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Law presentation revised


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  • 1. With whom was the
    power given to
    sanction segregation?
  • 2. Our constitution is colorblind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among its citizens…it does not require integration. It merely forbids segregation.
  • 3. Plessy v. Ferguson
    Reasonable to separate because of established customs, usages, and traditions.
    No matter how blatantly and objectionable the law affects a “particular classification of people”.
  • 4. Cumming v. Board of Ed. of Richmond County
    Only interest of federal judiciary is to ensure that all citizens should share equitably in the tax burden
    Where would black high school students be taught?
  • 5. Borea College v. Kentucky
    Both races could not receive instruction from any institution as a corporation unless it was done so 25 miles apart.
  • 6. The constitution is a colorblind document, yet …
    These 3 cases established that the states could constitutionally maintain separate systems of education for blacks and whites, and in addition to this they could reach into private education and allow it to be segregated as well.
  • 7. With whom was the
    power given to
    sanction segregation?
    The States
  • 8. Is Separate Equal?
  • 9. NAACP-1930
    Gains v. Canada-1938
    1950 Supreme Court case-rocked the foundation of Separate But Equal
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
    Separation inherently unequal
    Aftermath of this landmark decision
  • 10. NAACP 1930
  • 11. Gains v. Canada
  • 12. 1950 Supreme Court Case
  • 13. Brown v. Board of Education
  • 14. Separation Inherently Unequal
  • 15. Aftermath of decision
  • 16. Quotas and Busing
    Image From:
  • 17. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
    Students were bused to schools outside their attendance area
    Meant to further integrate schools
    End of Dual school systems
    Imposed racial balance 71% -29%
  • 18. Results of busing…
    Students were subjected to dangerous situations.
    Resulted in “White Flight.”
    Decreased probability of students to participate in extra curricular activities.
  • 19. Historical Example
    Integration of Boston’s Public Schools
    As police stand guard, black students arrive atpredominately white South Boston High School, on the first day of court-ordered desegregation, September 12, 1974.
    Police wearing their riot helmets line the street in south Boston as women, led by anti-busing advocate Louise Day Hicks march and pray to protest the busing of students, September 12, 1975.
  • 20. Quotas and Busing 25 Years Later
    Most schools have voted to end race based assignments
    Students no longer denied access to school based on mandated “quota”
  • 21.
  • 22. Has the law failed to undo
    the segregation that was
    originally caused by the law?
  • 23. The most segregated group in the nations public schools is white students.
    True or False
  • 24. TRUE. While white students are attending schools with slightly more students of color
    than in the past, they remain the most isolated of all racial groups.
  • 25. Due to the history of slavery and segregation in the South, southern states are the
    most segregated states for black students.
    True or False
  • 26. FALSE. In 2009, the top five segregated states where black students attended majority minority schools (where greater than 50% of students are of color) are California, New York, Illinois, Maryland and Texas. The first southern state in this ranking is Texas, in fifth place.
  • 27. Demographics of segregation today
  • 28. More than five decades later, throughout the nation, more schools have become more segregated than before.
  • 29. Racial segregation of neighborhood schools remains
    the norm in the U.S.
  • 30. What steps can we take
    to move forward in providing
    equal educational opportunities to all?
  • 31. Voluntary integration plans among school districts
    Leaders making the case that desegregation properly implemented is valuable to all students
    More progressive civil right agencies
  • 32. References
    Images From
    Video From
    PBS(producer).(1974).Eyes on the prize :School desegregation in Boston[video]. Available from
    Other Resources