With whom was the power given to sanction segregation?
Our constitution is colorblind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among its citizens…it does not require integration. It merely forbids segregation.
Plessy v. Ferguson Reasonable to separate because of established customs, usages, and traditions. No matter how blatantly and objectionable the law affects a “particular classification of people”. S
Cumming v. Board of Ed. of Richmond County Only interest of federal judiciary is to ensure that all citizens should share equitably in the tax burden Where would black high school students be taught?
Borea College v. Kentucky Both races could not receive instruction from any institution as a corporation unless it was done so 25 miles apart.
The constitution is a colorblind document, yet … These 3 cases established that the states could constitutionally maintain separate systems of education for blacks and whites, and in addition to this they could reach into private education and allow it to be segregated as well.
With whom was the power given to sanction segregation? The States
Is Separate Equal?
NAACP-1930 Gains v. Canada-1938 1950 Supreme Court case-rocked the foundation of Separate But Equal Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Separation inherently unequal Aftermath of this landmark decision
Gains v. Canada
1950 Supreme Court Case
Brown v. Board of Education
Separation Inherently Unequal
Aftermath of decision
Quotas and Busing Image From: http://school.discoveryeducation.com/clipart/...
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education Students were bused to schools outside their attendance area Meant to further integrate schools End of Dual school systems Imposed racial balance 71% -29%
Results of busing… Students were subjected to dangerous situations. Resulted in “White Flight.” Decreased probability of students to participate in extra curricular activities.
Historical Example Integration of Boston’s Public Schools As police stand guard, black students arrive atpredominately white South Boston High School, on the first day of court-ordered desegregation, September 12, 1974. Police wearing their riot helmets line the street in south Boston as women, led by anti-busing advocate Louise Day Hicks march and pray to protest the busing of students, September 12, 1975.
Quotas and Busing 25 Years Later Most schools have voted to end race based assignments Students no longer denied access to school based on mandated “quota”
Has the law failed to undo the segregation that was originally caused by the law?
The most segregated group in the nations public schools is white students. True or False
TRUE. While white students are attending schools with slightly more students of color than in the past, they remain the most isolated of all racial groups.
Due to the history of slavery and segregation in the South, southern states are the most segregated states for black students. True or False
FALSE. In 2009, the top five segregated states where black students attended majority minority schools (where greater than 50% of students are of color) are California, New York, Illinois, Maryland and Texas. The first southern state in this ranking is Texas, in fifth place.
Demographics of segregation today
More than five decades later, throughout the nation, more schools have become more segregated than before.
Racial segregation of neighborhood schools remains the norm in the U.S.
What steps can we take to move forward in providing equal educational opportunities to all?
Voluntary integration plans among school districts Leaders making the case that desegregation properly implemented is valuable to all students More progressive civil right agencies
References Images From http://www.bing.com/images http://www.office.microsoft.com/en-us/images http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-segregation.html http://school.discoveryeducation.com/clipart/ Video From PBS(producer).(1974).Eyes on the prize :School desegregation in Boston[video]. Available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/21_boston.html Other Resources http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_gaines.html http://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1949/1949/1949_44