Pattern Recognition: In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuliButterfly on the New York City Highline
Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History‘s Butterfly Conservatory.
Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History‘s Butterfly Conservatory.
Introduction Intro Robert Stribley • I‘m a senior information architect Clients include: at Razorfish • Bank of America, Wachovia • JPMorgan, Morgan Stanley, • I write music and arts reviews Oppenheimer Funds, Smith Barney, T. • I photograph various things Rowe Price • I drink coffee • Boston Scientific, Nasonex • Choice Hotels • Computer Associates, EMC • Ford, Lincoln • Nextel • Red Cross • Pearson, Travel Channel, Women‘s Wear Daily
Introduction Intro About You • What‘s your name? • What do you do for work? • What do you do for fun? • Coffee, tea or bottled water?
Introduction Intro Goals of this workshop • Understand the basic concepts of user experience design • Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project • Review the basic deliverables an information architect develops within a project
Background: Defining IA Background in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n. Navigation • The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system. Interaction • The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. Art/Science • The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information. Discipline/ • An emerging discipline and community of Community practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p . 4, Rosenfeld and Morville
Background: Defining IA Background ―Its hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.‖ — Alex Wright, Author Glut
Background: Defining IA context IA content users
Background: Defining IA interface information architecture
Background: Defining IA Design Process metaphor: architectural plans Flickr.com: Cornell University Library
Background: History A Brief History of IA 1975 • Richard Saul Wurman coined the term ―information architecture‖ to describe the field now more likely described as ―information design‖ 1994 • Formation of Argus Associates in Ann Arbor, WI, the first firm devoted to IA 1998 • First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld‘s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as ―The Polar Bear‖ book
Background: History A Brief History of IA 2000 • First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture 2002 • Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live • 3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett‘s The Elements of User Experience 2013 • 14th Annual IA Summit held in Baltimore, MD Partially adapted from: ―A brief history of information architecture‖ by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
Design Process satire on project phases by Harold Kerzner
Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development
Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Stakeholder interviewers • Business requirements • Competitive & comparative audits • User research • Site inventory
Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Personas • Content & meta data audits • Card sorts • Use cases • Sketching • Site maps • Creative brief • UX brief
Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site maps • Task flows • Sketching • Wireframes • Stakeholder reviews • Prototypes • Usability testing • Visual design • Functional specifications
Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site development • User acceptance testing (UAT) • Quality assurance (QA) • Usability testing
Deliverables Background IA Deliverables discover define design requirements document sketches site map comparative/competitive personas wireframes review feature/functionality inventory user flows prototype experience brief use cases
Deliverables Background IA Deliverables discover define design requirements document sketches site map comparative/competitive personas wireframes review feature/functionality inventory user flows prototype experience brief use cases visual design
User ResearchUser Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes
Discovery: User Research User Research ―Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.‖ – Louis Rosenfield & Peter Morville
Discovery: User Research User Research Methodology • Focus Groups • Surveys • Interviews Goals • Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles.
Discovery: User Research User Research Class Exercise: Survey Questions • How do you learn about events in NYC? • What type of events are you interested in? • What‘s more important to you: – Price – Type of Event – Location – Date • How often do you attend the events? • Do you ever need to promote an event? • Do you ever invite people to an event?
Discovery: Competitive Review Discovery: Competitive Audit ―This type of assessment helps set an industry ‗marker‘ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.‖ – Dorelle Rabinowitz
Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Methodology • Heuristic Evaluation • Usability Criteria • Scorecard Goals • Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria • Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase Also: • Comparative Reviews
Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Heuristic Evaluation Ten Usability Heuristics by Jakob Nielsen •Visibility of system status •Recognition rather than recall •Match between system and the •Flexibility and efficiency of use real world •Aesthetic and minimalist design •User control and freedom •Help users recognize, diagnose, •Consistency and standards and recover from errors •Error prevention •Help and documentation Self Study For a more detailed explanation of these heuristics, see Nielsen‘s explanation here: http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html
Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Examples of Usability Criteria Note: These examples are not intended to provide a comprehensive listing. Appropriate criteria may depend on the project to be completed. Home Page • Are home page elements appropriately weighted and distributed? • Is information clustered in meaningful ways? Navigation • Is the navigation structure concise and consistent? • Are paths to important information intuitive and unobstructed? Content • Is content current? Are there visible indications of content freshness? • Is content properly adapted for the Web? Is tone of voice consistent throughout content? Is content chunked appropriately? • Are headings and titles scannable? Design • Are colors appropriate to the Web? Is white space used appropriately? Is text readable? Search • Are search results relevant and cleanly presented? Functionality • Are functionality and forms efficiently designed? Messaging • Are errors messages clear on the site? Is help readily available to users? • Are there appropriate means for user feedback?
Discovery: Competitive Flavorpill Competitive Review: Review Flavorpill ― Flavorpill loves culture. We embrace the high-brow, low-brow, underground, mainstream, and everything in between — as long as its good. A city guide for those who like to go out, Flavorpill publishes a daily update of worthwhile cultural- event listings, from art exhibits and readings to concerts, plays, ‖ and festivals.
Discovery: Competitive Going.com Competitive Review: Review Upcoming ― Upcoming is a community for discovering and sharing events. It can help you find stuff to do, discover what your friends are doing, or let you keep private events online for ‖ your own reference.
Discovery: Competitive Going.com Competitive Review: Review Features & Functionality Home Page Navigation •Search •Browse Events Primary Secondary •Calendar •Event Carousel •My Events •Help •Profiles •Events Listing •My Account •Comments •Friends •My Events •Event posting and promoting •More •Search •RSVP online/Buy tickets •Calendar •Add an Event •Sign in/Sign •Event filtering/sorting •Pandora/iTunes/Last.fm integration out •Yahoo! Maps •Link to Beta version
Discovery: Competitive NYCgo.com Competitive Review: Review NYCgo.com ― NYC & Company is New York City‘s official marketing, tourism and partnership organization. Our mission is to maximize travel and tourism opportunities throughout the five boroughs, build economic prosperity and spread the dynamic image of New York City around the world. ‖
Discovery: Competitive NYCgo.com Competitive Review: Review Home Page Navigation Secondary Functionality Primary • Search •Search •Travel Trade • Top Attractions • Google maps •This Week carousel •Meeting Planners • What to Do • Calendar •NYC Highlights • Where to Stay •Membership • Find an event •Events calendar • Plan Your Trip •Press • Filtering •Top 5 Events • Deals Utility • MyNYC •Plan Your Trip • Broadway •Search •Deals & Offers • NYC for the Holidays •Language Selector • Free •Temperature • NYC Shop •Twitter, Facebook, Email
Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Key Findings • Search placed prominently on each site • Clear need for and emphasis upon filtering events • Calendars provide obvious benefit, but aren‘t always prominent • Profiles and community features are also common, but handled with varying degrees of detail, success • Free events are often highlighted • Event detail pages vary, may have maps, RSVP, sharing, rating, commenting functionality • Displaying other venues and restaurants adds utility • Maps prove helpful, especially to out-of-towners • The ability to add or promote an event is not always present or prominent
Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review What else have we learned? • Who are the audiences of these sites? • What are the strengths of these sites? • What are their weaknesses? • How might another event site differentiate itself from these sites?
Personas Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable Media Group from the MIT Media Lab . It uses sophisticated natural language processing and the Internet to create a data portrait of ones aggregated online identity. In short, Personas shows you how the Internet sees you.Created at Personas: http://personas.media.mit.edu
Definition: Personas Personas ―Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.‖ – Steve Mulder
Definition: Personas Personas Characteristics of Effective Personas • Varied and distinct • Detailed • Not weighed down with minutiae • Tied into business-specific goals • Backed by data
Definition: Personas Personas Methodology • Cluster Analysis Goals • Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals
Definition: Personas Big Budget Promoter Planner Small Budget
Definition: Personas Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina
Definition: Personas Personas Sabrina, 27 The party planner Location: Gramercy Park Attitude: Organized, outgoing Financial Perspective: Generous, bit of spendthrift Big Budget Online Habits: Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc Events: Promoter Planner Wine tastings, gallery openings Quote: ―I love getting bunches of friends Small Budget together to attend all these NYC events. There‘s so much great stuff to do in this city!‖
Definition: Personas Jerry, 44 The out-of-towner Location: Cincinnati, OH Attitude: Casual, yet adventurous Financial Perspective: Moderate spender Online Habits: Big Budget Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills Events: Promoter Planner Museums, visiting landmarks, tours Quote: ―I‘m visiting the Big Apple with my Small Budget wife and we want to check out some art-related events.‖
Definition: Personas Personas Donny, 38 The local comedian Location: East Village Attitude: Laidback, loosely organized Financial Perspective: Frugal, paycheck to paycheck Online Habits: Big Budget Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites Events: Comedy slams, variety shows Promoter Planned Quote: ―I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.‖ Small Budget
Definition: Personas Personas Jenny, 33 The professional promoter Location: Williamsburg Attitude: Busy, disciplined, professional Financial Perspective: Healthy budget for promotions and advertising Online Habits: Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online Big Budget Events: Small gigs, big concerts, DJ sets Quote: Promoter Planned ―I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they‘re listed in the right, targeted places.‖ Small Budget
Definition: Personas Class Exercise: Personas Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina In regards to Events.com, • What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on Events.com? • What features can you imagine each persona might like on such a site? • What obstacles or pain points might they encounter?
Definition: Card Sorting Card Sorting ―There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and choose which organization best communicates our messages.‖ – Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist
Definition: Card Sorting Methodology • Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes • Two types: – Open – Participants sort cards with no pre-established categories. Useful for new architectures – Closed – Participants sort cards into predetermined, provided groups. Useful for fitting content into existing architectures • Online card sorts – WebSort, OptimalSort, Socratic Goals • Organize content more efficiently • Find names for groups of content based on users‘ perspectives Self Study "Card sorting: a definitive guide" by Donna Spencer and Todd Warfel, Boxes and Arrows, 2004/04/07
Definition: Card Sorting Case Studies: •Wachovia Wealth Management Group •American Red Cross •Automotive Manufacturer
Definition: Card Sorting Class Exercise: Card Sorting As individuals: • Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a person could attend • Write each event you come up with on a Post- It note
Definition: Card Sorting Class Exercise: Card Sorting Now, as a group: • Take a few minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label them) • Then we‘ll share some categories
Definition: Card Sorting Card Sorting: Next Steps With the results of a card sort we then can: • Build consensus • Refine terminology • Create a site map • Help define navigation
Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design ―A site map is a high level diagram showing the hierarchy of a system. Site maps reflect the information structure, but are not necessarily indicative of the navigation structure.‖ - Step Two Designs
Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design Site map for Men‗s section of designer clothing site
Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design Biocarta Site map, Fromson Consulting
Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design Site map by Kazi Shanto, Louise Blouin Media
Page TypesThe Mercator Atlas of EuropeFrom The British Library
NavigationNavigation Bridge, USS Enterpriseby Serendigity, Flickr
Design: Navigation Grids Types of Navigation Areas of Navigation • Site Structure – major nav • Global – universal header/footer • Local – left nav/right nav • Hierarchical – product families • Local content – text links, buttons • Function – sitemap privacy • Direct – banner ad/shortcut • Reference – related links Styles of Navigation • Dynamic – search results • Breadcrumb – location • Rollover • Dropdown • Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results • Flyout • Tabs • Faceted Navigation – filters results • Accordion Self Study Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa‘s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites
Design: Sketching Sketching Any guesses what this is a sketch of?
Design: Sketching Sketching Twitter [This sketch] has very special significance – its hanging in the office somewhere with one other page. Whenever Im thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down. – Jack Dorsey, Twitter “twttr sketch‖ Twitter.com
Design: Sketching Sketching ―There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis Bill Buxton for doing so lies in Sketching User Experiences extending the traditional practice of sketching. ‖ - Bill Buxton
Design: Sketching Sketching Attributes of a Sketch •Quick •Timely •Inexpensive •Disposable •Plentiful Bill Buxton Sketching User •Clear vocabulary Experiences •Distinct gesture •Minimal detail •Appropriate degree of refinement •Suggest & explore rather than confirm •Ambiguity
Design: Sketching Sketching Methodology • Draw • Limit your time • Don‘t worry about mistakes or style Goals • Benefit from the participation of your colleagues • Quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations
Design: Sketching Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. 1) Create & Promote an Event
Design: Sketching Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. 1) Create & Promote an Event A. Take 5 or so minutes first to discuss what features belong here • Is it a single page? Multiples steps? B. Time for silent sketching C. Time for sharing your sketches
Design: Sketching Don‘t forget to keep your personas in mind Jenny Donny
Design: Sketching Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. 1) Create & Promote an Event 2) A Homepage
Design: Sketching Don‘t forget to keep your personas in mind Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina
Design: Sketching Tools Info Sketching Tools: The following apps are all for the iPad • Adobe Ideas ($9.99) • Bamboo Paper (Free) • Muji Notebook ($4.99) • Penultimate ($0.99) • SketchBook Pro ($4.99)
Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Final Wireframe In your teams, create your final deliverable. Assign one of the following to a team member: 1) Create & Promote an Event 2) Event Detail 3) Homepage • As an individual now, you‘ll create a final ―wireframe‖ • Be sure to incorporate your team mates‘ designs and feedback.
Additional Resources Info Books: Organizations: • Information Architecture for the World Wide • Human Computer Interactions (HCI) Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville • Interaction Designers Association (IxDA) • Information Architecture: Blueprints for the • Usability Professionals Association (UPA) Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella • The Elements of User Experience – Jesse Further Studies: James Garrett • School of Visual Arts • Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron • Continuing Ed classes Gustafson • MFA in Interaction Design • Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman • Adaptive Path • The Information Architecture Institute Local Events: • The IA Summit • Dot Dot Dot, SVA Lecture Series • Pratt – Course in Information Design • IA Meetup • Nielsen Norman Group • Rosenfeld Media Web Sites: • User Interface Engineering • Alertbox • A List Apart Video: • Boxes & Arrows The Right Way to Wireframe by Russ Unger (YouTube) • wireframes.tumblr.com
Additional Info Info Slideshare address: http://www.slideshare.net/stribs My article on how to find an IA job: http://blog.onwardsearch.com/2012/08/information-architecture-a-guerilla-guide-to-breaking-in/
Design: Grids Grids ―The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.‖ – Khoi Vinh, former design Director, NYTimes.com
Defining Sketches Versus Wireframes Design: Sketching Sketches Wireframes Quick More time-consuming Few details Very detailed Not typically delivered Professional deliverable Templates Pages Apply to many different pages Specific, may apply to a single page or screen Examples: Examples: • basic page • homepage • product page • ecommerce or transactional form