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Lesson 1 – General Introduction• What is the Hebrew Bible – God’s relationship with creation – humanity – The Covenantal relationship• Why should we study the Hebrew Bible – God who revealed himself in the Hebrew Bible is the God of the New Testament – Fulfillment of prophecy (Isaiah 7) and expectation (cf. Fullness of Time) – Our Lord’s Scripture – Throws light on new Testament concepts (Redeemer, Sacrificial lamb, new Adam) – God’s self revelation in History – “The New Testament is hidden in the Old Testament.” - Augustine
Lesson 2 – Division of Old Testament• Tanakh (TNK):• Torah (Torah)• Nebi’im (Prophets)• Kethubim (Writings) – Note : The books are not arranged in this exact order.• See St. Luke 24• 44He said to them, "This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms."
Lesson 2 – Division (Continued)• Torah – (Law) is known as Pentateuch• Genesis – Pre history and early history• Exodus – Trials in Egypt and Escape by God’s providence, Covenant and sustenance by God• Leviticus –Sacrifices and regulations of conduct• Numbers – Narration of the Journey to Canaan• Deuteronomy – set as series of sermons delivered by Moses
Lesson 2 – Division Continued• Nebi’im (21) – Former Prophets – Joshua – 2 Kings (6) – Latter Prophets • 3 Major Prophets – Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekial(3) • 12 Minor Prophets – Hosea to Malachi
Lesson 2 – Division Continued• Kethubim (13) – Psalms – Proverbs – Job – Song of Songs – Ruth – Lamentations – Ecclesiastes – Esther – Daniel – Ezra-Nehemiah – Chronicles (I & II)
Lesson 3 – Old Testament Canon• Canon – measuring rod; accepted collection of books.• No official list in the early history; no closed canon by the time of Christ• A.D. 90 Council of Jamnia – 39 list of books in Protestant Bible
Lesson 3 – Old Testament Canon • Septaugint – LXX (seventy) • Greek Translation done in 3rd century B.C. • Ex. Isaiah 7:14 (cf. St. Matt. 1:23) • St. Simeon • New Testament writers quote from the Septaugint. The authoritative O.T of early church. • There are a few books in the Septaugint that are not in the list approved by Jewish Council in Jamnia. • These books are considered part of the Orthodox Canon. They are called apocryphal or Deutero-canonical books
Lesson 4 – Text and Translations• Hebrew Language• Masoretic Text – authoritative Hebrew Text recognized as the official version of Tanakh• Septaugint• Peshitta (simple/ordinary)– Syriac• Vulgate – Latin by Jerome
• Unit II – – Pentateuch and Israelite History
Lesson 1 - Pentateuch• Pentateuch has been subject to a similar Critical study as the Gospels.
Israelite History• The Israelite History presented in the Old Testament is the history of Redemption.• What is chosen is not history of human beings but how God acted in history• “Now the rest of the acts of Jehu, all that he did, and all his power, are they not written in the Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel?” – 2 Kings 10:34
Israelite History• 2 Critical Events• Exodus out of Egypt (Pentateuch – Kings)• Babylonian Captivity ( All the Latter Prophets, Daniel, Esther, Ezra-Nehmiah, Writings, Wisdom)
Israelite History• Patriarchal Era – (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob)• Hagar – You are El-roi (God who sees) (Gen. 16:13)
Israelite History• Exodus and the period of the Judges (1290-1050 BC)• Miriam - I brought you up out of Egypt and redeemed you from the land of slavery. I sent Moses to lead you, also Aaron and Miriam. Micah 6:4• Deborah – Judges 4 & 5• Period of Judges – Tribal confederacy – Repeated pattern – Apostasy, Subjection, Repentance, Deliverance
Israelite History• Early Israelite Monarchy (1050-750 BC) – Samuel – Saul (1029-1000) – David (1000-961) – Solomon (961-922)• Abigail wife of Nabal (1 Sam 25:3 The woman was clever and beautiful.)• Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10)
Israelite History• Divided Kingdom – 930 B.C. (1 Kings 12)• After Solomon the United monarchy is split as two. – 10 Tribes in the North – Israel rejected Rehoboam and Jeroboam becomes King. – 2 Tribes (Judah and Benjamin)• Early Prophets Elijah and Elisha• Widow of Zarephath (1 Kings 17)• 1 Kings 17:21 Elijah Stretched himself over the widow’s son - Cross
Israelite History• End of Northern Kingdom –• 722 B.C. Assyrians destroyed Israel• Micah 1:1 – (Samaria and Jerusalem, capitals)• Prophesies the coming destruction of Samaria – Micah 1:6• Promise of a deliverer from Bethlehem – Micah 5:2 – But you O Bethlehem of Ephrathah…
Israelite History• End of the Southern Kingdom• Babylonian Captivity – 586 B.C (Temple Destroyed) by Nebuchadnezzar• Captivity, Return to Israel, Rebuilding of the Temple.• Susanna – end of Book of Daniel in the Apocrypha
Israelite History• Persian Period and Return from Exile – King Cyrus (538 B.C) – Esther
Israelite History• Second Temple Period• Persian and Greek• Greeks attacked the Temple• Marth Shmuni - 2 Maccabees 7 – seven sons