Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - SVA Workshop 12/07/13

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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - As presented by Robert Stribley, SVA, 12/07/13

Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - As presented by Robert Stribley, SVA, 12/07/13

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  • Introduction to Information Architecture & DesignSchool of Visual Arts | Fall 2013Robert Stribley
  • Chocolate display, Xocolatti, SoHo, New York
  • Body Gel, Sabon, SoHo, New York
  • Butterfly on the New York City HighlinePhoto: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Workshop goals
  • Navigation, interaction design, art/science, discipline/community
  • Using architectural plans/blueprints as a metaphor for an IA’s work
  • Partially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter MorvilleInformation Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
  • Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes - http://www.localhiddenvariable.com/ciid/user-research-in-copenhagens-elderly-homes/
  • Discovery: Competitive Review – or Audit
  • We review each of these sites live during class
  • Wikipedia: Cluster analysis or clustering is the assignment of a set of observations into subsets (called clusters) so that observations in the same cluster are similar in some sense
  • Goals and data from focus groups, stakeholder interviews, etc – including user behaviors and opinions
  • Ordering lunch on a Virgin America flight - http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/ - Photo: stribs
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cannedtuna/
  • Nathan Shedroff is Program Director of the MBA in Design Strategy program at the California College of the Arts. His books include Experience Design 1, Making Meaning, and contributing to Richard Saul Wurman's Information Anxiety 2. Advisor for Rosenfeld Media
  • http://websort.nethttp://www.optimalworkshop.com/
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Adapted from Atsushi HASEGAWA’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Siteshttp://www.slideshare.net/atsushi/the-7-navigation-types-of-web-site
  • Uniqlo wireframe by Razorfish
  • Uniqlo comp/design based on wireframe by Razorfish
  • Head of design at Braun, the German consumer electronics manufacturer, DIETER RAMS (1932-) was one of the most influential industrial designers of the late 20th century

Transcript

  • 1. ―Diggin for Dummies‖ Sign, The Thing, Greenpoint, NY Introduction to Information Architecture & Design School of Visual Arts | December 7, 2013 Robert Stribley
  • 2. Introduction Today‘s presentation will be available on SlideShare following the workshop: www.slideshare.net/stribs
  • 3. Chocolate display, Xocolatti, SoHo, New York
  • 4. Body Gel, Sabon, SoHo, New York
  • 5. Pattern Recognition: In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli Butterfly on the New York City Highline
  • 6. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History‘s Butterfly Conservatory.
  • 7. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History‘s Butterfly Conservatory.
  • 8. Introduction Intro Robert Stribley • I‘m an Associate Experience Director at Razorfish • I like literature, cinema, music, photography, cycling • I drink coffee My clients have included: • Bank of America, PNC, Wachovia • JPMorgan, Morgan Stanley, Oppenheimer Funds, Prudential, Smith Barney, T. Rowe Price • Boston Scientific, Nasonex • Choice Hotels • Computer Associates, EMC • Ford, Lincoln • Nextel • Red Cross • Pearson, Travel Channel, Women‘s Wear Daily
  • 9. Introduction Intro About You • • • • What‘s your name? What do you do for work? What do you do for fun? Coffee, tea or bottled water?
  • 10. Introduction Intro Goals of this workshop • Understand the basic concepts of information architecture • Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project • Review the basic deliverables an information architect develops within a project
  • 11. Agenda
  • 12. Agenda Agenda Morning • Background • Design Process • Our Project • User Research • Competitive Review • Personas • Lunch
  • 13. Agenda Agenda Afternoon •Card Sorting •Site Maps •Page Types •Navigation •Sketching •Wireframes •Q&A
  • 14. Background
  • 15. Background: Defining IA Background in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n. Navigation • The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system. Interaction • The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. Art/Science Discipline/ Community • The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information. • An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p. 4, Rosenfeld and Morville
  • 16. Background: Defining IA Background ―It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.‖ — Alex Wright, Author Glut
  • 17. Background: Defining IA context IA content users
  • 18. Background: Defining IA Interface (skin) information architecture (skeleton)
  • 19. Background: Defining IA Design Process metaphor: architectural plans Flickr.com: Cornell University Library
  • 20. Background: History A Brief History of IA 1975 • Richard Saul Wurman coined the term ―information architecture‖ to describe the field now more likely described as ―information design‖ 1994 • Formation of Argus Associates in Ann Arbor, WI, the first firm devoted to IA 1998 • First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld‘s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as ―The Polar Bear‖ book
  • 21. Background: History A Brief History of IA 2000 • First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture 2002 • Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live • 3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett‘s The Elements of User Experience 2014 • 15th Annual IA Summit held in San Diego, CA, March 25-30 Partially adapted from: ―A brief history of information architecture‖ by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
  • 22. Design Process satire on project phases by Harold Kerzner
  • 23. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development
  • 24. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition • Stakeholder interviews • Business requirements • Competitive & comparative audits • User research • Site inventory Design Development
  • 25. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition • • • • • • • • Personas Content Audit Card sorts Use Cases Sketching Site Map Creative Brief UX Brief Design Development
  • 26. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site Map • Task Flows • Sketching • Wireframes • Stakeholder Reviews • Visual Design • Prototype • Usability Testing • Functional Specifications
  • 27. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site Development • User Acceptance Testing (UAT) • Quality Assurance (QA) • Usability Testing
  • 28. Deliverables Background IA Deliverables discover define design requirements document sketches site map comparative/competitive review personas wireframes feature/functionality inventory user flows prototype experience brief use cases
  • 29. Deliverables Background IA Deliverables discover define design requirements document sketches site map comparative/competitive review personas wireframes feature/functionality inventory user flows prototype experience brief use cases visual design
  • 30. Our Project
  • 31. Our Project What to do?
  • 32. Our Project Our Project Events.com wants to revamp its website to become the go-to online resource for people wanting to attend or promote events across the United States.
  • 33. Discover
  • 34. User Research User Research in Copenhagen‘s Elderly Homes
  • 35. Discovery: User Research User Research ―Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.‖ – Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
  • 36. Discovery: User Research User Research Methodology • Focus Groups • Surveys • Interviews Goals • Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles.
  • 37. Discovery: User Research User Research Class Exercise: Survey Questions • How do you learn about events in NYC? • What type of events are you interested in? • What‘s more important to you: – Price – Type of Event – Location – Date • How often do you attend the events? • Do you ever need to promote an event? • Do you ever invite people to an event?
  • 38. Competitive Review image by brandon schauer
  • 39. Discovery: Competitive Review Discovery: Competitive Audit ―This type of assessment helps set an industry ‗marker‘ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.‖ – Dorelle Rabinowitz
  • 40. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Heuristic Evaluation … involves evaluators examining the interface and judging its compliance with recognized usability principles (the ‗heuristics‘) - Wikipedia
  • 41. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Heuristic Evaluation Ten Usability Heuristics by Jakob Nielsen •Visibility of system status •Recognition rather than recall •Match between system and the real world •Flexibility and efficiency of use •Aesthetic and minimalist design •User control and freedom •Consistency and standards •Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors •Error prevention •Help and documentation Self Study For a more detailed explanation of these heuristics, see Nielsen‘s explanation here: http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html
  • 42. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Methodology • Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria • Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase • Include a scorecard for a high-level depiction of comparison points across all sites Also: • Comparative Reviews
  • 43. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Examples of Usability Criteria Note: These examples are not intended to provide a comprehensive listing. Appropriate criteria may depend on the project to be completed. Home Page • Are home page elements appropriately weighted and distributed? • Is information clustered in meaningful ways? Navigation • Is the navigation structure concise and consistent? • Are paths to important information intuitive and unobstructed? Content • Is content current? Are there visible indications of content freshness? • Is content properly adapted for the Web? Is tone of voice consistent throughout content? Is content chunked appropriately? • Are headings and titles scannable? Design • Are colors appropriate to the Web? Is white space used appropriately? Is text readable? Search • Are search results relevant and cleanly presented? Functionality • Are functionality and forms efficiently designed? Messaging • Are errors messages clear on the site? Is help readily available to users? • Are there appropriate means for user feedback?
  • 44. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Competitors
  • 45. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Key Findings • Search placed prominently on each site • Clear need for and emphasis upon filtering events • Calendars provide obvious benefit, but aren‘t always prominent • Profiles and community features are also common, but handled with varying degrees of detail, success • Free events are often highlighted • Event detail pages vary, may have maps, RSVP, sharing, rating, commenting functionality • Displaying other venues and restaurants adds utility • Maps prove helpful, especially to out-of-towners • The ability to add or promote an event is not always present or prominent
  • 46. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review What else have we learned? • • • • Who are the audiences of these sites? What are the strengths of these sites? What are their weaknesses? How might another event site differentiate itself from these sites?
  • 47. Define
  • 48. Personas Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable Media Group from the MIT Media Lab . It uses sophisticated natural language processing and the Internet to create a data portrait of one's aggregated online identity. In short, Personas shows you how the Internet sees you. Created at Personas: http://personas.media.mit.edu
  • 49. Definition: Personas Personas ―Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.‖ – Steve Mulder
  • 50. Definition: Personas Personas Methodology Big Budget • Cluster Analysis Goals Planner Promoter • Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals Small Budget
  • 51. Definition: Personas Personas Characteristics of Effective Personas • • • • • Varied and distinct Detailed Not weighed down with minutiae Tied into business-specific goals Backed by data
  • 52. Definition: Personas Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina
  • 53. Definition: Personas Personas Sabrina, 27 The party planner Big Budget Planner Promoter Small Budget Location: Gramercy Park Attitude: Organized, outgoing Financial Perspective: Generous, bit of spendthrift Online Habits: Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc Events: Wine tastings, gallery openings Quote: ―I love getting bunches of friends together to attend all these NYC events. There‘s so much great stuff to do in this city!‖
  • 54. Definition: Personas Jerry, 44 The out-of-towner Big Budget Planner Promoter Small Budget Location: Cincinnati, OH Attitude: Casual, yet adventurous Financial Perspective: Moderate spender Online Habits: Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills Events: Museums, visiting landmarks, tours Quote: ―I‘m visiting the Big Apple with my wife and we want to check out some art-related events.‖
  • 55. Definition: Personas Personas Donny, 38 The local comedian Location: East Village Attitude: Laidback, loosely organized Financial Perspective: Frugal, paycheck to paycheck Online Habits: Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites Events: Comedy slams, variety shows Quote: ―I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.‖ Big Budget Promoter Planned Small Budget
  • 56. Definition: Personas Personas Jenny, 33 The professional promoter Location: Williamsburg Attitude: Busy, disciplined, professional Financial Perspective: Healthy budget for promotions and advertising Online Habits: Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online Events: Small gigs, big concerts, DJ sets Quote: ―I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they‘re listed in the right, targeted places.‖ Big Budget Planned Promoter Small Budget
  • 57. Definition: Personas Class Exercise: Personas Jerry Jenny Donny • What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on Events.com? • What features can you imagine each persona might like on such a site? • What obstacles or pain points might they encounter? Self Study ‖Personas and the Role of Design Documentation" by Andrew Hinton, Boxes and Arrows, 2008/02/27 Sabrina
  • 58. Lunch Break
  • 59. Agenda Agenda Afternoon • Card Sorting • Site Maps • Page Types • Navigation • Sketching • Wireframes • Q&A
  • 60. Card Sorting
  • 61. Definition: Card Sorting Card Sorting ―There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and choose which organization best communicates our messages.‖ – Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist
  • 62. Definition: Card Sorting Methodology • Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes • Two types: – Open – Participants sort cards with no pre-established categories. Useful for new architectures – Closed – Participants sort cards into predetermined, provided groups. Useful for fitting content into existing architectures • Online card sorts – WebSort, OptimalSort, Socratic Goals • Organize content more efficiently • Find names for groups of content based on users‘ perspectives Self Study "Card sorting: a definitive guide" by Donna Spencer and Todd Warfel, Boxes and Arrows, 2004/04/07
  • 63. Definition: Card Sorting Case Studies: •Wachovia Wealth Management Group •American Red Cross •Automotive Manufacturer
  • 64. Definition: Card Sorting Class Exercise: Card Sorting As individuals: • Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a person could attend • Write each event you come up with on a PostIt note
  • 65. Definition: Card Sorting Class Exercise: Card Sorting Now, as a group: • Take a few minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label them) • Then we‘ll share some categories
  • 66. Definition: Card Sorting Card Sorting: Next Steps With the results of a card sort we then can: • Build consensus • Refine terminology • Create a site map • Help define navigation
  • 67. Design
  • 68. Site Maps
  • 69. Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design ―A site map is a high level diagram showing the hierarchy of a system. Site maps reflect the information structure, but are not necessarily indicative of the navigation structure.‖ - Step Two Designs
  • 70. Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design
  • 71. Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design
  • 72. Page Types The Mercator Atlas of Europe From The British Library
  • 73. Design: Page Types Conceptual Design Home Page Category Page Details Page
  • 74. Navigation Navigation Bridge, USS Enterprise by Serendigity, Flickr
  • 75. Design: Navigation Grids Types of Navigation Areas of Navigation • • • • • • • • • Global – universal header/footer • Local – left nav/right nav • Local content – text links, buttons Site Structure – major nav Hierarchical – product families Function – sitemap privacy Direct – banner ad/shortcut Reference – related links Dynamic – search results Breadcrumb – location Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results • Faceted Navigation – filters results Styles of Navigation • • • • • Rollover Dropdown Flyout Tabs Accordion Self Study Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa‘s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites
  • 76. Design: Navigation Grids Mega Dropdowns
  • 77. Design: Navigation Grids Power Footers
  • 78. Sketching Ornithopter by Leonardo da Vinci, 1485-1487
  • 79. Design: Sketching
  • 80. Design: Sketching Sketching
  • 81. Design: Sketching Sketching Any guesses what this is a sketch of?
  • 82. Design: Sketching Sketching Twitter [This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere with one other page. Whenever I'm thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down. – Jack Dorsey, Twitter “twttr sketch‖ Twitter.com
  • 83. Design: Sketching Sketching ―There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis for doing so lies in extending the traditional practice of sketching. ‖ - Bill Buxton Bill Buxton Sketching User Experiences
  • 84. Design: Sketching Sketching Attributes of a Sketch • Quick • Timely • Inexpensive • Disposable • Plentiful Bill Buxton • Clear vocabulary Sketching User Experiences • Distinct gesture • Minimal detail • Appropriate degree of refinement • Suggest & explore rather than confirm • Ambiguity
  • 85. Design: Sketching Sketching Methodology • Draw • Limit your time • Don‘t worry about mistakes or style Goals • Benefit from the participation of your colleagues • Quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations
  • 86. Design: Sketching Sketching Process 1.Discuss 2.Sketch 3.Share 4.Revise
  • 87. Design: Sketching Discuss • Discuss the purpose of the experience you‘re sketching • What features are necessary? • How would you prioritize them? • What‘s the audience?
  • 88. Design: Sketching Sketch • Sketch silently • Limit your time • Sketch as much has possible, as many different ideas as possible
  • 89. Design: Sketching Share • Review your work with your team • You offer your feedback to others • What you like • Questions about didn‘t work for you • You‘re not grilling your colleagues and this is not a competition
  • 90. Design: Sketching Revise • Now sketch again/begin your wireframe with a more informed view, more and better ideas • Iterate on your design
  • 91. Design: Sketching Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. Create & Promote an Event 1. Take 5 or so minutes first to discuss what features belong here • Is it a single page? Multiples steps? 2. Time for silent sketching 3. Time for sharing your sketches
  • 92. Design: Sketching Don‘t forget to keep your personas in mind Jenny Donny
  • 93. Design: Sketching Tools Info Sketching Tools: The following apps are all for the iPad • Adobe Ideas ($9.99) • Bamboo Paper (Free) • Muji Notebook ($4.99) • Penultimate ($0.99) • SketchBook Pro ($4.99)
  • 94. Wireframes photo & sculpture by polly verity
  • 95. Design: Wireframes Wireframes ―Web site wireframes are blue prints that define a Web page‘s content and functionality. They do not convey design – e.g. colors, graphics, or fonts.‖ - fatpurple
  • 96. Design: Wireframes - Examples Design: Sketching wireframe by matthieu mingasson
  • 97. Design: Wireframes - Examples Design: Sketching screencap from The Right way to Wireframe by Semantic Will
  • 98. Design: Wireframes - Examples Design: Sketching iPad news app wire by F. Yamada
  • 99. Design: Wireframing Tools Info Wireframing/Prototyping Tools: • Adobe InDesign • Axure • Omnigraffle (Mac) • Microsoft Visio • Mockingbird (online, free) Also: • Adobe Proto (coming for iPad) • Balsamiq • iPlotz • iMockups (iPad) • Omnigraffle (iPad) Self Study Smashing Magazine: 35 Excellent Wireframing Resources
  • 100. Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Final Wireframe In your teams, create your final deliverable, a home page for Events.com Sketch First 1) Discuss features needed for a homepage 2) Sketch your ideas for a homepage individually 3) Review your sketches and provide feedback
  • 101. Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Final Wireframe Then Wireframe 1) Now, each of you will create a final ―wireframe‖ 2) Be sure to incorporate your team mates‘ design ideas and feedback
  • 102. Design: Sketching Don‘t forget to keep your personas in mind Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina
  • 103. Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Wireframe & Prototyping Tools Axure Dreamweaver InDesign Visio Develop
  • 104. Additional Resources Info Books: Organizations: • Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville • Human Computer Interactions (HCI) • Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella • Usability Professionals Association (UPA) • The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett Further Studies: • Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson • Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman • Interaction Designers Association (IxDA) • School of Visual Arts • Continuing Ed classes • MFA in Interaction Design • Adaptive Path • The Information Architecture Institute Local Events: • IA Meetup • Content Strategy Meetup Web Sites: • Alertbox • A List Apart • Boxes & Arrows • wireframes.tumblr.com • The IA Summit • Pratt – Course in Information Design • Nielsen Norman Group • Rosenfeld Media • User Interface Engineering Video: The Right Way to Wireframe by Russ Unger (YouTube)
  • 105. Q&A
  • 106. Additional Info Info Slideshare address: http://www.slideshare.net/stribs My article on how to find an IA job: http://blog.onwardsearch.com/2012/08/information-architecture-a-guerilla-guide-to-breaking-in/ @stribs
  • 107. Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Wireframe & Prototyping Tools Axure Addendum: Dreamweaver • Grids InDesign • Dieter Rams: 10 Principles of Good Design Visio • Defining Wireframes vs. Sketches, Templates, vs. Pages
  • 108. Grids
  • 109. Design: Grids Grids ―The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.‖ – Khoi Vinh, former design Director, NYTimes.com
  • 110. Design: Grids Grids
  • 111. Design: Grids Grids
  • 112. Design: Grids Grids
  • 113. Design: Grids Grids Self Study: Want to know more? Learn more about design by grids: 960 Grid System 960.gs Design by Grid www.designbygrid.com Hashgrid www.hashgrid.com
  • 114. Dieter Rams: 10 principles of good design Good design is… Good design is innovative. Good design makes a product useful. Good design is aesthetic. Good design makes a product understandable. Good design is unobtrusive. Good design is honest. Good design is long-lasting. Good design is thorough down to the last detail. Good design is environmentally friendly. Good design is as little design as possible. © Dieter Rams, amended March 2003 and October 2009
  • 115. Defining Sketches Versus Wireframes, Templates Versus Pages Design: Sketching Sketches Wireframes Quick More time-consuming Few details Very detailed Not typically delivered Professional deliverable Templates Pages Apply to many different pages Specific, may apply to a single page or screen Examples: • basic page • category page • product page Examples: • homepage • ecommerce or transactional form