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Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of the Shark 2009
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Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of the Shark 2009

Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of the Shark 2009

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Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of the Shark 2009 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Fiji Shark Awareness and Conservation Program
  • 2. Sharks
    • Marine
    • Carnivores: Predators, Filter Feeders and Scavengers
    • Cartilaginous Skeleton
    • Body compressed laterally
    • 5-7 lateral Gills
  • 3. Taxonomy
    • Vertebrates
    • Chondrichthyes
    • Sharks
    • among many:
    • - Carcharhiniformes (Ground Sharks)
    • - Orectolobiformes (Carpet Sharks)
    • - Lamniformes (Mackerel Sharks)
    • Approx. 400 Species
    • Records
  • 4. Morphology
  • 5. Physiology
    • Senses
    • - Smell
    • - Vision
    • - Electroreception
    • - Lateral Line
    • Osmoregulation
    • - Freshwater Tolerance
    • Buoyancy
    • Body Temperature
  • 6. Reproduction
    • Internal Fertilization
    • Birth
    • - Ovipary
    • - Vivipary
        • Aplacental Viviparity (Ovoviviparity)
        • Placental Viviparity
    • Vulnerabilities
    • - Late Maturity
    • - Small Litter Size
  • 7. Sharks most likely seen by Divers in Fiji
    • Bull Shark
    • Blacktip Reef Shark
    • Grey Reef Shark
    • Hammerhead Sharks
    • Leopard Shark
    • Silvertip Shark
    • Sicklefin Lemon Shark
    • Tawny Nurse Shark
    • Tiger Shark
    • Whale Shark
    • Whitetip Reef Shark
  • 8.
    • Huge, Ridges, white Spots, homocercal caudal Fin
    Whale shark (Rhincodon typus)
  • 9. Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier)
    • Stripes, caudal Keel, pupil “inverted teardrop”
  • 10. Bull Shark (Carcharhinus leucas)
    • Wide-shouldered, falcate 1 st dorsal Fin, small Eyes
  • 11. Sicklefin Lemon Shark ( Negaprion acutidens )
    • Falcate dorsal fins of similar size, swims with open mouth displaying teeth
  • 12. Silvertip Shark (Carharhinus albimarginatus)
    • All fins rimmed in bright white
  • 13. Tawny Nurse Shark (Nebrius ferrugineus)
    • Equal size of dorsal fins, small lower Lobe of caudal Fin, Barbels
  • 14. Zebra Shark ( Stegostoma fasciatum )
    • Ridges, black Spots, no lower lobe of caudal fin
  • 15. Blacktip Reef Shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus)
    • 1 st dorsal Fin with black tip and white band underneath
  • 16. Whitetip Reef Shark (Triaenodon obesus)
    • White Tips to dorsal and caudal Fins
  • 17. Hammerhead Sharks
    • Nine Species, among which
    • - Scalloped H. ( Sphyrna lewini )
    • . edge of Hammer wavy
    • . Often in Schools
    • - Great H. ( Sphyrna mokarran )
    • . Edge of Hammer straight
    • . Huge, falcate 1 st dorsal Fin
  • 18. Grey Reef Shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos)
    • Trailing Edge of caudal Fin black
  • 19. Ecology
    • Many Ecological Niches
    • The Role of predatory Sharks
    • - Essential Thread in Web of their Habitat
    • - Often, Apex Predators
    • - Maintain Health & Structure of Marine Ecosystems, by:
    • - weeding out the Sick and the Weak
      • - controlling the Population Size of their Prey
    • The Value of Sharks
  • 20. Sharks in Peril
    • IUCN: 79 Species critically imperiled: 80%-99% of oceanic Stocks have been wiped out
    • Main Threats
    • - Habitat Destruction
    • - Overfishing
    • . 80-100 Million Sharks are killed each Year
    • . Shark Fin Soup
    • - Bycatch
    • Devastating Techniques
    • - Longlines
    • - Driftnets
    • - Shark Net and Drumlines
    • - Finning
  • 21. What can be done?
    • Abrogating/Replacing Shark Fin Soup
    • Conducting Shark Awareness Courses
    • Obtaining Protection for threatened species
    • Solving the problem of the Drumlines and Shark Nets
    • Total Allowable Catch (TAC) – no more BC
    • Promote Marine Protected Areas
    • Practice Tag and Release