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Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
Grammar book 2nd semester
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Grammar book 2nd semester

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  • 1. Noemí Finnegan<br />Spanish Grammar Book <br />for 2nd Semester<br />
  • 2. Conditional Tense<br />The conditional tense is used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, must have or probably.<br />ENDINGS <br />
  • 3. Conditional Tense: Irregulars<br />The same twelve common verbs that are irregular in the future tense are also irregular in the conditional tense. Their endings are regular, but their stems change in the same way they change in the future tense. The endings are the same as all other conditional tense verbs.<br />
  • 4. Present Prefect Tense<br />It is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "has" or "have" with the past participle.<br />Because the present perfect is a compound tense, two verbs are required: the main verb and the auxiliary verb.<br />In Spanish, the present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle.<br />The past participle is formed by dropping the infinitive ending and adding either -ado or -ido.<br />When used in the perfect tenses, the past participle never changes to agree with the noun it modifies.<br />Past participle used as an adjective:La cuentaestápagada.The bill is paid.<br />Past participle used in the present perfect tense:He pagado la cuenta.I have paid the bill.<br />*The auxiliary verb and the past participle are never separated.<br />
  • 5. Past Perfect<br />The past perfect tense is formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle.<br />The past perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "had" with the past participle.<br />Because the past perfect is a compound tense, two verbs are required: the main verb and the auxiliary verb.<br />The past perfect tense is used when a past action was completed prior to another past action.<br />Expressions such as "ya", "antes", "nunca", "todavía" and "después" will often appear in sentences where one action was completed before another. This idea of a past action being completed before another past action need not always be stated; it can be implied.<br />Examples:<br />Cuando llegaron los padres, los niños ya habían comido.Whentheparentsarrived, thechildrenhadalreadyeaten.<br />Yo había comido antes de llamarles.I hadeaten prior tocallingthem.<br />*The auxiliary verb and the past participle are never separated.<br />
  • 6. Present Perfect Irregulars<br />
  • 7. Subjunctive Perfect<br />Subjunctive Mood: <br />-Attitudes -Indefiniteness <br />-Uncertainty -Nonexistence<br />-Hypothetical -Emotion<br />-Will and Influence<br />-Doubt, disbelief, and denial<br />It is formed as a formal command, except you need to add the pronoun.<br />-ar and –er verbs have the same stem-changes as in the present indicative.<br />Pedir (e:i)<br />
  • 8. Tanto y Tan<br />Both tan and tanto (the latter of which can exist in feminine and plural forms) can be used in comparisons such as "as ______ as," which becomes either tan _____ como or tanto _____ como. <br />The difference is that tan is used as an adverb in those constructions, while tanto is used as an adjective. <br />Tan basically means "so," sometimes "such a" or "as," and is used only before adjectives or adverbs (or nouns used as adjectives). <br />Example:<br />Rita es tan alta como María. (Rita is as tall as María.)<br />Tanto basically means "so much" or "so many" or, when used with como, "as much" or "as many.“<br />Example:<br />Tengotantodinerocomo Juan. (I have as much money as Juan.) <br />Tanto also can be used to make other kinds of comparisons and has a wide variety of colloquial uses; under some circumstances it can be used not only as an adjective but also as a noun, pronoun or adverb.<br />
  • 9. Impersonal “Se”<br />We don't really have anyone specific in mind when we say "They say..." or "One" or " You". We mean people in general, and are otherwise known as impersonal expressions.<br />Spanish adds the pronoun se in front of verbs to make general statements. Impersonal voice using se will use a singular verb since the se can be replaced by uno ("one").<br />Plural Impersonal<br />* The plural impersonal (unknown "they") does not use the se<br />
  • 10. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Both saber and conocer mean to know, however saber expresses facts or information while conocerto know a person.<br />Conocer<br />Saber<br />Ex:<br />Conozco a Felipe.<br />I know Philip.<br />Ex:<br />Maria y Jorge lo conocen.<br />Mary and George know him.<br />Ex: <br />Sabemos el número de teléfono.<br />We know the telephone number.<br />Ex: <br />Sétudirección.<br />I know your address.<br />
  • 11. Informal Commands<br />Negative Commands<br />A negative command is used when ordering, or telling someone not to do something. In English, it is the “imperative” form of the verb. The formal commands are used when addressing familiar people.<br />Affirmative Commands<br />An affirmative command is used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. In English, it is the “imperative” form of the verb. The formal commands are used when addressing familiar people.<br />To make an affirmative informal command, use the present indicative Ud. Form.<br />To make a negative informal command do the following:<br />Take the present tense “yo” form of the verb<br />Drop the –o or –oyending<br />Add the opposite ending<br />Add an “s”<br />Ex:<br />To tell someone to tell the truth, say:<br /> ¡Di la verdad!<br />
  • 12. Formal Commands Affirmative/Negative/Irregulars<br />Affirmative Commands<br />An affirmative command is used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. In English, it is the “imperative” form of the verb. The formal commands are used when addressing unfamiliar people with a need to express respect and politeness.<br />Negative Commands<br />A negative command is used when ordering, or telling someone not to do something. In English, it is the “imperative” form of the verb. The formal commands are used when addressing unfamiliar people with a need to express respect and politeness.<br />Irregular Negative Formal Command<br />There are only three verbs that have <br />irregular conjugations which are: ir, saber, <br />ser. Ir goes to to ¡Vaya!, saber goes to <br />!Sepa!, and ser goes to ¡Sea!<br />Ex:<br />To tell someone not to be <br />bad say: ¡No sea malo!<br />To make an affirmative and negative formal command do the following:<br />Take the present tense “yo” form of the verb<br />Drop the –o or –oyending<br />For –ar verbs, add an e, for –er and –ir verbs, add an a.<br />Irregular Affirmative Formal Command<br />There are only three verbs that have <br />irregular conjugations which are: ir, saber, <br />ser. Ir goes to to ¡Vaya!, saber goes to <br />!Sepa!, and ser goes to ¡Sea!<br />Ex:<br />To tell someone to go to the front of the <br />room say: ¡Vaya al frente de la sala!<br />Ex: <br />To tell someone to sing in a <br />formal command say: ¡Cante! <br />To tell someone “Don’t do it” in a <br />formal command say: ¡No lo haga!<br />
  • 13. Irregular Formal Commands<br />The irregular formal commands include the following:<br />-Car, -Gar, and –Zar verbs are conjugated as follows when put into formal commands:<br />-Gar<br />gue<br />-Car<br />que<br />-Zar<br />ce<br />-Guir<br />-Ga<br />-Guir and –Ger verbs are conjugated as follows when put into formal commands:<br />-Ger<br />-Ja<br />
  • 14. Nosotros Commands<br />If the verb has an irregular “yo” form in the present tense it also appears in the nosotros command:<br />Pongo (I put) pongamos<br />Salgo (I leave) salgamos<br />-ar and -er stem-changing verbs do not have stem changes in the nosotrosform.-ir stem-changing verbs in the present tense have stem changes of e -> i, or o -> u in the NOSOTROS form. <br />If object pronouns are used, they must be attached to the end of affirmative commands (requires a written accent in the nosotrosforms) Also, the first s of the affirmative reflexive ending is lost, that is -mosnosbecomes -monos as in ¡Durmámonos! (Let's go to sleep!) When se (representing the pronoun le or les before another object pronoun beginning with the letter l) is attached to the end of an affirmative command,  the resulting ss is reduced to s (¡Mandémoselo!, Let's send it to him/her/them!<br />Nosotros commands are more frequently used to suggest that others do some activity with you rather than to command, such as “let’s<br />do something.”<br />The nosotroscommand is formed by using the nosostrosform of the present subjunctive.<br />-AR Verbs  emos<br />-ER and -IR Verbs  amos<br />Examples:<br />Affirmative NosotrosNegativeNosotros<br />Estudiemos (Let's study) No estudiemos Caminemos (Let's walk) No caminemos<br />Comer  Comamos No comamos<br />Recibir  Recibamos No recibamos<br />Verbs ending in -car, -gar, and -zarchange to:<br />-CAR: C changes to QU-GAR: G changes to GU-ZAR: Z changes to C<br />
  • 15. Subjunctive Verb<br />Subjunctive Mood: <br />-Attitudes -Indefiniteness <br />-Uncertainty -Nonexistence<br />-Hypothetical -Emotion<br />-Will and Influence<br />-Doubt, disbelief, and denial<br />To form the subjunctive, form the verb as you would<br />a formal command. <br />In general, the subjunctive is a verb mood that is used to express an action or state of beingin the context of the speaker's reaction to it. Mostly (although not always), the subjunctive mood is used in dependent clauses introducedby que(which, that, who) when the main clause expresses a wish, a strong emotional attitude, or an uncertainty. Frequently, the sentences that contain a subjunctive verb are used to express doubt, uncertainty, denial, desire/wish, commands, reactions or a strong emotional attitude to the clause containing the subjunctive verb.<br />
  • 16. Subjunctive: Irregulars<br />
  • 17. Subjunctive Trigger Words<br />
  • 18. Impersonal Expressions with Subjunctive<br />
  • 19. Emotional Expressions with Subjunctive<br />
  • 20. Conjunctions of Time with Subjunctive Tense<br />The verb in an adverbial clauses will be in the subjunctive if the action/state in the clause is anticipated.<br />
  • 21. Demonstrative Adjectives/Pronouns<br />Demonstrative Adjectives<br />A demonstrativeadjective describes a noun while a demonstrative pronoun takes the place of a noun.<br />For example:<br />Tino lee estelibro.<br />Tino reads this book.<br />-This is a demonstrative adjective because it is answering the question "Which?" in relation to the nouns that they modify.<br />Tino lee este.<br />Tino reads this.<br />-This is a demonstrative pronoun because it takes place of the noun.<br />Demonstrative Pronouns<br />Es Tino con un libro!<br />Note: There are accent marks on the pronouns.<br />

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