G322 L1 Introduction to TV Drama
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  • Spy drama - spooks
  • Do we need to believe all TV dramas?Music – why do we need it?


  • 1. AS Media Studies G322: Key Concepts in Media Section A: TV DRAMA Date: 25/02/2014 Term Sp2, Lesson 1 1
  • 2. Connect TV Dramas • What is a TV Drama? • Discuss your ideas with a partner and try to create a shared definition
  • 3. Discover Discovery Question • What is a TV DRAMA and why is REPRESENTATION so important in it? Date Term ?, Lesson ? 3
  • 4. Discover Learning Objective/ Outcome Level All: Will understand the exam question and be able to relate it to TV Dramas Level 2 Most: Will explain the uses Camerawork, Editing, Sound and MES in a TV Drama to create Representation Level 3 Some: Will analyse the the uses Camerawork, Editing, Sound and MES in a TV Drama to create Representation Level 4 Date Term ?, Lesson ? 4
  • 5. Discover G322 Media Exam • Textual Analysis and Representation: – Camera shots – Camera Angle – Movement and Composition – Editing – Sound – Mise-en-Scene
  • 6. Discover G322 Media Exam • The purpose of these units is first to assess candidates’ media textual analysis skills and their understanding of the concept of representation using a short unseen moving image extract
  • 7. Discover Section A • An ‘unseen’ moving image extract with one compulsory question dealing with textual analysis of various technical aspects of the languages and conventions of moving image media. • Candidates will be asked to link this analysis with a discussion of some aspect of representation within the sequence.
  • 8. Discover Section A • The focus of study for Section A is the use of technical aspects of the moving image medium to create meaning for an audience, focusing on the creation of representations of specific social types, groups, events or places within the extract.
  • 9. Discover Section A TV Drama • The sequence will be taken from a contemporary one-off drama or series or serial drama programme scheduled on British television stations including some sourced from other countries.
  • 10. Discover Exam Structure Watching the unseen moving image extract • You will be allowed two minutes to read the question for Section A before the extract is screened. • The extract will be screened four times. – – – First screening: watch the extract; no notes are to be made this time. Second screening: watch the extract and make notes. • There will be a brief break for note-making. Third and fourth screening: watch the extract and make notes • There will be a brief break for note-making after the third and fourth screenings. • Your notes for Section A are to be written in the answer booklet provided and must be handed in at the end of the examination. • Rule a diagonal line through your notes afterwards.
  • 11. Discover • • • • • • • 7 KEY AREAS FOR TOPIC Gender Age Ethnicity Sexuality Class and status Physical ability/disability Regional identity
  • 12. Discover TV Dramas • A story that is presented in a dramatic way and explores a range of genres, from soap opera to science-fiction to costume drama. • A piece of film that engages with the issues of the day in an accessible fashion, i.e. through believable characters, through fantastic locations or plots.
  • 14. Discover CONVENTIONS OF TV DRAMA • What are the CONVENTIONS of a TV Drama? BONUS: Which do you think are the most important?
  • 15. Develop Same Characters each week Conventional Camerawork Title Sequence Conventions of TV Drama Aiming to represent reality Same locations each week Appeals to wide audience Narrative based
  • 16. Develop Guess the Sub-Genre.... • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWptHq1s dvI • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGF1rMy K4UA • Now list as many TV Drama sub-genres as you can.....
  • 17. Develop Your Task Create a new British TV Drama that conforms or challenges conventions. Consider... • Target Audience • Viewing Time • Characters • Locations • Possible scenarios • Mise en scene • Camerawork • Sounds
  • 18. Develop • Why do we watch Television Drama? What pleasures do spectators experience through watching TV drama? Think about your own response to the drama you watch? Cranford, BBC1 Dr Who, BBC1
  • 19. REMEMBER! • It is rare to find a TV Drama that fits all audiences • Audiences like choice and different TV Dramas appeal to different audiences (Uses and Gratidications, Bulmer and Katz) • Each TV Drama is CONSTRUCTED to appeal to their target audience • REPRESENTATION is constructed – you must deconstruct how it has been created and the impact of it using technical language. Date Term ?, Lesson ? 19
  • 20. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION Words and images in media texts can work on more than one level. You will come across the terms denotation and connotation throughout your course. They are important terms for you to understand.
  • 21. DENOTATION is the straight forward or commonsense meaning of a sign. Literally what is actually shown in an image. A red rose is a flower – that is its straight forward meaning or denotation An apple is a fruit we eat- A lamb is a young sheep-
  • 22. CONNOTATION is the extra, linked meaning that goes with any sign. The connotations of a sign will be much more personal than the straight forward denotation because they are to do with personal ideas and feelings about it. The connotations will not be the same for everybody.
  • 23. Think about the rose… For romantics a red rose can be a symbol of love. In Lancashire it is a symbol for the county. It has even been a symbol for a political party. These are all connotations or extra layers of meaning that the image carries with it.
  • 24. Think about the apple… It can be a symbol of health. It can have associated meanings of New York -“The Big Apple”. It can even have stand for sin. These are all connotations or extra layers of meaning that the image carries with it.
  • 25. A two step content analysis of pictures. 1. Denotation. Straightforward reading of what is in the picture. 2. Connotation. The extra, linked meanings that go with the picture. 1 :- Sky. Sand. Girl. Boy. Donkey. 2:- Beach. Seaside. Holiday. Family holiday. Traditional British holiday. photo courtesy of photolibrary wales www.photolibrarywales.com)
  • 26. Creating Realism • Why is it important for a TV Drama to create ‘REALISM’? • How is Realism Created?
  • 27. How is ‘realism’ created for… • • • • A hospital drama? A police drama? A spy drama? A costume or historical drama?
  • 28. Realism is like a ‘sandwich’ of three layers: First level of Realism means selecting the right…. Second level of realism means how the drama is filmed using…. Actors Props/objects Locations Lighting Voices of actors/ noises on set (diegetic sound) Music (nondiegetic sound). Third level of realism: The finished ‘product’ on TV. Use of camera Choice of shot Editing. The actual TV drama viewed by the audience. And….. Audience opinions of drama – do they ‘believe’ it?
  • 29. The FIRST level of realism………….. Actors, Props, Locations, Costume, Make Up Question – What do we call these collectively?
  • 30. THE CORE
  • 31. Mise En Scene • There are 6 Areas of MIS EN SCENE: • • • • • • Lighting Location Props Costume Make Up & Hair Proxemics
  • 32. Verisimilitude The ‘truth’ of the Scene and its ‘reality’
  • 33. Camera angle, shot, movement and composition.. Question – how many types of shot can you remember?
  • 34. Extreme Wide Shot (EWS) • In the extreme wide shot, the view is so far from the subject that she isn't even visible. The point of this shot is to show the subject's surroundings. • The EWS is often used as an "establishing shot" - the first shot of a new scene, designed to show the audience where the action is taking place.The EWS is also known as an extra long shot or extreme long shot (XLS).
  • 35. Very Wide Shot (VWS) • The very wide shot is much closer to the subject than an extreme wide shot, but still much further away than a wide shot. • The subject is (just) visible here, but the emphasis is very much on placing her in her environment.This often works as an establishing shot, in which the audience is shown the whole setting so they can orient themselves.
  • 36. Wide Shot (WS) • Also known as a LONG SHOT. • As with most shot types, the wide shot means different things to different people. However the wide shot seems to suffer more from varying interpretations than other types. Many people take the WS to mean something much wider than my example, i.e. what I would call a very wide shot.
  • 37. Mid Shot (MS) • The MS is appropriate when the subject is speaking without too much emotion or intense concentration. It also works well when the intent is to deliver information, which is why it is frequently used by television news presenters. You will often see a story begin with a MS of the reporter (providing information), followed by closer shots of interview subjects (providing reactions and emotion).As well as being a comfortable, emotionally neutral shot, the mid shot allows room for hand gestures and a bit of movement.
  • 38. Medium Close Up (MCU) • The medium closeup is half way between a mid shot and a close up. This shot shows the face more clearly, without getting uncomfortably close.
  • 39. Close Up (CU) • In the closeup shot, a certain feature or part of the subject takes up most of the frame. A close up of a person usually means a close up of their face (unless specified otherwise).Close-ups are obviously useful for showing detail and can also be used as a Insert Shot ( or Cut In). A close-up of a person emphasizes their emotional state. Whereas a mid-shot or wide-shot is more appropriate for delivering facts and general information, a close-up exaggerates facial expressions which convey emotion. The viewer is drawn into the subject's personal space and shares their feelings.
  • 40. Extreme Close Up (ECU) • The ECU gets right in and shows extreme detail.You would normally need a specific reason to get this close. It is too close to show general reactions or emotion except in very dramatic scenes.
  • 41. Cutaway (CA) • A cutaway is a shot that's usually of something other than the current action. It could be a different subject (eg. this cat when the main subject is its owner), a close up of a different part of the subject (eg. the subject's hands), or just about anything else.The cutaway is used as a "buffer" between shots (to help the editing process), or to add interest/information.
  • 42. Two Shot • Two-shots are good for establishing a relationship between subjects. If you see two sports presenters standing side by side facing the camera, you get the idea that these people are going to be the show's co-hosts. As they have equal prominence in the frame, the implication is that they will provide equal input.A two-shot could also involve movement or action. It is a good way to follow the interaction between two people without getting distracted by their surroundings.
  • 43. Over the Shoulder Shot (OSS) • Looking from behind a person at the subject, cutting off the frame just behind the ear. The person facing the subject should occupy about 1/3 of the frame.This shot helps to establish the positions of each person, and get the feel of looking at one person from the other's point of view. A variation of this shot can be a bit wider and include the shoulder of the person facing the subject.
  • 44. Point-of-View Shot (POV) • Shows a view from the subject's perspective. This shot is usually edited in such a way that it is obvious whose POV it is.
  • 45. High Angle  a high angle shot is usually when the camera is located above the eyeline.  With this type of angle, the camera looks down on the subject and the point of focus often get "swallowed up" by the setting.  High angle shots also make the figure or object seem vulnerable or powerless
  • 46. Low Angle • a low angle shot is usually when the camera is located below the eyeline. • With this type of angle, the camera looks up towards the subject • Low angle shots also make the figure or object seem powerful
  • 47. Birds Eye View  The scene is shown from directly above. This is a completely different and somewhat unnatural point of view which can be used for dramatic effect or for showing a different spatial perspective.  In drama it can be used to show the positions and motions of different characters and objects, enabling the viewer to see things the characters can't.
  • 48. Worms Eye View • The scene is shown from directly below. This is a completely different and somewhat unnatural point of view which can be used for dramatic effect or for showing a different spatial perspective.
  • 49. Slanted • Also known as a dutch tilt, this is where the camera is purposely tilted to one side so the horizon is on an angle. This creates an interesting and dramatic effect.
  • 50. Zoom • An adjustment to the focal length of the camera making the it seem that we are getting closer to the subject • Zoom
  • 51. Dolly • The camera is mounted on a trolly which travels on tracks. This allows for a very smooth movement and is mainly used for tracking shots or zooms • Dolly
  • 52. Pan • A horizontal movement of the camera, either left of right • Pan
  • 53. Tilt • Pointing the camera up and down (not moving the camera up and down) • Tilt
  • 54. Pedestal • The camera moves up and down but remains level, making it different to a tilt • Pedestal
  • 55. Tracking • Movement that stays a constant distance from the subject – can be used on a crane as well • Tracking
  • 56. Composition  Composition is how we create the shot we want in the frame  There are 5 key rules to composing a great shot: • • • • • Simplicity Rule of Thirds Framing Leading Lines Balance
  • 57. Leading Lines • • Direct the viewers' eyes with leading lines. Use leading lines to direct them to focus on the main subject of your shot. The direction of the dominant lines in a picture has psychological connotations. – – – – Horizontal - serenity and inactivity. Vertical - strength and dignity. Diagonal - action, imbalance, insecurity. Curved - softness or movement.
  • 58. Balance • There are two main forms of balance: • Symmetrical balance creates a formal appearance. • Asymmetrical balance creates a feeling of movement and suggests a creative and dynamic mood. • Use the form of balance that is most appropriate for your subject.
  • 59. Discover How do we Analyse a TV Drama – Mise-en-Scene – Camera shots / Camera Angle / Movement and Composition – Editing – Sound
  • 60. Editing Techniques • Editing is how individual shots are combined in sequence to convey certain meanings. The relationships between shots themselves convey certain meanings • Editing also serves to portray lived time in terms of film-time so that actual events that would take longer to occur in real time are truncated or reduced to fit into the film time of the typical two-hour film
  • 61. Editing Techniques • Key Terminology: – Shot Duration – How long each shot lasts – Continuity Editing - In continuity editing everything is filmed so that the viewer thinks they are seeing continuous action. You will need to ensure that characters’ appearance, the set and the lighting (colour and direction) remain consistent from shot to shot. – Transitions - Fades and dissolves (or ‘cross-fades’) can add to the meaning of a sequence. – Montage - Not all editing is continuity editing. Title sequences often use ‘montage’, where the combination of contrasting images builds up meaning.
  • 62. Transitions • Dissolves can be used to provide a slow, relaxed way of linking shots - eg in a ‘montage’ of different shots within an opening sequence. They can also be used in continuity editing to show that we have moved forward in time and/or space. • Fades to black and back are usually used to show that a more significant period of time has elapsed between two sequences. • Wipes and other unusual transitions are best avoided!
  • 63. Editing Techniques • Match on Action – A technique used in continuity editing to convey a sense of continuity between shots • Match Cut – objects or images on the screen are matched to another similar object to show a connection between both objects
  • 64. Sound • Although film and television largely effect the audience because of what they see, sound also has a big impact on the audience. • The music used in film is known as the soundtrack. • It can be broken down into the following categories...
  • 65. • dialogue recorded on location. • dialogue recorded after filming, and dubbed in sync with the lip movement of the actors – virtually all the dialogue on major movies is post- synched in a dubbing studio to get a very clean high definition sound. • sound effects (FX) - these may be recorded on location and added later or they may be created for a scene such as a gun shot, the sound of a man being punched, cars crashing etc. Hollywood does these extra sound FX in a Foley studio.
  • 66. Diagetic Sound: Sound or music that is recorded on set as it happens. This will include dialogue and sounds which take place within the film e.g. a door closing, gun being fired, police siren. Non-Diagetic Sound: Music or sound which is added to the film during the editing process. Most often, non-diagetic sound is music, which is used to create atmosphere or emotion.
  • 67. TASK 1 • You need to deconstruct the following extract: • If you are a 1 you will focus on the CAMERAWORK • If you are a 2 you will focus on EDITING • If you are a 3 you will; focus on SOUND Date Term ?, Lesson ? 69
  • 68. Celebrate Plenary • Can you explain the following key terms? – – – – – – – – Date DIEGETIC NON-DIEGETIC TRANSITION SYMETRY CLOSE UP LEADING LINES SOUND BRIDGE TV DRAMA Term ?, Lesson ? 70