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Pattern Recognition: In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli Butterfly on the New York City Highline
Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.
Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.
Intro Introduction Robert Stribley I’m an senior information architect at Razorfish I write music and arts reviews, I produce a promote a variety show I photograph various things I drink coffee Clients include: Bank of America, Morgan Stanley Smith Barney, Wachovia Boston Scientific, Nasonex Choice Hotels Computer Associates, EMC Ford Nextel Red Cross Travel Channel, Women’s Wear Daily
Intro About You What’s your name? What do you do for work? What do you do for fun?
Coffee, tea or bottled water?
Intro Introduction Goals of this workshop Understand the basic concepts of user experience design Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project Review the basic deliverables an information architect develops within a project
Background Background: Defining IA in•for•ma•tionar•chi•tec•ture n.
The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system.
The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content.
The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information.
An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.
Navigation Interaction Art/Science Discipline/ Community Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p . 4, Rosenfeld and Morville
Background Background: Defining IA The Information Architecture Institute defines information architecture as “the art and science of organizing and labeling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability.”
Background Background: Defining IA "It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.” — Alex Wright, Author Glut
Background: Defining IA context IA users content
Background: Defining IA interface information architecture
Design Process Background: Defining IA metaphor: architectural plans Flickr.com: Cornell University Library
Background: History A Brief History of IA 1975 Richard Saul Wurman coined the term “information architecture” to describe the field now more likely described as “information design” 1994 Formation of Argus Associates in Ann Arbor, WI, the first firm devoted to IA 1998 First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld’s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as “The Polar Bear” book
Background: History A Brief History of IA 2000
First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture
Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live
3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett’sThe Elements of User Experience
12thAnnual IA Summit held in Denver, CO
Partially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
Background Deliverables IA Deliverables discover design define requirements document sketches site map comparative/competitive review personas wireframes feature/functionality inventory user flows prototype experience brief use cases
Background Deliverables IA Deliverables discover design define requirements document sketches site map comparative/competitive review personas wireframes feature/functionality inventory user flows prototype experience brief use cases visual design
User Research User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes
User Research “Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.” Louis Rosenfield & Peter Morville Discovery: User Research
User Research Methodology Focus Groups Surveys Interviews Goals Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles. Discovery: User Research
User Research Class Exercise: Survey Questions How do you learn about events in NYC? What type of events are you interested in? What’s more important to you: Price Type of Event Location Date How often do you attend the events? Do you ever need to promote an event? Do you ever invite people to an event? Discovery:User Research
Discovery: Competitive Audit “This type of assessment helps set an industry ‘marker’ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.” Dorelle Rabinowitz Discovery: Competitive Review
Competitive Review Discovery: Competitive Review Methodology Usability Criteria Heuristic Evaluation See Ten Usability Heuristics by Jakob Nielsen http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html Scorecard Goals Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase Also: Comparative Reviews
Competitive Review: Flavorpill Discovery: Competitive Review Flavorpill “ Flavorpill loves culture. We embrace the high-brow, low-brow, underground, mainstream, and everything in between — as long as it's good. A city guide for those who like to go out, Flavorpill publishes a daily update of worthwhile cultural-event listings, from art exhibits and readings to concerts, plays, and festivals. ” http://flavorpill.com/about
Competitive Review: Flavorpill Discovery: Competitive Review Home Page Search Recent Activity Our Pick What’s Happening Today Events calendar Featured Venue Featured Events Giveaways New York Guide Navigation Primary
Going.com Competitive Review: Going.com Discovery: Competitive Review “ Going helps you find fun things to do and fun people to meet. Ever wish there were one place where you can find all the events around town? Want to know whether an event is worth going to and see who else likes it? Looking to meet some new people who are up for doing fun things? We felt the same frustration and decided to do something about it. The result is Going: we now have hundreds of events a day and thousands of people who are up for doing fun things. ” http://newyork.going.com/about_site
Competitive Review: Going.com Discovery: Competitive Review Features & Functionality
Discovery: Competitive Review NYCgo.com “ NYC & Company is New York City’s official marketing, tourism and partnership organization. Our mission is to maximize travel and tourism opportunities throughout the five boroughs, build economic prosperity and spread the dynamic image of New York City around the world. ” http://nycgo.com/?event=view.footerArticle&id=49568 Competitive Review: NYCgo.com
Competitive Review: NYCgo.com Discovery: Competitive Review Home Page
Personas Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable Media Group from the MIT Media Lab . It uses sophisticated natural language processing and the Internet to create a data portrait of one's aggregated online identity. In short, Personas shows you how the Internet sees you. Created at Personas: http://personas.media.mit.edu
Personas “Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.” Steve Mulder Definition: Personas
Personas Characteristics of Effective Personas Varied and distinct Detailed Not weighed down with minutiae Tied into business-specific goals Backed by data Definition: Personas
Personas Methodology Cluster Analysis Goals Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals Definition: Personas
Definition: Personas Big Budget Promoter Planner Small Budget
Definition: Personas Sabrina Jenny Donny Jerry
Personas Definition: Personas Sabrina, 27 The party planner Location: Gramercy Park Attitude: Organized, outgoing Financial Perspective: Generous, bit of spendthrift Online Habits: Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc Events: Wine tastings, gallery openings Quote: “I love getting bunches of friends together to attend all these NYC events. There’s so much great stuff to do in this city!” Big Budget Planner Promoter Small Budget
Definition: Personas Jerry, 44 The out-of-towner Location: Cincinnati, OH Attitude: Casual, yet adventurous Financial Perspective: Moderate spender Online Habits: Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills Events: Museums, visiting landmarks, tours Quote: “I’m visiting the Big Apple with my wife and we want to check out some art-related events.” Big Budget Planner Promoter Small Budget
Personas Definition: Personas Donny, 38 The local comedian Location: East Village Attitude: Laidback, loosely organized Financial Perspective: Frugal, paycheck to paycheck Online Habits: Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites Events: Comedy slams, variety shows Quote: “I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.” Big Budget Promoter Planned Small Budget
Personas Definition: Personas Jenny, 33 The professional promoter Location: Williamsburg Attitude: Busy, disciplined, professional Financial Perspective: Healthy budget for promotions and advertising Online Habits: Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online Events: Small gigs, big concerts, DJ sets Quote: “I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they’re listed in the right, targeted places.” Big Budget Planned Promoter Small Budget
Definition: Personas Class Exercise: Personas Sabrina Jenny Donny Jerry In regards to Events.com,
What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on Events.com?
What features can you imagine each persona might like on such a site?
What obstacles or pain points might they encounter?
Card Sorting Definition: Card Sorting “There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and choose which organization best communicates our messages.” Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist
Methodology Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes Two types: Open – participants sort cards with no pre-established categories – useful for new architectures Closed – participants sort cards into predetermined, provided groups – useful for fitting content into existing architectures Online card sorts WebSort, OptimalSort, Socratic Goals Organize content more efficiently Find names for groups of content based on users’ perspectives Self Study: "Card sorting: a definitive guide" by Donna Spencer and Todd Warfel, Boxes and Arrows, 2004/04/07 Definition: Card Sorting
Class Exercise: Card Sorting As individuals: Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a person could attend Write each event you come up with on a Post-It note Definition: Card Sorting
Class Exercise: Card Sorting Now, as a group: Take a few minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label them) Then we’ll share some categories Definition: Card Sorting
Card Sorting: Next Steps With the results of a card sort we then can: Build consensus Refine terminology Create a site map Help define navigation Definition: Card Sorting
Conceptual Design Design: Site Maps “A site map is a high level diagram showing the hierarchy of a system. Site maps reflect the information structure, but are not necessarily indicative of the navigation structure.” - Step Two Designs
Conceptual Design Design: Site Maps Site map for Men‘s section of designer clothing site
Conceptual Design Design: Site Maps Site map by KaziShanto, Louise Blouin Media
Conceptual Design Design: Site Maps Biocarta Site map, Fromson Consulting
Grids Design: Grids “The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.” KhoiVinh, former design Director, NYTimes.com
Grids Design: Navigation Types of Navigation Site Structure – major nav Hierarchical – product families Function – sitemap privacy Direct – banner ad/shortcut Reference – related links Dynamic – search results Breadcrumb – location Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results Faceted Navigation – filters results Areas of Navigation
Design: Sketching Sketching Through the Ages 1485-1487 Ornithopter by Leonardo da Vinci 2005 Schematic representation of the major components of a helicopter by Richard Wheeler
Sketching Design: Sketching “There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis for doing so lies in extending the traditional practice of sketching. ” - Bill Buxton Bill Buxton Sketching User Experiences
Sketching Design: Sketching Any guesses as to what this is a sketch of?
Twitter.com “twttr sketch” Sketching Design: Sketching Twitter [This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere with one other page. Whenever I'm thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down. – Jack Dorsey, Twitter
Sketching Design: Sketching Attributes of a Sketch
Sketching Design: Sketching Methodology Draw Limit your time Don’t worry about mistakes or style Goals Benefit from the participation of your colleagues Quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations
Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. 1) Create & Promote an Event Design: Sketching
Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. Create & Promote an Event
Take 5 or so minutes first to discuss what features this area should include
Design: Wireframes Wireframes What are wireframes? “Web site wireframes are blue prints that define a Web page’s content and functionality. They do not convey design – e.g. colors, graphics, or fonts.” - fatpurple
Design: Sketching Wireframes Design: Wireframes - Examples wireframe by Mike Rohde
Design: Sketching Design: Wireframes - Examples wireframe by matthieumingasson
Design: Sketching Design: Wireframes - Examples wireframe by spaceboxru
Design: Sketching Design: Wireframes - Examples wireframe by matthieumingasson
Design: Sketching Design: Wireframes Class Exercise: Final Wireframe In your teams, create your final deliverable. Assign one of the following to a team member: Create & Promote an Event Event Detail 3) Homepage As an individual now, you’ll create a final “wireframe,” which incorporates your team mates’ designs and feedback.
Books: Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman Local Events: Dot DotDot, SVA Lecture Series IA Meetup Info Additional Resources Web Sites:
128 Design Concepts Affordance “Perceived properties that determine how a thing is used [and] provide strong cues to the operations of things.” - Donald Norman
Design Concepts Design Concepts Mapping Relationship between two things http://flickr.com/photos/annavsculture/441610821/
Design Concepts Design Concepts Constraints Limitations that constrain possible interactions http://flickr.com/photos/hippie/2561854165/
Design Concepts Design Concepts Visibility “Just the right things have to be visible: to indicate what parts operate and how, to indicate how the user is to interact with the device.” - Donald Norman http://flickr.com/photos/huladancer22/530743543/
132 Design Concepts Design Concepts Feedback “Sending back to the user information about what action has actually been done, what result has been accomplished.” - Donald Norman
Design: Sketching Design: Wireframes – Templates versus Pages