Literaturereview drfaisalal-allaf-copy-130716035723-phpapp01
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Literaturereview drfaisalal-allaf-copy-130716035723-phpapp01 Literaturereview drfaisalal-allaf-copy-130716035723-phpapp01 Presentation Transcript

  • Literature Review Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf Assistant Professor of Genetics and Molecular Medicine Tel/Fax: 5270000 Ext: 4197/4198
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Dealing with writing blocks  No time  Personal problems or illness  You do not know what to do  You do not know where to begin
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Getting Ready to Write  Pre-write  Write inside out  Follow the guidelines of the funding agencies  Work from an outline  Find a model proposal  Find a mentor  Establish a timetable and meet periodically  Review, pretest, and revise repeatedly
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Elements of a Proposal  Title  Abstract or summary  Introduction  Problem or needs statement  Project goals and objectives  Literature review  Project method or design  Project evaluation  Project management  Organizational capabilities  Project budget  Resumes of Applicants
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, What is a Literature Review? Background  Literature review is a section which sets the proposed study in context and gives its rationale  It is a classification and evaluation of what other researchers have written on a topic, organized chronologically or according to the research objectives  This section cites previous research that is relevant and indicates the problems with prior research and what uncertainties remain
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Literature Review: Background and Significance Significance  Specify how the findings of the proposed study will help resolve uncertainties  Potential discovery and/or new scientific knowledge  How the finding will influence practice guidelines or public health policy.  Will the results of the research fill a defined gap in our knowledge or advance our understanding of this subject?  Will the research facilitate the development of valuable techniques or experimental models, lead to rational treatment for some pathological condition, or change existing practices?  Is this research likely to yield new conclusions that will have general theoretical value or practical clinical significance, or impact on the delivery or organization of practices or health services?
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Why do a Literature Review?  To place the study in a historical perspective  To define and limit the problem  To explain how the question to be investigated fits into the larger picture  To asks why to approached the topic this way  To allows the readers to be brought up to date regarding the state of research in the field and familiarizes them to any contrasting perspectives and viewpoints on the topic.  Does my professional background, research experience, past progress in the topic, knowledge in the field and preliminary experiments, as outlined in this application demonstrate that I am qualified to perform the study  Do I have the technical competence and skills needed for the proposed work, and that my results will be reliable and inspire confidence in my peers?
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Components of Literature Review: Searching, Assessing, and Integrating  Literature review is  A critical reading (searching)  Analyses (assessing)  Summarizing (integrating) of peer reviewed articles about a specific topic to determine the following:  What is known about the topic?  How it is correlated with the research question?  What kind of answers will the study provide?  It is not a list of all the books and papers that you have read
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Components of Literature Review: Literature search (searching)  What is known about the subject?  Find materials relevant to the subject and avoid irrelevant references  Make sure that you have collected thoroughly  Your favorite search engine may not find most of the relevant literature!  Place the study in a historical perspective and avoid unnecessary duplication  Not all relevant materials are published - show familiarity with unpublished work, gained through personal contacts  Identify the next logical stage of research beyond your current application  Not all appropriate sources of information will be relevant all of the time
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Components of Literature Review: Literature search (searching)  Provide preliminary data, this extremely important section helps build reviewers confidence that you can handle the technologies, understand the methods, and interpret results.  Preliminary data should support the hypothesis to be tested and the feasibility of the project.  Explain how the preliminary results are valid and how early studies will be expanded in scope or size.  Preliminary data may consist of your own publications, publications of others, unpublished data from your own laboratory or from others, or some combination of these.  Include manuscripts submitted for publication. Make sure it is clear which data are yours and which were reported by others.
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Components of Literature Review: Data evaluation (assessing):  Is there consensus about the topic?  What sources of information or data were identified that might be useful to you?  Are there any gaps in the knowledge of the subject?  Have areas of further study been identified by other researchers that you may want to consider?  What aspects have generated significant debate on the topic?  What is the most productive methodology for your research based on the literature you have reviewed?
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Components of Literature Review: Data evaluation (assessing):  Review critically and organize logically the data and events that led to the present proposal  Determine which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic.  Determine if the findings and conclusions should be relied upon and are not misleading (Evaluate research methods).  Ask, does this background information justify the next step, which is this proposal?  Ask, have I made a clear distinction between (a) what others/or collaborators have done, (b) what I have done, (c) what I intend to do?  Ask, have I demonstrated a thorough understanding and a balanced knowledge of the pertinent literature, and have I emphasized or clarified discrepancies?
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Components of Literature Review: Data interpretation (integrating)  Literature review may exhibit apparent contradictions  Discuss the findings and conclusions of relevant literature  Determine the advantages and disadvantages of previously used methodologies  Identify ways to improve conceptual frameworks for research  Identify promising future research  Ask, have the preliminary studies demonstrated that the methods, procedures, techniques, and protocols are feasible, adequate and appropriate, and that the hypothesis is therefore readily testable?  What methods or problems were identified by others studying in the field and how might they impact your research?  What is the current status of research in this area?
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Effective Literature Review  Compare and contrast different researchers' views on an issue  Group research that draw similar conclusions  Criticize aspects of methodology  Note areas in which authors are in disagreement  Highlight perfect studies  Highlight gaps in research  Show how your study relates to previous studies  Show how your study relates to the literature in general  Conclude by summarizing what the literature says Caulley, 1992
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Plagiarism  The deliberate or reckless representation/Publication of another author's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions, and the representation of them as one's own original work  To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use another person’s  idea, opinion, or theory  any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings  any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge;  quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words  paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words.  How to paraphrase & avoid plagiarism?
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, References  It is advisable to use software to cite and organize your references  Endnotes  Reference manager
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, Characteristics of a Good Literature Review  Clarity of the presentation  Clear outline  Meaningful subheadings  Point by point summaries  Concise tables  Simple diagram  Potential flaws
  • Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, THANK YOU