SVA Winter 0211


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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - Presented by Robert Stribley

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  • Introduction to Information Architecture & DesignSchool of Visual Arts | Winter 2010Robert StribleyMail Box Planes - Photo:
  • Aussie-Style Liquorice,Razorfish War Room
  • Apples, Food Shed, Market, Brooklyn
  • Soap
  • Soap
  • Butterfly on the New York City HighlinePhoto:
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo:
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo:
  • Owl butterfly at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo:
  • Navigation, interaction design, art/science, discipline/community
  • Or not.
  • Skin (appearance) vs skeleton (supportive)
  • Using architectural plans as a metaphor for an IA’s work
  • The 2010 Summit is in Phoenix, AZPartially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter MorvilleInformation Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
  • Photo:
  • User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes -
  • Discovery: Competitive Review – or Audit
  • Goals and data from focus groups, stakeholder interviews, etc – including user behaviors and opinions
  • Wikipedia: Cluster analysis or clustering is the assignment of a set of observations into subsets (called clusters) so that observations in the same cluster are similar in some sense
  • As part of our analysis of the user research, we mapped the participants onto the behavioral matrix identified. The mapping revealed clusters of people with a similar observed behavior. These clusters helped us to determine key attributes for the personas.
  • Ordering lunch on a Virgin America flight - - Photo: stribs
  • Nathan Shedroff is Program Director of the MBA in Design Strategy program at the California College of the Arts. His books include Experience Design 1, Making Meaning, and contributing to Richard Saul Wurman's Information Anxiety 2. Advisor for Rosenfeld Media
  • http://websort.net
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Adapted from Atsushi HASEGAWA’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites
  • Head of design at Braun, the German consumer electronics manufacturer, DIETER RAMS (1932-) was one of the most influential industrial designers of the late 20th century
  • SVA Winter 0211

    1. 1. Introduction to Information Architecture & DesignSchool of Visual Arts | Winter 2011Robert Stribley<br />
    2. 2. Introduction<br />
    3. 3. Introduction<br />Aussie-Style Liquorice<br />
    4. 4. Apples, Food Shed, Market, Brooklyn<br />
    5. 5. Mailboxes with Paper Planes, Anthropologie Store<br />
    6. 6. Soap<br />
    7. 7. Intro<br />Introduction<br />Robert Stribley<br />I’m an senior information architect at Razorfish<br />I writer music and arts reviews,<br />I producer a promote a variety show<br />I photograph various things<br />I drink coffee<br />Clients include:<br />Bank of America, Morgan Stanley Smith Barney, Wachovia<br />Boston Scientific, Nasonex<br />Choice Hotels<br />Computer Associates, EMC<br />Ford<br />Nextel<br />Red Cross<br />Travel Channel, Women’s Wear Daily<br />
    8. 8. Intro<br />About You<br />What’s your name?<br />What do you do for work?<br />What do you do for fun?<br /><ul><li>Coffee, tea or bottled water?</li></ul>Introduction<br />
    9. 9. Intro<br />Introduction<br />Goals of this workshop<br />Understand the basic concepts of user experience design<br />Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project<br />Review the basic deliverables an information architect develops within a project<br />
    10. 10. Pattern Recognition:<br />In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli <br />Butterfly on the New York City Highline<br />
    11. 11. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. <br />
    12. 12. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. <br />
    13. 13. Owl butterfly at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. <br />
    14. 14. Agenda<br />
    15. 15. Agenda<br />Agenda<br />Morning<br />Background<br />Design Process<br />Our Project<br />User Research<br />Competitive Review<br />Personas<br />Lunch<br />
    16. 16. Agenda<br />Agenda<br />Afternoon<br />Card Sorting<br />Site Maps<br />Page Types<br />Grids<br />Navigation<br />Sketching<br />Wireframes<br />Q&A<br />
    17. 17. Background<br />
    18. 18. Background<br />Background: Defining IA<br />in•for•ma•tionar•chi•tec•ture n.<br /><ul><li>The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system.
    19. 19. The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content.
    20. 20. The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information.
    21. 21. An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.</li></ul>Navigation<br />Interaction<br />Art/Science<br />Discipline/ Community<br />Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p . 4, Rosenfeld and Morville<br />
    22. 22. Background<br />Background: Defining IA<br />The Information Architecture Institute defines information architecture as “the art and science of organizing and labeling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability.”<br />
    23. 23. Background<br />Background: Defining IA<br /> "It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.”<br /> — Alex Wright, Author Glut<br />
    24. 24. Background: Defining IA<br />context<br />IA<br />users<br />content<br />
    25. 25. Background: Defining IA<br />interface<br />information architecture<br />
    26. 26. Background: Defining IA<br />skin<br />skeleton<br />
    27. 27. Design Process<br />Background: Defining IA<br />metaphor: architectural plans<br /> Cornell University Library<br />
    28. 28. Background: History <br />A Brief History of IA<br />1975 <br />Richard Saul Wurman coined the term “information architecture” to describe the field now more likely described as “information design”<br />1994<br />Formation of Argus Associates in Ann Arbor, WI, the first firm devoted to IA<br />1998<br />First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld’s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as “The Polar Bear” book<br />
    29. 29. Background: History<br />A Brief History of IA<br />2000<br /><ul><li>First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture</li></ul>2002<br /><ul><li>Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live
    30. 30. 3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett’sThe Elements of User Experience</li></ul>2011<br /><ul><li>12thAnnual IA Summit held in Denver, CO</li></ul>Partially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon<br />
    31. 31. Design Process<br />
    32. 32. Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br />
    33. 33. Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br /><ul><li> Stakeholder interviewers
    34. 34. Business requirements
    35. 35. Competitive & comparative audits
    36. 36. User research
    37. 37. Site inventory</li></li></ul><li>Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br /><ul><li>Personas
    38. 38. Content & meta data audits
    39. 39. Card sorts
    40. 40. Use cases
    41. 41. Mood boards
    42. 42. Sketching
    43. 43. Site maps
    44. 44. Creative brief
    45. 45. UX brief</li></li></ul><li>Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br /><ul><li> Site maps
    46. 46. Task flows
    47. 47. Sketching
    48. 48. Wireframes
    49. 49. Stakeholder reviews
    50. 50. Prototypes
    51. 51. Usability testing
    52. 52. Visual design</li></li></ul><li>Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br /><ul><li>Functional specifications
    53. 53. Quality assurance
    54. 54. Site development</li></li></ul><li>Background<br />Deliverables<br />IA Deliverables<br />discover<br />design<br />define<br />requirements document<br />sketches<br />site map<br />comparative/competitive <br />review<br />personas<br />wireframes<br />feature/functionality <br />inventory<br />user flows<br />prototype<br />experience brief<br />use cases<br />
    55. 55. Background<br />Deliverables<br />IA Deliverables<br />discover<br />design<br />define<br />requirements document<br />sketches<br />site map<br />comparative/competitive <br />review<br />personas<br />wireframes<br />feature/functionality <br />inventory<br />user flows<br />prototype<br />experience brief<br />use cases<br />visual design<br />
    56. 56. Our Project<br />
    57. 57. Our Project<br />What to do? <br />
    58. 58. Our Project<br />Events.comwants to revamp its website to become the go-to online resource for people wanting to attend or promote events across the United States.<br />Our Project<br />
    59. 59. Discover<br />
    60. 60. User Research<br />User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes<br />
    61. 61. User Research<br /> “Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.”<br /> Louis Rosenfield & Peter Morville<br />Discovery: User Research<br />
    62. 62. User Research<br />Methodology<br />Focus Groups<br />Surveys<br />Interviews<br />Goals<br />Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles. <br />Discovery: User Research<br />
    63. 63. User Research<br />Class Exercise: Survey Questions<br />How do you learn about events in NYC? <br />What type of events are you interested in?<br />What’s more important to you:<br /> Price <br /> Type of Event<br /> Location<br /> Date <br />How often do you attend the events?<br />Do you ever need to promote an event?<br />Do you ever invite people to an event?<br />Discovery:User Research<br />
    64. 64. Competitive Review<br />image by brandonschauer<br />
    65. 65. Discovery: Competitive Audit<br /> “This type of assessment helps set an industry ‘marker’ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.”<br /> Dorelle Rabinowitz<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />
    66. 66. Competitive Review<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Methodology<br />Usability Criteria<br />Scorecard<br />Heuristic Evaluation<br />Goals<br />Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria<br />Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase<br />Also:<br />Comparative Reviews<br />
    67. 67. Competitive Review<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Competitors<br />
    68. 68. Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Flavorpill<br />“<br />Flavorpill loves culture. We embrace the high-brow, low-brow, underground, mainstream, and everything in between — as long as it's good.<br />A city guide for those who like to go out, Flavorpill publishes a daily update of worthwhile cultural-event listings, from art exhibits and readings to concerts, plays, and festivals.<br />”<br /><br />
    69. 69. Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Home Page<br />Search<br />Recent Activity<br />Our Pick<br />What’s Happening Today<br />Events calendar<br />Featured Venue<br />Featured Events<br />Giveaways<br />New York Guide<br />Navigation<br />Primary<br /><ul><li>Events
    70. 70. Today
    71. 71. Editor Picks
    72. 72. Giveaways
    73. 73. Venues
    74. 74. Daily Dose
    75. 75. Flavorwire</li></ul>Utility<br /><ul><li>City Dropdown
    76. 76. Sign In/Sign Out
    77. 77. SignUp/ Profile
    78. 78. Follow Us (RSS, Facebook, Twitter)
    79. 79. Search</li></ul>Features & Functionality<br /><ul><li>Search
    80. 80. Calendar
    81. 81. Filtering
    82. 82. Google maps
    83. 83. Comments
    84. 84. Profile</li></li></ul><li><br />Competitive Review:<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />“<br />Going helps you find fun things to do and fun people to meet.<br />Ever wish there were one place where you can find all the events around town?<br />Want to know whether an event is worth going to and see who else likes it?<br />Looking to meet some new people who are up for doing fun things?<br />We felt the same frustration and decided to do something about it. The result is Going: we now have hundreds of events a day and thousands of people who are up for doing fun things.<br />”<br /><br />
    85. 85. Competitive Review:<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Features & Functionality<br /><ul><li>Search
    86. 86. Calendar
    87. 87. Profiles
    88. 88. Who likes it?
    89. 89. Comments
    90. 90. Event posting and promoting
    91. 91. RSVP online/Buy tickets
    92. 92. Event filtering
    93. 93. Link to Google Maps</li></ul>Home Page<br />Post an Event<br />Search<br />Inbox<br />Organizer Tools<br />What’s Popular this Week<br />City Feed<br />Recession Busters<br />Top Searches (tag cloud)<br />Photo Booth<br />Navigation<br />Primary<br /><ul><li>Things to Do
    94. 94. Places to Go
    95. 95. People to See</li></ul>Secondary<br /><ul><li>Recession Busters
    96. 96. More Cities</li></ul>Utility<br /><ul><li>Profile
    97. 97. Inbox
    98. 98. Post an Event
    99. 99. Search
    100. 100. Settings
    101. 101. Logout</li></li></ul><li>Discovery: Competitive Review<br /><br />“<br />NYC & Company is New York City’s official marketing, tourism and partnership organization. <br />Our mission is to maximize travel and tourism opportunities throughout the five boroughs, build economic prosperity and spread the dynamic image of New York City around the world. <br />”<br /><br />Competitive Review:<br />
    102. 102. Competitive Review:<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Home Page<br /><ul><li>Search
    103. 103. This Week carousel
    104. 104. NYC Highlights
    105. 105. Events calendar
    106. 106. Recent News
    107. 107. Plan Your Trip
    108. 108. Deals & Offers
    109. 109. Filter by borough
    110. 110. My NYC profiles</li></ul>Navigation<br />Primary<br /><ul><li>Top Attractions
    111. 111. What to Do
    112. 112. Where to Stay
    113. 113. Plan Your Trip
    114. 114. Deals
    115. 115. Broadway
    116. 116. NYC Restaurant Week
    117. 117. Free</li></ul>Secondary<br /><ul><li>Travel Trade
    118. 118. Meeting Planners
    119. 119. Membership
    120. 120. Press</li></ul>Utility<br /><ul><li>Search (with categories)
    121. 121. Language Selector
    122. 122. Temperature
    123. 123. Twitter, Facebook, Email</li></ul>Functionality<br /><ul><li>Search
    124. 124. Google maps
    125. 125. Calendar
    126. 126. Find an event
    127. 127. Filtering
    128. 128. MyNYC</li></li></ul><li>Competitive Review<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Key Findings<br /><ul><li>Search placed prominently on each site, sometimes with advanced search
    129. 129. Clear need for and emphasis upon filtering events
    130. 130. Calendars provide obvious benefit
    131. 131. Maps also prove helpful, especially to out-of-towners
    132. 132. Profiles and community features are also common, but handled with varying degrees of detail, success
    133. 133. Free events often highlighted/bubbled up
    134. 134. Event detail pages vary, may have maps, RSVP, sharing, rating, commenting functionality
    135. 135. The ability to add or promote an event is not always present or prominent</li></li></ul><li>Competitive Review<br />What else have we learned?<br /><ul><li>Who are the audiences of these sites?
    136. 136. What are the strengths of these sites?
    137. 137. What are their weaknesses?
    138. 138. How might another event site differentiate itself from these sites?</li></ul>Discovery: Competitive Review<br />
    139. 139. Define<br />
    140. 140. Personas<br />Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable Media Group from the MIT Media Lab . It uses sophisticated natural language processing and the Internet to create a data portrait of one's aggregated online identity. In short, Personas shows you how the Internet sees you.<br />Created at Personas:<br />
    141. 141. Personas<br /> “Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.” <br />Steve Mulder<br />Definition: Personas<br />
    142. 142. Personas<br />Characteristics of Effective Personas<br />Varied and distinct<br />Detailed<br />Not weighed down with minutiae<br />Tied into business-specific goals<br />Backed by data<br />Definition: Personas<br />
    143. 143. Personas<br />Methodology<br />Cluster Analysis <br />Goals<br />Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals<br />Definition: Personas<br />
    144. 144. Definition: Personas<br />Big Budget<br />Promoter<br />Planner<br />Small Budget<br />
    145. 145. Definition: Personas<br />Sabrina<br />Jenny<br />Donny<br />Jerry<br />
    146. 146. Personas<br />Definition: Personas<br />Sabrina, 27<br />The party planner<br />Location: <br />Gramercy Park<br />Attitude: <br />Organized, outgoing<br />Financial Perspective: <br />Generous, bit of spendthrift<br />Online Habits: <br />Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc<br />Events: <br />Wine tastings, gallery openings<br />Quote: <br />“I love getting bunches of friends together to attend all these NYC events. There’s so much great stuff to do in this city!”<br />Big Budget<br />Planner<br />Promoter<br />Small Budget<br />
    147. 147. Definition: Personas<br />Jerry, 44<br />The out-of-towner<br />Location:<br />Cincinnati, OH<br />Attitude: <br />Casual, yet adventurous<br />Financial Perspective: <br />Moderate spender<br />Online Habits: <br />Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills<br />Events: <br />Museums, visiting landmarks, tours<br />Quote: <br />“I’m visiting the Big Apple with my wife and we want to check out some art-related events.”<br />Big Budget<br />Planner<br />Promoter<br />Small Budget<br />
    148. 148. Personas<br />Definition: Personas<br />Donny, 38<br />The local comedian<br />Location: <br />East Village<br />Attitude: <br />Laidback, loosely organized<br />Financial Perspective: <br />Frugal, paycheck to paycheck<br />Online Habits: <br />Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites<br />Events: <br />Comedy slams, variety shows<br />Quote: <br />“I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.”<br />Big Budget<br />Promoter<br />Planned<br />Small Budget<br />
    149. 149. Personas<br />Definition: Personas<br />Jenny, 33<br />The professional promoter<br />Location: <br />Williamsburg<br />Attitude: <br />Busy, disciplined, professional<br />Financial Perspective: <br />Healthy budget for promotions and<br />advertising<br />Online Habits: <br />Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online<br />Events: <br />Small gigs, big concerts, DJ sets<br />Quote:<br />“I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they’re listed in the right, targeted places.”<br />Big Budget<br />Planned<br />Promoter<br />Small Budget<br />
    150. 150. Definition: Personas<br />Class Exercise: Personas<br />Sabrina<br />Jenny<br />Donny<br />Jerry<br />In regards to,<br /><ul><li>What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on
    151. 151. What features can you imagine each persona might like on such a site?
    152. 152. What obstacles or pain points might they encounter?</li></li></ul><li>Lunch Break<br />
    153. 153. Agenda<br />Afternoon<br />Card Sorting<br />Site Maps<br />Page Types<br />Grids<br />Navigation<br />Sketching<br />Wireframes<br />Q&A<br />Agenda<br />
    154. 154. Card Sorting<br />
    155. 155. Card Sorting<br />Definition: Card Sorting<br /> “There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and choose which organization best communicates our messages.” <br />Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist<br />
    156. 156. Methodology<br />Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes<br />Two types:<br />Open – participants sort cards with no pre-established categories – useful for new architectures<br />Closed – participants sort cards into predetermined, provided groups – useful for fitting content into existing architectures<br />Online card sorts<br />WebSort, OptimalSort,Socratic<br />Goals<br />Organize content more efficiently<br />Find names for groups of content based on users’ perspectives<br />Self Study:<br />"Card sorting: a definitive guide" by Donna Spencer and Todd Warfel, Boxes and Arrows, 2004/04/07<br />Definition: Card Sorting<br />
    157. 157. Class Exercise: Card Sorting<br />As individuals:<br />Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a person could attend<br />Write each event you come up with on a Post-It note<br />Definition: Card Sorting<br />
    158. 158. Class Exercise: Card Sorting<br />Now, as a group:<br />Take a few minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label them)<br />Then we’ll share some categories<br />Definition: Card Sorting<br />
    159. 159. Design<br />
    160. 160. Site Maps<br />
    161. 161. Conceptual Design<br />Design: Site Maps<br />“A site map is a high level diagram showing the hierarchy of a system. Site maps reflect the information structure, but are not necessarily indicative of the navigation structure.”<br />- Step Two Designs<br />
    162. 162. Conceptual Design<br />Design: Site Maps<br />Site map for Men‘s section of designer clothing site<br />
    163. 163. Conceptual Design<br />Design: Site Maps<br />Kazi Shanto<br />Kazi Shanto<br />Site map by KaziShanto, Louise Blouin Media<br />
    164. 164. Conceptual Design<br />Design: Site Maps<br />Biocarta Site map, Fromson Consulting<br />
    165. 165. Page Types<br />
    166. 166. Conceptual Design<br />Design: Page Types<br />Home Page<br />Category Page<br />Details Page<br />
    167. 167. Grids<br />
    168. 168. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br /> “The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.”<br />KhoiVinh, former design Director,<br />
    169. 169. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />
    170. 170. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />
    171. 171. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />
    172. 172. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />12 column grid<br />
    173. 173. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />3 columns of 4 units<br />
    174. 174. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />4 columns of 3 units<br />
    175. 175. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />6 columns of 2 units<br />
    176. 176. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />Variations of the 12 column grid<br />
    177. 177. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />Self Study: Want to know more?<br />Learn more about design by grids:<br />960 Grid System<br /><br />Design by Grid <br /><br />Hashgrid<br /><br />
    178. 178. Navigation<br />
    179. 179. Grids<br />Design: Navigation<br />Types of Navigation<br />Site Structure – major nav<br />Hierarchical – product families<br />Function – sitemap privacy<br />Direct – banner ad/shortcut<br />Reference – related links<br />Dynamic – search results<br />Breadcrumb – location <br />Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results<br />Faceted Navigation – filters results<br />Areas of Navigation<br /><ul><li>Global – universal header/footer
    180. 180. Local – left nav/right nav
    181. 181. Local content –text links, buttons</li></ul>Styles of Navigation<br /><ul><li>Rollover
    182. 182. Dropdown
    183. 183. Tabs</li></ul>Self Study: Want to know more?<br />Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites<br />
    184. 184. Sketching<br />
    185. 185. Design: Sketching<br />Sketching Through the Ages<br />1485-1487<br />Ornithopter by Leonardo da Vinci<br />2005 <br />Schematic representation of the major components of a helicopter by Richard Wheeler <br />
    186. 186. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br /> “There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis for doing so lies in extending the traditional practice of sketching. ”<br />- Bill Buxton <br />Bill Buxton<br />Sketching User Experiences<br />
    187. 187. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />
    188. 188. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />
    189. 189. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />Any guesses as to what this is a sketch of?<br />
    190. 190.<br />“twttr sketch”<br />Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />Twitter<br />[This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere with one other page. <br />Whenever I'm thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down. <br />– Jack Dorsey, Twitter<br />
    191. 191. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />Attributes of a Sketch<br /><ul><li>Quick
    192. 192. Timely
    193. 193. Inexpensive
    194. 194. Disposable
    195. 195. Plentiful
    196. 196. Clear vocabulary
    197. 197. Distinct gesture
    198. 198. Minimal detail
    199. 199. Appropriate degree of refinement
    200. 200. Suggest & explore rather than confirm
    201. 201. Ambiguity</li></ul>Bill Buxton<br />Sketching User Experiences<br />
    202. 202. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />Methodology<br />Draw<br />Limit your time<br />Don’t worry about mistakes or style<br />Goals<br />Benefit from the participation of your colleagues<br />Quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations<br />
    203. 203. Design: Sketching<br />Class Exercise: Sketching<br />In teams, sketch your ideas.<br />1) Create & Promote an Event<br />Design: Sketching<br />
    204. 204. Design: Sketching<br />Class Exercise: Sketching<br />In teams, sketch your ideas.<br />1) Create & Promote an Event<br />2) A Homepage<br />Design: Sketching<br />
    205. 205. Wireframes<br />photo & sculpture by polly verity<br />
    206. 206. Design: Wireframes<br />Wireframes<br />What are wireframes?<br />“Web site wireframes are blue prints that define a Web page’s content and functionality. They do not convey design – e.g. colors, graphics, or fonts.”<br />- fatpurple<br />
    207. 207. Design: Sketching<br />Wireframes<br />Design: Wireframes – Examples <br />wireframe by Mike Rohde<br />
    208. 208. Design: Sketching<br />Design: Wireframes – Examples <br />wireframe by matthieumingasson<br />
    209. 209. Design: Sketching<br />Design: Wireframes – Examples <br />wireframe by spaceboxru<br />
    210. 210. Design: Sketching<br />Design: Wireframes – Examples<br />wireframe by matthieumingasson<br />
    211. 211. Design: Sketching<br />Design: Wireframes - Examples<br />
    212. 212. Design: Sketching<br />Design: Wireframes - Examples<br />
    213. 213. Wireframing/Prototype Tools:<br />Adobe InDesign<br />Axure<br />Omnigraffle (Mac)<br />Microsoft Visio<br />Mockingbird (online, free)<br />Info<br />Design: Wireframing Tools<br />
    214. 214. Design: Sketching<br />Class Exercise: Final Wireframe<br />In your teams, create your final deliverable.<br />Assign one of the following to a team member:<br />Create & Promote an Event<br />Event Detail<br />2) A Homepage<br />As an individual now, you’ll create a final “wireframe,” which incorporates your team mates’ designs and feedback.<br />Design: Wireframes<br />
    215. 215. Design: Sketching<br />Design: Wireframes <br />Develop<br />Wireframe & Prototyping Tools<br />Axure<br />Dreamweaver<br />InDesign<br />Visio<br />
    216. 216. Books:<br />Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville<br />Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella<br />The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett<br />Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson<br />Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman<br />Local Events:<br />Dot DotDot, SVA Lecture Series<br />IA Meetup<br />Info<br />Additional Resources<br />Web Sites:<br /><ul><li>Alertbox
    217. 217. A List Apart
    218. 218. Boxes & Arrows</li></ul>Organizations:<br /><ul><li>Human Computer Interactions (HCI)
    219. 219. Interaction Designers Association (IxDA)
    220. 220. Usability Professionals Association (UPA)</li></ul>Further Studies:<br /><ul><li>Adaptive Path
    221. 221. The Information Architecture Institute
    222. 222. The IA Summit
    223. 223. Pratt – Course in Information Design
    224. 224. Nielsen Norman Group
    225. 225. Rosenfeld Media
    226. 226. User Interface Engineering</li></li></ul><li>Q & A<br />
    227. 227. Slideshare address:<br /><br />Additional credit:<br />Thanks to Anh Dang<br />Info<br />Additional Info<br />
    228. 228. Design: Sketching<br />Design: Wireframes <br />Addendum:<br />Design Principles & Concepts<br />Wireframe & Prototyping Tools<br />Axure<br />Dreamweaver<br />InDesign<br />Visio<br />
    229. 229. Dieter Rams: 10 principles of good design<br />Good design is…<br />Good design is innovative.Good design makes a product useful.Good design is aesthetic.Good design makes a product understandable.Good design is unobtrusive.Good design is honest.Good design is long-lasting.Good design is thorough down to the last detail.Good design is environmentally friendly.Good design is as little design as possible.<br />© Dieter Rams, amended March 2003 and October 2009<br />
    230. 230. Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Donald Norman, Co-Founder, Nielsen Norman Group<br />
    231. 231. Design Concepts<br />Key Concepts<br />Affordance<br />Mapping<br />Constraints<br />Visibility<br />Feedback<br />Design Concepts<br />
    232. 232. 124<br />Design Concepts<br />Affordance<br /> “Perceived properties that determine how a thing is used [and] provide strong cues to the operations of things.” <br /> - Donald Norman<br />
    233. 233. Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Mapping<br />Relationship between two things<br /><br />
    234. 234. Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Constraints<br /> Limitations that constrain possible interactions<br /><br />
    235. 235. Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Visibility<br /> “Just the right things have to be visible: to indicate what parts operate and how, to indicate how the user is to interact with the device.” <br /> - Donald Norman<br /><br />
    236. 236. 128<br />Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Feedback<br /> “Sending back to the user information about what action has actually been done, what result has been accomplished.” <br /> - Donald Norman<br />
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