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SVA Workshop Spring 0411

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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - School of Visual Arts - Spring 2011 - Presented by Robert Stribley

Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - School of Visual Arts - Spring 2011 - Presented by Robert Stribley

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  • Introduction to Information Architecture & DesignSchool of Visual Arts | Winter 2010Robert StribleyMail Box Planes - Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Aussie-Style Liquorice,Razorfish War Room
  • Apples, Food Shed, Market, Brooklyn
  • Soap
  • Soap
  • Butterfly on the New York City HighlinePhoto: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Owl butterfly at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Navigation, interaction design, art/science, discipline/community
  • Or not.
  • Skin (appearance) vs skeleton (supportive)
  • Using architectural plans as a metaphor for an IA’s work
  • The 2010 Summit is in Phoenix, AZPartially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter MorvilleInformation Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
  • Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes - http://www.localhiddenvariable.com/ciid/user-research-in-copenhagens-elderly-homes/
  • Discovery: Competitive Review – or Audit
  • Goals and data from focus groups, stakeholder interviews, etc – including user behaviors and opinions
  • Wikipedia: Cluster analysis or clustering is the assignment of a set of observations into subsets (called clusters) so that observations in the same cluster are similar in some sense
  • As part of our analysis of the user research, we mapped the participants onto the behavioral matrix identified. The mapping revealed clusters of people with a similar observed behavior. These clusters helped us to determine key attributes for the personas.
  • Ordering lunch on a Virgin America flight - http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/ - Photo: stribs
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cannedtuna/
  • Nathan Shedroff is Program Director of the MBA in Design Strategy program at the California College of the Arts. His books include Experience Design 1, Making Meaning, and contributing to Richard Saul Wurman's Information Anxiety 2. Advisor for Rosenfeld Media
  • http://websort.nethttp://www.optimalworkshop.com/
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Adapted from Atsushi HASEGAWA’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Siteshttp://www.slideshare.net/atsushi/the-7-navigation-types-of-web-site
  • Head of design at Braun, the German consumer electronics manufacturer, DIETER RAMS (1932-) was one of the most influential industrial designers of the late 20th century
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/
  • http://flickr.com/photos/huladancer22/530743543/
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction to Information Architecture & DesignSchool of Visual Arts | Spring 2011Robert Stribley
    • 2. Introduction
    • 3. Introduction
      Aussie-Style Liquorice
    • 4. Apples, Food Shed, Market, Brooklyn
    • 5. Mailboxes with Paper Planes, Anthropologie Store
    • 6. Soap
    • 7. Intro
      Introduction
      Robert Stribley
      I’m an senior information architect at Razorfish
      I write music and arts reviews,
      I produce a promote a variety show
      I photograph various things
      I drink coffee
      Clients include:
      Bank of America, Morgan Stanley Smith Barney, Wachovia
      Boston Scientific, Nasonex
      Choice Hotels
      Computer Associates, EMC
      Ford
      Nextel
      Red Cross
      Travel Channel, Women’s Wear Daily
    • 8. Intro
      About You
      What’s your name?
      What do you do for work?
      What do you do for fun?
      • Coffee, tea or bottled water?
      Introduction
    • 9. Intro
      Introduction
      Goals of this workshop
      Understand the basic concepts of user experience design
      Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project
      Review the basic deliverables an information architect develops within a project
    • 10. Pattern Recognition:
      In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli 
      Butterfly on the New York City Highline
    • 11. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. 
    • 12. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. 
    • 13. Owl butterfly at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. 
    • 14. Agenda
    • 15. Agenda
      Agenda
      Morning
      Background
      Design Process
      Our Project
      User Research
      Competitive Review
      Personas
      Lunch
    • 16. Agenda
      Agenda
      Afternoon
      Card Sorting
      Site Maps
      Page Types
      Grids
      Navigation
      Sketching
      Wireframes
      Q&A
    • 17. Background
    • 18. Background
      Background: Defining IA
      in•for•ma•tionar•chi•tec•ture n.
      • The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system.
      • 19. The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content.
      • 20. The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information.
      • 21. An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.
      Navigation
      Interaction
      Art/Science
      Discipline/ Community
      Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p . 4, Rosenfeld and Morville
    • 22. Background
      Background: Defining IA
      The Information Architecture Institute defines information architecture as “the art and science of organizing and labeling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability.”
    • 23. Background
      Background: Defining IA
      "It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.”
      — Alex Wright, Author Glut
    • 24. Background: Defining IA
      context
      IA
      users
      content
    • 25. Background: Defining IA
      interface
      information architecture
    • 26. Background: Defining IA
      skin
      skeleton
    • 27. Design Process
      Background: Defining IA
      metaphor: architectural plans
      Flickr.com: Cornell University Library
    • 28. Background: History
      A Brief History of IA
      1975
      Richard Saul Wurman coined the term “information architecture” to describe the field now more likely described as “information design”
      1994
      Formation of Argus Associates in Ann Arbor, WI, the first firm devoted to IA
      1998
      First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld’s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as “The Polar Bear” book
    • 29. Background: History
      A Brief History of IA
      2000
      • First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture
      2002
      • Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live
      • 30. 3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett’sThe Elements of User Experience
      2011
      • 12thAnnual IA Summit held in Denver, CO
      Partially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
    • 31. Design Process
    • 32. Design Process
      Design Process
      Discovery
      Design
      Definition
      Development
    • 33. Design Process
      Design Process
      Discovery
      Design
      Definition
      Development
      • Stakeholder interviewers
      • 34. Business requirements
      • 35. Competitive & comparative audits
      • 36. User research
      • 37. Site inventory
    • Design Process
      Design Process
      Discovery
      Design
      Definition
      Development
    • Design Process
      Design Process
      Discovery
      Design
      Definition
      Development
    • Design Process
      Design Process
      Discovery
      Design
      Definition
      Development
      • Functional specifications
      • 53. Quality assurance
      • 54. Site development
    • Background
      Deliverables
      IA Deliverables
      discover
      design
      define
      requirements document
      sketches
      site map
      comparative/competitive
      review
      personas
      wireframes
      feature/functionality
      inventory
      user flows
      prototype
      experience brief
      use cases
    • 55. Background
      Deliverables
      IA Deliverables
      discover
      design
      define
      requirements document
      sketches
      site map
      comparative/competitive
      review
      personas
      wireframes
      feature/functionality
      inventory
      user flows
      prototype
      experience brief
      use cases
      visual design
    • 56. Our Project
    • 57. Our Project
      What to do?
    • 58. Our Project
      Events.comwants to revamp its website to become the go-to online resource for people wanting to attend or promote events across the United States.
      Our Project
    • 59. Discover
    • 60. User Research
      User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes
    • 61. User Research
      “Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.”
      Louis Rosenfield & Peter Morville
      Discovery: User Research
    • 62. User Research
      Methodology
      Focus Groups
      Surveys
      Interviews
      Goals
      Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles.
      Discovery: User Research
    • 63. User Research
      Class Exercise: Survey Questions
      How do you learn about events in NYC?
      What type of events are you interested in?
      What’s more important to you:
      Price
      Type of Event
      Location
      Date
      How often do you attend the events?
      Do you ever need to promote an event?
      Do you ever invite people to an event?
      Discovery:User Research
    • 64. Competitive Review
      image by brandonschauer
    • 65. Discovery: Competitive Audit
      “This type of assessment helps set an industry ‘marker’ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.”
      Dorelle Rabinowitz
      Discovery: Competitive Review
    • 66. Competitive Review
      Discovery: Competitive Review
      Methodology
      Usability Criteria
      Scorecard
      Heuristic Evaluation
      Goals
      Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria
      Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase
      Also:
      Comparative Reviews
    • 67. Competitive Review
      Discovery: Competitive Review
      Competitors
    • 68. Competitive Review: Flavorpill
      Discovery: Competitive Review
      Flavorpill

      Flavorpill loves culture. We embrace the high-brow, low-brow, underground, mainstream, and everything in between — as long as it's good.
      A city guide for those who like to go out, Flavorpill publishes a daily update of worthwhile cultural-event listings, from art exhibits and readings to concerts, plays, and festivals.

      http://flavorpill.com/about
    • 69. Competitive Review: Flavorpill
      Discovery: Competitive Review
      Home Page
      Search
      Recent Activity
      Our Pick
      What’s Happening Today
      Events calendar
      Featured Venue
      Featured Events
      Giveaways
      New York Guide
      Navigation
      Primary
      Utility
      • City Dropdown
      • 76. Sign In/Sign Out
      • 77. SignUp/ Profile
      • 78. Follow Us (RSS, Facebook, Twitter)
      • 79. Search
      Features & Functionality
    • Going.com
      Competitive Review: Going.com
      Discovery: Competitive Review

      Going helps you find fun things to do and fun people to meet.
      Ever wish there were one place where you can find all the events around town?
      Want to know whether an event is worth going to and see who else likes it?
      Looking to meet some new people who are up for doing fun things?
      We felt the same frustration and decided to do something about it. The result is Going: we now have hundreds of events a day and thousands of people who are up for doing fun things.

      http://newyork.going.com/about_site
    • 85. Competitive Review: Going.com
      Discovery: Competitive Review
      Features & Functionality
      Home Page
      Post an Event
      Search
      Inbox
      Organizer Tools
      What’s Popular this Week
      City Feed
      Recession Busters
      Top Searches (tag cloud)
      Photo Booth
      Navigation
      Primary
      Secondary
      • Recession Busters
      • 96. More Cities
      Utility
    • Discovery: Competitive Review
      NYCgo.com

      NYC & Company is New York City’s official marketing, tourism and partnership organization.
      Our mission is to maximize travel and tourism opportunities throughout the five boroughs, build economic prosperity and spread the dynamic image of New York City around the world.

      http://nycgo.com/?event=view.footerArticle&id=49568
      Competitive Review: NYCgo.com
    • 102. Competitive Review: NYCgo.com
      Discovery: Competitive Review
      Home Page
      Navigation
      Primary
      Secondary
      Utility
      • Search (with categories)
      • 121. Language Selector
      • 122. Temperature
      • 123. Twitter, Facebook, Email
      Functionality
    • Competitive Review
      Discovery: Competitive Review
      Key Findings
      • Search placed prominently on each site, sometimes with advanced search
      • 129. Clear need for and emphasis upon filtering events
      • 130. Calendars provide obvious benefit
      • 131. Maps also prove helpful, especially to out-of-towners
      • 132. Profiles and community features are also common, but handled with varying degrees of detail, success
      • 133. Free events often highlighted
      • 134. Event detail pages vary, may have maps, RSVP, sharing, rating, commenting functionality
      • 135. The ability to add or promote an event is not always present or prominent
    • Competitive Review
      What else have we learned?
      • Who are the audiences of these sites?
      • 136. What are the strengths of these sites?
      • 137. What are their weaknesses?
      • 138. How might another event site differentiate itself from these sites?
      Discovery: Competitive Review
    • 139. Define
    • 140. Personas
      Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable Media Group from the MIT Media Lab . It uses sophisticated natural language processing and the Internet to create a data portrait of one's aggregated online identity. In short, Personas shows you how the Internet sees you.
      Created at Personas: http://personas.media.mit.edu
    • 141. Personas
      “Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.”
      Steve Mulder
      Definition: Personas
    • 142. Personas
      Characteristics of Effective Personas
      Varied and distinct
      Detailed
      Not weighed down with minutiae
      Tied into business-specific goals
      Backed by data
      Definition: Personas
    • 143. Personas
      Methodology
      Cluster Analysis
      Goals
      Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals
      Definition: Personas
    • 144. Definition: Personas
      Big Budget
      Promoter
      Planner
      Small Budget
    • 145. Definition: Personas
      Sabrina
      Jenny
      Donny
      Jerry
    • 146. Personas
      Definition: Personas
      Sabrina, 27
      The party planner
      Location:
      Gramercy Park
      Attitude:
      Organized, outgoing
      Financial Perspective:
      Generous, bit of spendthrift
      Online Habits:
      Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc
      Events:
      Wine tastings, gallery openings
      Quote:
      “I love getting bunches of friends together to attend all these NYC events. There’s so much great stuff to do in this city!”
      Big Budget
      Planner
      Promoter
      Small Budget
    • 147. Definition: Personas
      Jerry, 44
      The out-of-towner
      Location:
      Cincinnati, OH
      Attitude:
      Casual, yet adventurous
      Financial Perspective:
      Moderate spender
      Online Habits:
      Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills
      Events:
      Museums, visiting landmarks, tours
      Quote:
      “I’m visiting the Big Apple with my wife and we want to check out some art-related events.”
      Big Budget
      Planner
      Promoter
      Small Budget
    • 148. Personas
      Definition: Personas
      Donny, 38
      The local comedian
      Location:
      East Village
      Attitude:
      Laidback, loosely organized
      Financial Perspective:
      Frugal, paycheck to paycheck
      Online Habits:
      Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites
      Events:
      Comedy slams, variety shows
      Quote:
      “I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.”
      Big Budget
      Promoter
      Planned
      Small Budget
    • 149. Personas
      Definition: Personas
      Jenny, 33
      The professional promoter
      Location:
      Williamsburg
      Attitude:
      Busy, disciplined, professional
      Financial Perspective:
      Healthy budget for promotions and
      advertising
      Online Habits:
      Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online
      Events:
      Small gigs, big concerts, DJ sets
      Quote:
      “I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they’re listed in the right, targeted places.”
      Big Budget
      Planned
      Promoter
      Small Budget
    • 150. Definition: Personas
      Class Exercise: Personas
      Sabrina
      Jenny
      Donny
      Jerry
      In regards to Events.com,
      • What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on Events.com?
      • 151. What features can you imagine each persona might like on such a site?
      • 152. What obstacles or pain points might they encounter?
    • Lunch Break
    • 153. Agenda
      Afternoon
      Card Sorting
      Site Maps
      Page Types
      Grids
      Navigation
      Sketching
      Wireframes
      Q&A
      Agenda
    • 154. Card Sorting
    • 155. Card Sorting
      Definition: Card Sorting
      “There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and choose which organization best communicates our messages.”
      Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist
    • 156. Methodology
      Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes
      Two types:
      Open – participants sort cards with no pre-established categories – useful for new architectures
      Closed – participants sort cards into predetermined, provided groups – useful for fitting content into existing architectures
      Online card sorts
      WebSort, OptimalSort, Socratic
      Goals
      Organize content more efficiently
      Find names for groups of content based on users’ perspectives
      Self Study:
      "Card sorting: a definitive guide" by Donna Spencer and Todd Warfel, Boxes and Arrows, 2004/04/07
      Definition: Card Sorting
    • 157. Class Exercise: Card Sorting
      As individuals:
      Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a person could attend
      Write each event you come up with on a Post-It note
      Definition: Card Sorting
    • 158. Class Exercise: Card Sorting
      Now, as a group:
      Take a few minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label them)
      Then we’ll share some categories
      Definition: Card Sorting
    • 159. Design
    • 160. Site Maps
    • 161. Conceptual Design
      Design: Site Maps
      “A site map is a high level diagram showing the hierarchy of a system. Site maps reflect the information structure, but are not necessarily indicative of the navigation structure.”
      - Step Two Designs
    • 162. Conceptual Design
      Design: Site Maps
      Site map for Men‘s section of designer clothing site
    • 163. Conceptual Design
      Design: Site Maps
      Site map by KaziShanto, Louise Blouin Media
    • 164. Conceptual Design
      Design: Site Maps
      Biocarta Site map, Fromson Consulting
    • 165. Page Types
    • 166. Conceptual Design
      Design: Page Types
      Home Page
      Category Page
      Details Page
    • 167. Grids
    • 168. Grids
      Design: Grids
      “The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.”
      KhoiVinh, former design Director, NYTimes.com
    • 169. Grids
      Design: Grids
    • 170. Grids
      Design: Grids
    • 171. Grids
      Design: Grids
    • 172. Grids
      Design: Grids
      12 column grid
    • 173. Grids
      Design: Grids
      3 columns of 4 units
    • 174. Grids
      Design: Grids
      4 columns of 3 units
    • 175. Grids
      Design: Grids
      6 columns of 2 units
    • 176. Grids
      Design: Grids
      Variations of the 12 column grid
    • 177. Grids
      Design: Grids
      Self Study: Want to know more?
      Learn more about design by grids:
      960 Grid System
      960.gs
      Design by Grid
      www.designbygrid.com
      Hashgrid
      www.hashgrid.com
    • 178. Navigation
    • 179. Grids
      Design: Navigation
      Types of Navigation
      Site Structure – major nav
      Hierarchical – product families
      Function – sitemap privacy
      Direct – banner ad/shortcut
      Reference – related links
      Dynamic – search results
      Breadcrumb – location
      Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results
      Faceted Navigation – filters results
      Areas of Navigation
      • Global – universal header/footer
      • 180. Local – left nav/right nav
      • 181. Local content –text links, buttons
      Styles of Navigation
      Self Study: Want to know more?
      Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites
    • 184. Sketching
    • 185. Design: Sketching
      Sketching Through the Ages
      1485-1487
      Ornithopter by Leonardo da Vinci
      2005
      Schematic representation of the major components of a helicopter by Richard Wheeler
    • 186. Sketching
      Design: Sketching
      “There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis for doing so lies in extending the traditional practice of sketching. ”
      - Bill Buxton
      Bill Buxton
      Sketching User Experiences
    • 187. Sketching
      Design: Sketching
    • 188. Sketching
      Design: Sketching
    • 189. Sketching
      Design: Sketching
      Any guesses as to what this is a sketch of?
    • 190. Twitter.com
      “twttr sketch”
      Sketching
      Design: Sketching
      Twitter
      [This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere with one other page.
      Whenever I'm thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down.
      – Jack Dorsey, Twitter
    • 191. Sketching
      Design: Sketching
      Attributes of a Sketch
      Bill Buxton
      Sketching User Experiences
    • 202. Sketching
      Design: Sketching
      Methodology
      Draw
      Limit your time
      Don’t worry about mistakes or style
      Goals
      Benefit from the participation of your colleagues
      Quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations
    • 203. Design: Sketching
      Class Exercise: Sketching
      In teams, sketch your ideas.
      1) Create & Promote an Event
      Design: Sketching
    • 204. Design: Sketching
      Class Exercise: Sketching
      In teams, sketch your ideas.
      1) Create & Promote an Event
      2) A Homepage
      Design: Sketching
    • 205. Wireframes
      photo & sculpture by polly verity
    • 206. Design: Wireframes
      Wireframes
      What are wireframes?
      “Web site wireframes are blue prints that define a Web page’s content and functionality. They do not convey design – e.g. colors, graphics, or fonts.”
      - fatpurple
    • 207. Design: Sketching
      Wireframes
      Design: Wireframes - Examples
      wireframe by Mike Rohde
    • 208. Design: Sketching
      Design: Wireframes - Examples
      wireframe by matthieumingasson
    • 209. Design: Sketching
      Design: Wireframes - Examples
      wireframe by spaceboxru
    • 210. Design: Sketching
      Design: Wireframes - Examples
      wireframe by matthieumingasson
    • 211. Design: Sketching
      Design: Wireframes - Examples
    • 212. Design: Sketching
      Design: Wireframes - Examples
    • 213. Wireframing/Prototype Tools:
      Adobe InDesign
      Axure
      Omnigraffle (Mac)
      Microsoft Visio
      Mockingbird (online, free)
      Info
      Design: Wireframing Tools
    • 214. Design: Sketching
      Class Exercise: Final Wireframe
      In your teams, create your final deliverable.
      Assign one of the following to a team member:
      Create & Promote an Event
      Event Detail
      2) A Homepage
      As an individual now, you’ll create a final “wireframe,” which incorporates your team mates’ designs and feedback.
      Design: Wireframes
    • 215. Design: Sketching
      Design: Wireframes
      Develop
      Wireframe & Prototyping Tools
      Axure
      Dreamweaver
      InDesign
      Visio
    • 216. Books:
      Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville
      Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella
      The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett
      Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson
      Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman
      Local Events:
      Dot DotDot, SVA Lecture Series
      IA Meetup
      Info
      Additional Resources
      Web Sites:
      Organizations:
      • Human Computer Interactions (HCI)
      • 219. Interaction Designers Association (IxDA)
      • 220. Usability Professionals Association (UPA)
      Further Studies:
      • Adaptive Path
      • 221. The Information Architecture Institute
      • 222. The IA Summit
      • 223. Pratt – Course in Information Design
      • 224. Nielsen Norman Group
      • 225. Rosenfeld Media
      • 226. User Interface Engineering
    • Q & A
    • 227. Slideshare address:
      http://www.slideshare.net/stribs
      Additional credit:
      Thanks to Anh Dang
      Info
      Additional Info
    • 228. Design: Sketching
      Design: Wireframes
      Addendum:
      Design Principles & Concepts
      Wireframe & Prototyping Tools
      Axure
      Dreamweaver
      InDesign
      Visio
    • 229. Dieter Rams: 10 principles of good design
      Good design is…
      Good design is innovative.Good design makes a product useful.Good design is aesthetic.Good design makes a product understandable.Good design is unobtrusive.Good design is honest.Good design is long-lasting.Good design is thorough down to the last detail.Good design is environmentally friendly.Good design is as little design as possible.
      © Dieter Rams, amended March 2003 and October 2009
    • 230. Design Concepts
      Design Concepts
      Donald Norman, Co-Founder, Nielsen Norman Group
    • 231. Design Concepts
      Key Concepts
      Affordance
      Mapping
      Constraints
      Visibility
      Feedback
      Design Concepts
    • 232. 124
      Design Concepts
      Affordance
      “Perceived properties that determine how a thing is used [and] provide strong cues to the operations of things.”
      - Donald Norman
    • 233. Design Concepts
      Design Concepts
      Mapping
      Relationship between two things
      http://flickr.com/photos/annavsculture/441610821/
    • 234. Design Concepts
      Design Concepts
      Constraints
      Limitations that constrain possible interactions
      http://flickr.com/photos/hippie/2561854165/
    • 235. Design Concepts
      Design Concepts
      Visibility
      “Just the right things have to be visible: to indicate what parts operate and how, to indicate how the user is to interact with the device.”
      - Donald Norman
      http://flickr.com/photos/huladancer22/530743543/
    • 236. 128
      Design Concepts
      Design Concepts
      Feedback
      “Sending back to the user information about what action has actually been done, what result has been accomplished.”
      - Donald Norman
    • 237. Design: Sketching
      Design: Wireframes – Templates versus Pages