatian Rock Rat
  • 173.  Living Fossils – The Creation Evolution Controversy by R. L. Wysong •bat - 50 million years •tuatara reptile - 135 million years •neopilina shellfish – 500 million years •Cockroach – 250 million years •Dragonfly – 170 million years
  • 174.  Tuatara
  • 175. •Starfish – 500 million years •Metasequoia tree – 60 million years •Ginko tree - 200 million years •Cycad tree - 225 million years •Coelacanth – 65 million years •Port Jackson shark - 180 million years
  • 176.  Metasequoia Leaves
  • 177.  Cycad
  • 178.  Port Jackson Shark
  • 179. •Sea lily - 160 million years •Sea urchin – 100 million years •Vampyroteuthis or squid-octopus – 200 million years
  • 180.  Sea Urchin
  • 181.  Vampyroteuthis Fossil
  • 182.  Vampyroteuthis Illustration
  • 183.  Vampyroteuthis
  • 184.  partial list of living fossils from A www.carm.org/evolution_archive/fo ssils_coccoliths.htm •Triops, Fossils dated at 200 M Y old, yet found unchanged today. •Aysheaia dated at 530 M Y old turns out to the the same as the modern Peripatus
  • 185.  Triops Australiensis
  • 186.  Triops Longicaudatus
  • 187.  Peripatus
  • 188. •Crinoid Anthedon fossil dated at 150 M Y is still alive today and virtually unchanged •Busycon contrarium fossil dated from 5.3 to 1.6 M Y ago is still alive today and the modern unchanged version is found in Florida.
  • 189. •Maple leaf Acer monspessulanum fossil found in tertiary rock, appears the same today in southwest Germany as it did millions of years ago. •Polistes Wasp fossils found in tertiary deposits have been found living today in southern Europe.
  • 190.  Acer Monspessulanum
  • 191.  Acer Monspes-sulanum
  • 192.  Polistes Wasp
  • 193. •Amber fossils dated at 35 M Y old of the Mastotermes Electrodominicus (termites) appear just as they do today in Australia, only smaller. •Pleurotomaria shell fossil found in Englands jurassic deposits dated at 135 – 205 M Y has been found virtually identical in Japan
  • 194. •Folded fern fossils found in coal buried millions of years ago appear identical to ferns found today. •Horshoe crab fossils dated at millions of years old match the living crabs found alive today.
  • 195.  Horseshoe Crab
  • 196.  A fossil of the conifer genus metasequoia dated to 60 million years ago has been found growing today.
  • 197. ―Indeed the oldest fossils of land – dwelling animals are millipedes, dating to more than 425 million years ago. Incredibly, the archaic forms are nearly indistinguishable from certain groups living today.‖ William A. Shear, ―Millipedes,‖ American Scientist (vol. 87, May/June 1999), p. 21 
  • 198. ―Compared with other life forms, insects are actually slow to evolve new families – but they are even slower to go extinct. Some 84 percent of the insect families alive today were alive 100 million years ago….‖ Carl Zimmer, ―Insects Ascendant,‖ Discover (vol. 14, November 1993), p. 30 
  • 199.  Army Ants These ants come from the same ancestor, since the reign of the dinosaurs, about 100 million years ago; army ants in essence have not changed a bit. 
  • 200. No major changes have ever been found between any fossil and its living counterpart!
  • 201.  The Water Canopy 8. Then God said, “Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Thus God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were… 
  • 202.  …under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. So the evening and the morning were the second day. Genesis 1:6-8 
  • 203. The Firmament  The firmament is where the birds f
  • 204. •Opaque or clear? •Greenhouse effects on temperatures •Solar radiation
  • 205. •How did this layer of water stay “above the firmament”?
  • 206.  No Rain Before the Flood 9.  As evidenced by God giving the rainbow in the clouds as a sign that He would never destroy the whole earth by a flood again.
  • 207. And God said, ―I am giving you a sign as evidence of my eternal covenant with you and all living creatures. I have placed my rainbow in the clouds. It is the sign of my permanent promise to you and to all the earth.  Gen 9:12,13 
  • 208.  ―…for the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground; but a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground.‖ Genesis 2:5, 6.
  • 209.  The Theory FOR Creation  Part 5  Presented by Dr. Peter Okimi
  • 210.  Three Premises •The theory must fit the Bible •The theory must fit the existing evidence •The theory must follow the laws of science
  • 211.  Existing Evidence 1.Mammoths 2.Quantity of Fossil Fuels 3.Subtropical Arctic and Antarctic Regions 4.Megafauna & Large Dinosaurs 5.Amber with bubbles containing nearly 35% oxygen
  • 212. 1.Much longer life 2.Living Fossils 3.Water above and below the firmament 4.No Rain before the Flood. 5. George F. Dodwell, Australian Government Astronomer 6. Evidence for an ice age (post flood)
  • 213.  10. George Frederick Dodwell  1879 – 1963  •B. A. University of Adelaide •Australian Government Astronomer
  • 214.  Writing in regard to the recent expedition to Turkey, Dodwell stated: ―I am especially inter-ested in such a remarkable result, because I have been making during the last 26 years an extensive investigation of what we know in astronomy as the secular variation of
  • 215.  the obliquity of the ecliptic, and from a study of the available ancient observations of the position of the sun at the solstices during the last three thousand years, I find a curve which, after allowing for all known changes, [shows] a typical exponential curve of
  • 216.  recovery of the earth‘s axis after a sudden change from a former nearly vertical position to an inclination of 26 ½ degrees, from which it was returned to an equilibrium at the present inclin-ation of 23 ½ degrees during the interval of the succeeding 3,194 years to A.D. 1850. ―The date of the change in the earth‘s axis,
  • 217. 2345 B.C.,‖ he continued, ―is none other than that of the flood recorded in the Bible, and the resulting conclusion is that the Biblical account of the flood as a universal one, together with its story of Noah‘s Ark is historically true.‖
  • 218. •Eudoxus •Stonehenge •Egyptian Solar Temple on Amen – Ra
  • 219.  11. Evidence for an Ice Age •Scrape marks or straie in rocks (e.g. in Juneau, Alaska – Mendenhall glacier) Boulders moved to different locations Moraines
  • 220.  Apparently ice carved lakes, fjords and valleys such as Yosemite Valley
  • 221.  The Theory FOR Creation 1.Earth‘s Double rotation 2.Complete Water Canopy – greenhouse effect 3.Decrease in harmful shortwave radiation 4.Worldwide uniform subtropical temperatures
  • 222. 1. 35% oxygen 2. Increased Atmospheric pressure 3. Decreased gravity 4. Dinosaurs & Megafauna 5. Gradual Decline in O2 6. Longevity of life 7. Stopping the 2nd rotation 8. George Dodwell 9. The Ice Age
  • 223. 1. Other Things to Consider  a.) Loess b.) Hezekiah and the Sundial c.) The Aurora Borealis/Australis d.) Creation‟s Tiny Mysteries e.) Gondwanaland/Pangea
  • 224.  Phenomenon Marking Time Periods
  • 225. •Day: •Month: •Year: •Week:  Earth rotates once on its axis  Moon revolves once around the earth  Earth revolves once around the sun  ?
  • 226.  The Double Rotation 1.  Week: End over end rotation once every 7 days. In other words a double rotation. (Dr. Douglas Waterhouse, Andrews University) **
  • 227. •The double rotation would have eliminated the North and South polar regions as cold spots on the earth. •The earth would have been uniformly warm with a subtropical temperature level (24 – 27o C, 75 – 80o F)
  • 228. •This would have allowed the layer of water above the earth to be complete, to stay in place → greenhouse effect.  *
  • 229. Uranus  Uranus has an axial tilt of 97.77 degrees, so its axis of rotation is approximately p
  • 230.  Chandler‘s Wobble  Seth Chandler discovered, in 1891 that the earth‘s axis wobbles.
  • 231.  The Complete Water Canopy 2. •Complete, unbroken, all encompassing layer of water surrounding the earth. •Similar to a bubble of water around the earth
  • 232. •With heat sink properties •The canopy was probably not round •The water that God placed above the atmosphere in Genesis 1:6-8.
  • 233.  Prefloo d
  • 234.  Post Flood
  • 235.  The Theory FOR Creation  Part 6  Presented by Dr. Peter Okimi
  • 236.  The Theory FOR Creation 1.Earth‘s Double rotation 2.Complete Water Canopy – greenhouse effect 3.Decrease in harmful shortwave radiation 4.Worldwide uniform subtropical temperatures
  • 237. 1. 35% oxygen 2. Increased Atmospheric pressure 3. Decreased gravity 4. Dinosaurs & Megafauna 5. Gradual Decline in O2 6. Longevity of life 7. Stopping the 2nd rotation 8. George Dodwell 9. The Ice Age
  • 238. 1. Other Things to Consider  a.) Loess b.) Hezekiah and the Sundial c.) The Aurora Borealis/Australis d.) Creation‟s Tiny Mysteries e.) Gondwanaland/Pangea
  • 239. What am I asking?    I am not asking you to believe in The Theory FOR Creation, I am asking you to make sure that whatever theory you come to believe, that it adhere I am asking you to use the Evidence that you have been shown and more, The Bible, …..necessarily.
  • 240. ➢ I am asking you not to simply accept the ➢ I am asking that if you can think of things ➢ I am asking that if you ask The Holy Spirit   
  • 241.  Physics of the Flood •NO RAIN up until the flood. The Rainbow and Genesis 2:5, 6. •What causes rain or precipitation?
  • 242.  Precipitation of any kind is caused by air cooling down. Whether it is the meeting of air masses with one of them having a different temperature than the other(s) (i.e. a warmer air mass meets a cooler air mass) or the upwelling of air within a single mass.
  • 243. •If there is no cooling of air ….it cannot rain!
  • 244.  Rain Before the Flood No •How do we know that it did not rain before the flood? •If the air was a relatively uniform temperature due to the second rotation and the greenhouse effect, could this be why there was no rain?
  • 245. •Warm air holds more moisture than cold air. •When the second rotation stops; cold air, very cold air would have developed at the north and south polar regions. •Result? •Rain—Lots of it! **
  • 246.  The Rainbow Set in the Clouds
  • 247.  Decrease in Harmful 3. Shortwave Radiation •Water reflects short wave (harmful) radiation while allowing long wave (not harmful) radiation to pass through.
  • 248.  Prefloo d
  • 249.  Post Flood
  • 250.  Short Wave Radiation •Water reflects short wave radiation, which is harmful. •Less shortwave radiation would have allowed for longer life, less aging and fewer harmful mutations
  • 251.  Damaging Effects of Short Wave Radiation •Melanoma •Genetic mutations (harmful) •Cataracts •Aging
  • 252. •If there were less harmful shortwave radiation, would people and animals live longer and grow to a larger size?
  • 253.  Radio Carbon Dating  Effects on radiocarbon dating. 14C is produced in the upper atmosphere as a result of cosmic ray interaction with nitrogen. Bernice G. Segal: Chemistry: Experiment and Theory
  • 254.  When the canopy of water surrounded the earth little or no 14C would have formed due to harmful cosmic radiation NOT entering the atmosphere.
  • 255. •The half-life of 14C is 5730 years. •What would be the apparent age of things that contained little or no 14C? •Scientists are now saying that 14C dating is only reasonably accurate for ages of 50,000 years or less.
  • 256. 14  C and Nitrogen •Proteins are made up of various amino acids. •Amino acids and, therefore, proteins contain Nitrogen. •All Plants and animals contain Amino Acids and Proteins.
  • 257.  Fossil fuels are remnants of plant and animal life that were destroyed by the flood. Fossil fuels are basically Hydrocarbons. I.e. mainly carbon and hydrogen, very little, if any, nitrogen
  • 258.  Nitrogen Cycle    This image is a work of an Environmental Protection Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employee's official duties. As works of the U.S. federal government, all EPA images are in the public domain.
  • 259. •14C is produced from 14N (nitrogen gas) •If you increase the amount of 14N in the atmosphere, would this cause an increase in the amount of 14C formed?
  • 260. st 1 Scenario – Fishing  If 5 fishermen are fishing on a lake that is 1 mile in diameter and there are 5 fish in the lake, how many fish will they catch?
  • 261. nd 2   Scenario, Same Example The same 5 fishermen fishing on the Will increasing the number of target f
  • 262. •Obviously, increasing the number of targets will increase the number of targets hit. •By the same token if we increase the 14N concentration in the atmosphere, will it increase the number being struck by cosmic rays?
  • 263. Carbon 14 •What effect would that have on the formation of 14C •…. and consequently on Radiocarbon dating?
  • 264.  Conclusion •The formation of 14C has not been constant and, therefore cannot be used as an accurate measurement of age.
  • 265.  Worldwide Uniform 4. Subtropical Temperatures  Before the flood the evidence shows that the entire world was subtropical
  • 266.  35% Oxygen 5.  Increased Oxygen
  • 267. •Current levels of oxygen? • 21% •Nitrogen? •78% •Other gases such as CO2 and Nobel gases? •1%
  • 268.  Double rotation of the globe would have al Temperate regions of the earth would supp 
  • 269. •Algae would grow much more abundantly in oceans that are , now, in the polar and temperate regions •Increased plant life would increase the oxygen levels as evidenced by the oxygen content measured in bubbles trapped in amber (nearly 35%)
  • 270.  The matching increase in the need for carbon to balance the increase in oxygen (i.e. the needed ingredients for photosynthesis) may be accounted for by the current extensive reserves of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil.
  • 271.  Increased Atmospheric 6. Pressure   What causes Atmospheric pressure? Now what would happen if all of the mole
  • 272.  When the canopy of water above the firmament was complete it would mean that hundreds of millions of tons of water that are now in lakes and oceans, on the polar caps as ice and snow and on mountain tops would have been up where the clouds are.
  • 273. How much water? Enough to cause massive rain for 40 days and 40 nights. Enough to cover the highest mountain with 15 cubits – 6.7 meters (22 feet) of water. Gen. 7:20 The entire earth was covered in water.    
  • 274. •What would those billions of molecules do to atmospheric pressure? •At 10 pounds per imperial gallon, 8 pounds per US gallon; what would be the mass of this amount of water?
  • 275. Hyperbaric Effect
  • 276. •The increase in oxygen content and the increase in atmospheric pressure would have had an effect similar to the hyperbaric chamber. •Could this explain how, enor-mous animals with relatively small nostrils and lungs were able to absorb enough oxygen to thrive?
  • 277. Hyperbaric Chamber
  • 278.  Decreased Gravity 7.
  • 279.  Change in Gravity •Gravity is a function of mass. Any 2 masses will have a gravitational effect on each other that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. (The inverse square law) *
  • 280. Inverse Square Law
  • 281. What is Mass? •The sun is much more massive than the earth, so the earth is affected more by the sun‘s gravity than the sunthe affected by around the sun is earth rotates the earth. •Therefore..... •The moon has much less mass than the earth and so rotates around the earth.
  • 282. Does Water Have Mass? ● If you raise hundreds of millions of tons of water up into the upper atmosphere to complete the water canopy, will it have a gravitational effect on the earth?  ● What effect will this have on the Earth's gravitational effect on the 
  • 283. This gravitational effect will be a pull that is o  The Earth would still exert a gravitational effect on things on earth, but it would be  IOW People and animals, although their mass would remain the same, they would 
  • 284. The Megafauna and Large Dinosaurs would have weighed less.  •The earth‘s gravitational relationship to the sun, moon and planets would not be affected.
  • 285.  Megafauna and Large 8. Dinosaurs
  • 286.  Surface to volume ratios would not allow large 20 ton, 60 -100 ton dinosaurs to live with today‟s present atmospheric pressure and oxygen levels.  *
  • 287. Effects of the Double Rotation  Would an increase in oxygen cont  increase in air pressure an  and a decrease in gravity,  and other effects of the second rotat
  • 288.  If there were less harmful short – wave radiation, would people and animals live longer and grow to a larger size?
  • 289.  Surface to Volume Ratio
  • 290.  Side  Side x of Cube Side  Area of 1 Side xwx  l Area  x h x l #S = of w= area of Cube‟s Volume Cube‟s Surface of Cube Surface  Volu me of Cube  Ratio of Surface Area to Volume  2  2x2  4  2x2 x6  24  2x2 x2  8  3:1  4  4x4  16  4x4 x6  96  4x4 x4  64  3:2  8  8x8  64  8x8  384  8x8  512  3:4 x6 x8  16  16x  256  16x  153  16x  409  3:8 16 16x6 6 16x1 6 6  32x  102  32x  614  32x  327  3:1  32
  • 291. •For example, just for example, let‘s say an animal required 2,000,000 molecules of O2 per breath but the surface area of its lungs allowed for the transfer of 1,200,000 molecules of O2 per breath under present atmospheric conditions…
  • 292. •…The surface area of the lungs is, at that point, inadequate to supply enough oxygen for all of the cells in the volume of the body. •Since every cell in the body requires oxygen, what would be the result?
  • 293. •Elephants are the largest land animals that live on earth today. How much does the largest one weigh? •Could a 15 ton, or a 60 ton or a 100 ton animal live on earth today? •The evidence is that they cannot!
  • 294.  BUT THEY DID!
  • 295.  What questions do the Megafauna and Large Dinosaurs raise? •What is the largest land animal alive, today? •How much does it weigh? •What allowed the megafauna and large dinosaurs to survive before the flood?
  • 296. Why are there no land animals larger than the elephant alive today? When we know that many much larger land animals lived before the flood? We have the skeletons!   
  • 297.  The Theory FOR Creation  Part 7  Presented by Dr. Peter Okimi
  • 298.  Three Premises •The theory must fit the Bible •The theory must fit the existing evidence •The theory must follow the laws of science
  • 299.  The Theory FOR Creation 1.Earth‘s Double rotation 2.Complete Water Canopy – greenhouse effect 3.Decrease in harmful shortwave radiation 4.Worldwide uniform subtropical temperatures
  • 300. 1. 35% oxygen 2. Increased Atmospheric pressure 3. Decreased gravity 4. Dinosaurs & Megafauna 5. Gradual Decline in O2 6. Longevity of life 7. Stopping the 2nd rotation 8. George Dodwell 9. The Ice Age
  • 301. 1. Other Things to Consider  a.) Loess b.) Hezekiah and the Sundial c.) The Aurora Borealis/Australis d.) Creation‟s Tiny Mysteries e.) Gondwanaland/Pangea
  • 302.  Causes for the Demise of the Megafauna and Large Dinosaurs
  • 303. i.The Flood ii.Lack of sufficient O2 due to the decrease from 35% to 21%. iii.Decrease in Atmospheric pressure and therefore a decrease in the ability to absorb O2. iv.Increase in gravity
  • 304. i.Loss of habitat because of the flood. ii.Loss of food sources because of the flood and competition for what was available.
  • 305. i. Hunting by man: before the flood men were apparently vegetarian. This is evidenced in two ways. a)God gave Noah directions on consumption of animal protein after the flood.
  • 306.  b) Animals became afraid of man only after the flood. (Genesis 9:2, 3)
  • 307. i. General decrease in the amount of food and habitat due to the change in climatic conditions, i.e. from subtropical to temperate, sub arctic and arctic.
  • 308.  Dinosaurs
  • 309.  There is a class of animals that never stops growing throughout its life. ―But what else do we know of reptiles and some other creatures like fish? They keep growing and growing as long as they live! D. R. Peterson, p. 149 Unlocking the Mysteries of Creation.
  • 310.  Komodo Dragon
  • 311.  ―Secondary centers of ossification (bony epiphyses) are lacking in the growing bones of most modern reptiles, although they do occur in many lizards. In mammals such as man the fusion of these with the main part of the bone in early adult life sets a limit to the maximum size attained.‖
  • 312.  If man, who now lives to approximately 70 years, lived to an average of more than 900 years old before the flood, what about the animals?  Frilled Lizard
  • 313. •Some giant tortoises today are 100 + years old. •If a reptile lived to be 300, 400, or 500 years old and if it never stopped growing during it‟s life, what would it look like? And how big would it be?
  • 314.  Leatherback turtles grow to 998 Kg (2200 pounds) and dive to 427 meters (4200 feet). The Blue Planet – Seas of Life – Open Ocean/The Deep narrated by David Attenborough Copyright 2002 BBC Worldwide America, Inc.
  • 315.  Which dinosaur/ dragon have you seen that does not look like a reptile?
  • 316.  Did Dinosaurs Live After the Flood? •Job •When was the Bible written? •How could they live after the flood? •What caused them to die?
  • 317.  The Gradual Decline in O2 9. Content from 35% to 21%  The decline from 35% to 21% oxygen content likely took approximately 1000 years, to the time of Joshua (d. 1377 B.C.) or David (d.1010 B.C.) from 2345 B.C.
  • 318. •The decline would have paralleled, somewhat, the decline in age of the patriarchs
  • 319.  What caused the decline?  The decline was caused by the very large decrease in the amount of vegetation growing in the Arctic and Antarctic to temperate regions.
  • 320.  Why was the decline gradual? •The Flood caused the death of the main Oxygen producers and consumers; the plants and animals and man. •The rates of consumption and production both fell
  • 321.  Preflood levels were still in the atmosphere at 35% after the Flood •New vegetation grows •Populations of animals and man also grow •So rates of consumption and production rise postflood
  • 322.  The colder climates in the temperate to Arctic and temperate to Antarctic regions prevented tremendous amounts of postflood vegetation from growing in those areas.
  • 323.  As O2 levels fall the large dinosaurs and the megafauna go extinct as their surface to volume ratios reach points where the decreased oxygen levels can no longer support life.
  • 324. •This is why Behemoth and Leviathan lived during Job‘s lifetime. •This is why the Bible writers knew about dragons/dinosaurs (after the flood).
  • 325.  Other factors •Certainly other factors also affected the decline of the megafauna and large dinosaurs. •Decrease in air pressure, increase in gravity, increase in shortwave radiation for example
  • 326.  Oxygen Decreases – Nitrogen Increases •At the same time that Oxygen levels are falling to 21%, Nitrogen levels are rising due to the death of plants, animals and man and the decomposition of proteins and amino acids. •New equilibriums would have gradually developed at 21% and 78% respectively.
  • 327.  10. Longevity of Life
  • 328.  Length of Life Relative to the Flood •Before:  average human age was over 900 years  •After:  years to 120 70  years. •Diet a factor?  Hunza
  • 329. •The 2nd rotation with its concomitant increase in oxygen, increase in air pressure and decrease in gravity. •Short-wave radiation
  • 330.  11. Stopping the 2nd Rotation
  • 331.  Earth‘s second rotation stops  Stopping the second rotation would cause relatively sudden, very cold areas at the present north and south polar regions – rain, hail and snow, lots of it, would begin to fall for the first time, EVER. Enough to account for the 40 days and 40 nights of rain in the Middle East.
  • 332.  In the six hundredth year of Noah‘s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was on the earth forty days and forty nights.  Genesis 7: 11, 12.
  • 333. What broke up the Fountains of the  ● Could it have been earthquakes and the shifting of the tectonic plates ● What opened the windows (or floodgates) of heaven? ●
  • 334.  Relatively sudden cold north and south, sudden enough to freeze animals so that their flesh was preserved, their eyes and red blood cells were very well preserved and the vegetation they ate was preserved in their mouth.
  • 335. •Stopping the rotation of the earth with its large mass would have caused catastrophic events •The tectonic plates would shift •Earthquakes would have taken place •Tidal waves would have happened
  • 336. •Water would have been forced up from underground reservoirs •Volcanoes would have erupted •Mountains could have risen up and Islands could have disappeared •Hurricanes, typhoons, tornadoes, etc. would occur
  • 337.  The Fountains of the Deep •As the fountains of the deep drained, could land over them collapse? •Mount Everest is (29,035 feet) 8,850 metres high, yet limestone and fossil marine life has been found near the top.
  • 338. •Could flood waters have covered the top of Everest at it‘s current height of 5 ½ miles above sea level? •If Mountains were pushed up could the level of the seafloor have changed?
  • 339.  If Everest and other mountains were lower prior to the flood are there other places that are lower now that were higher then? (i.e. one of the laws of physics: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.)
  • 340.  Mammoths Frozen in the Arctic •Method of freezing the mammoths i.Very low temperatures—Minus 45.6 – 56.7 °C (-50 to -70 oF) or colder
  • 341. i.Strong winds causing WIND CHILL i.Buried inch by inch under ice and snow in a few hours or days
  • 342. All flesh that died in the flood should have decayed to mere bones because the flood waters were upon the earth for at least 1 year and 10 days. Genesis 7:11, 8:13, 14. This is generally what we see in most of the world....  
  • 343.  Quick vs. Slow  It is noteworthy that the mammoths when found appear to have been quick frozen…
  • 344. •…as indicated by earlier quotes and this picture of mammoths in the Khatanga cave. •What natural process do you know of that would cause large animals to be quick frozen?
  • 345.  Catastrophe Was Sudden •Ichthyosaur fossil. One baby had just been born and one baby is in the birth canal partially delivered. •These are indications of the abruptness, the swiftness of the catastrophe.
  • 346. Ichthyosaur Giving Birth
  • 347.  The Theory FOR Creation  Part 8  Presented by Dr. Peter Okimi
  • 348.  Three Premises •The theory must fit the Bible •The theory must fit the existing evidence •The theory must follow the laws of science
  • 349.  The Theory FOR Creation 1.Earth‘s Double rotation 2.Complete Water Canopy – greenhouse effect 3.Decrease in harmful shortwave radiation 4.Worldwide uniform subtropical temperatures
  • 350. 1. 35% oxygen 2. Increased Atmospheric pressure 3. Decreased gravity 4. Dinosaurs & Megafauna 5. Gradual Decline in O2 6. Longevity of life 7. Stopping the 2nd rotation 8. George Dodwell 9. The Ice Age
  • 351. 1. Other Things to Consider  a.) Loess b.) Hezekiah and the Sundial c.) The Aurora Borealis/Australis d.) Creation‟s Tiny Mysteries e.) Gondwanaland/Pangea
  • 352.  12. George Dodwell •Dodwell‘s observations were from data that were recorded over a 3000 year span post flood. •Could the observations that Dodwell made have been the end results of the stopping of the second rotation?
  • 353.  13. The Ice Age
  • 354.  The Ice Age •How and when did God dry up the waters of the flood? •And the waters prevailed on the earth one hundred and fifty days. 
  • 355.  Then God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the animals that were with him in the ark. And God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters subsided. The fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were also stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained. Genesis 7:24-8: 1, 2.
  • 356. •Strong wind dried the earth for 7 months! This wind caused the evaporation of the water. •What happens when a liquid evaporates from a surface?  *
  • 357.  According to scientists today if the average temperature of the earth cooled by as little as 5 degrees it would cause another ice age. The Nature of Things with David Suzuki – Global Warming – Turning up the Heat 1996.
  • 358.  The ice in Antarctica is up to 3 miles thick. 70 % of the world‟s fresh water is frozen here. Antarctica: An Adventure of a different nature. J. Weiley
  • 359.  Land bridges would have been present that would have connected  Land Bridges  most of the main areas of the earth.
  • 360.  With the water tied up in the polar ice caps and massive glaciers in both the northern and southern hemispheres, due to the ice age, the water level of the oceans would have been l91 meters to 182 meters (300 feet to 600 feet) lower.
  • 361. Continental Shelves
  • 362. •Since the last ice age, sea levels have risen about 121.9 meters (400 feet)…. The Blue Planet – Seas of Life narrated by David Attenborough © 2000 BBC Worldwide America Inc. •Sea Level during the ice age 150 meters (500 feet) lower than present. Encarta.msn.com
  • 363.  Distribution of Man and Animals •These land bridges would account for the redistribution of man and animals around the world after the flood. For example to Indonesia, Borneo, New Guinea, the Philippines, Australia, North America, England, etc.
  • 364.  Could the continental shelves be the coastline post flood, during the ice age? *
  • 365.  Where did the Waters of the Flood Go? •As the earth gradually warmed the glaciers would have melted.
  • 366. •Redistribution of water to glaciers in the polar regions and the tops of the higher mountain ranges would have taken place. •A lot of water would also flow into the oceans increasing their levels. (300 to 600 feet, 91 to 182 meters)
  • 367.  14. Other Things to Consider
  • 368.  Loess  ―When materials finer than sand are carried by the wind and are finally dropped to earth, the deposit that results is known as loess. Thick layers of loess are found in Europe and the Americas and loess deposits of Asia reach a thickness of several hundred meters. They are the basis for some of the richest agricultural soils of the world.‖ Encarta ‘97
  • 369.  Origin of Loess  Aquatic Theory – Geologists at one time thought that loess was laid down by water and settled out during times of large floods. However, land snails and bones of land vertebrates were found in loess so the theory was largely abandoned.
  • 370. •Aeolian Theory – in 1877, von Richthofen came up with the theory that the 330 meter deep sheets of loess were carried there by prevailing winds from the desert. •What could account for the tremendous amounts of loess found around the world?
  • 371.  Hezekiah and the Sundial •Story of Hezekiah is found in  2 Kings 20:8-11. •The 23.5 degrees tilt is responsible for the four seasons. •Why a 23.5 degree tilt?  *
  • 372.  Aurora Borealis/Australis •The aurora borealis/australis is millions of volts of electricity. •―…electrons and protons are discharged into the atmosphere over an area centering on the north and south magnetic poles‖ –"Aurora (phenomenon)," Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation.
  • 373.  Could Aurora Borealis/Australis be a possible source for energy for the double rotation?
  • 374.  Creation‘s Tiny Mysteries
  • 375. •The half-life of a radioactive isotope is the time required for half of the atoms in any collection to decay. •If, for example, 1000 atoms exist at a certain time, then only 500 will remain after one half-life.
  • 376.  After two half-lives only 250 atoms of the original collection will remain, and so forth. Half-life and decay rate are closely related quantities. Isotopes that decay quickly have short half-lives; those that decay more slowly have longer half-lives.
  • 377.  At present 238U is decaying very slowly with a half-life of 4.5 billion years.
  • 378. •214Po half-life = 164 microseconds •(Micro = 10-6) or millionths of a second •218Po half-life = 3 minutes
  • 379.  Gondwanaland/Pangaea •Could this have been the precursor of continental drift? •How thick is the crust of the earth? •Why move in those particular directions only?
  • 380. •What power source or phenomenon could move such a mass of rock against other masses of rock equally as thick or thicker? •If it did move, where are the evidences? Where are the piles of rock that would have been misplaced by the movement?
  • 381. Continental Drift     Current rate of Continental Drift is: 5 cm. To 12.7 cm. per year. From Brazil to Africa measured on Google Earth is 511,653,941.08 cm. Round to 500,000,000 cm. Divide by 5 cm. per year = 100,000,000 years!
  • 382.     Divide by 12.7 cm. Per year = 39,370,078.74 years. 40 million years to 100 million years? Do these numbers sound familiar? These numbers are not from the Lord nor do they fit the Bible!
  • 383.  The Theory FOR Creation      Www.freewebs.com/thetheoryforcreation Email: okimi.p@gmail.com Notes will be updated and are available upon request Slides available upon request Some photos may be copyrighted. U.S. Copyright Law contains a fair use clause whereby copyrighted material may be used for educational purposes. They may not be used in any profit making or commercial purposes. 
  • 384.  The Theory FOR Creation  The End