Linux 101


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A survival guide for the Linux / Unix neophyte.

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Linux 101

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. So you’re new to Linux? • Just got thrown a Red Hat cd and need to get going? • Told to change a few files? • Scared to death you’ll destroy something? • Yeah… we know. This will get you through the tough 2
  3. 3. Basics – getting connected • First, you need to launch a console • DOS it is NOT – Use / not – No such thing and C: drives or D: drives • If you’re on the Linux Desktop, use these command consoles: – Gnome Console (Gnome) – Konsole (KDE)
  4. 4. Putty setup • Connect remotely using putty – Download the putty.exe: • • Get your connection parameters – Host name – Ssh port – SSL certificate (if required) • Setup a
  5. 5. Connection settings • Launch Putty.exe • Enter your connection parms • Click “Open” • Login with given
  6. 6. Navigating around pwd = present working directory whoami = tells you what user you are logged in as ls = list directory contents -l = show long format, -h = helpful format of sizes (MB, GB, KB, etc) -a = show all contents including hidden files cd = change directory . single period for current directory .. two periods to move one directory up ~ shortcut for the home directory (i.e. ~ = /home/myuserid) passwd = change your
  7. 7. Reading up (or down) cat = concatenate file to standard output (i.e. spit out the contents to the console) -this is good for short files, but for long files, try… more = take a long file and page through it, one screen at a time +num = switch to cause more to start at line number num tail = show the tail end of a file -x = show x numbers of lines from the bottom up. (i.e. tail -50) less = similar to more but allows backward movement in the file, and starts
  8. 8. What’s happening ps = shows the system processes and open files –ef = shows everything formatted ps –ef | grep xxxx allows you to search the process stack for string xxxx top = topaz, the system processor
  9. 9. Managing Files & Directories rm = remove file or directory -r = recourse through and remove directory chmod = change mode, or file permissions (read, write, execute) ex: chmod 755, gives this a permission set of rwxr-xr-x chown = change owner ex: chown jdoe:users mkdir = make directory touch = create an empty file, or update timestamps on a file cp = copy , mv =
  10. 10. Directory Permissions • Read, Write, & Execute. – read = 1 – write = 2 – execute = 4 • Add them together to get the sum permission. • Permissions display as 10 total bits – ex: drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 20 2009 home – directory, owner, group, everyone else d rwx r-x
  11. 11. Editing – vi(m) • Universal editor for Linux / Unix • vim is the successor to vi – More capable, syntax highlighting, extensible configuration file, etc. Two modes, command mode and edit mode Command mode commands i = insert at cursor position, a = append after cursor position (both change into the edit mode) x = delete character, dd = delete line ESC = escape back to command mode :q = quit, :w = write (or save), :wq = write then quit, :q! quit and abandon
  12. 12. Advanced Commands to avoid at first…but master later System processes System config commands mount, unmount , smbmount yast, yum shutdown, kill rpm, apt-get fdisk, fsck tar, zip sudo, su chkconfig netstat, tracert ifconfig, iwconfig
  13. 13. Linux Resources • One URL to rule them all: *Delicious is a social bookmark sharing site. This URL above is for linux, but you an easily find our other links on other subjects by navigating to other tags. The tag is the last word in the
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