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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - Presented by Robert Stribley

Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - Presented by Robert Stribley

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  • Introduction to Information Architecture & DesignSchool of Visual Arts | Winter 2010Robert StribleyMail Box Planes - Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Aussie-Style Liquorice,Razorfish War Room
  • Apples, Food Shed, Market, Brooklyn
  • Soap
  • Soap
  • Butterfly on the New York City HighlinePhoto: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Owl butterfly at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Navigation, interaction design, art/science, discipline/community
  • Or not.
  • Skin (appearance) vs skeleton (supportive)
  • Using architectural plans as a metaphor for an IA’s work
  • The 2010 Summit is in Phoenix, AZPartially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter MorvilleInformation Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
  • Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes - http://www.localhiddenvariable.com/ciid/user-research-in-copenhagens-elderly-homes/
  • Discovery: Competitive Review – or Audit
  • Goals and data from focus groups, stakeholder interviews, etc – including user behaviors and opinions
  • Wikipedia: Cluster analysis or clustering is the assignment of a set of observations into subsets (called clusters) so that observations in the same cluster are similar in some sense
  • As part of our analysis of the user research, we mapped the participants onto the behavioral matrix identified. The mapping revealed clusters of people with a similar observed behavior. These clusters helped us to determine key attributes for the personas.
  • Ordering lunch on a Virgin America flight - http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/ - Photo: stribs
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cannedtuna/
  • Nathan Shedroff is Program Director of the MBA in Design Strategy program at the California College of the Arts. His books include Experience Design 1, Making Meaning, and contributing to Richard Saul Wurman's Information Anxiety 2. Advisor for Rosenfeld Media
  • http://websort.nethttp://www.optimalworkshop.com/
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Home page, category page, details page/product page
  • Adapted from Atsushi HASEGAWA’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Siteshttp://www.slideshare.net/atsushi/the-7-navigation-types-of-web-site
  • Head of design at Braun, the German consumer electronics manufacturer, DIETER RAMS (1932-) was one of the most influential industrial designers of the late 20th century
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/
  • http://flickr.com/photos/huladancer22/530743543/

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Information Architecture & DesignSchool of Visual Arts | Winter 2011Robert Stribley
  • 2. Introduction
  • 3. Introduction
    Aussie-Style Liquorice
  • 4. Apples, Food Shed, Market, Brooklyn
  • 5. Mailboxes with Paper Planes, Anthropologie Store
  • 6. Soap
  • 7. Intro
    Introduction
    Robert Stribley
    I’m an senior information architect at Razorfish
    I writer music and arts reviews,
    I producer a promote a variety show
    I photograph various things
    I drink coffee
    Clients include:
    Bank of America, Morgan Stanley Smith Barney, Wachovia
    Boston Scientific, Nasonex
    Choice Hotels
    Computer Associates, EMC
    Ford
    Nextel
    Red Cross
    Travel Channel, Women’s Wear Daily
  • 8. Intro
    About You
    What’s your name?
    What do you do for work?
    What do you do for fun?
    • Coffee, tea or bottled water?
    Introduction
  • 9. Intro
    Introduction
    Goals of this workshop
    Understand the basic concepts of user experience design
    Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project
    Review the basic deliverables an information architect develops within a project
  • 10. Pattern Recognition:
    In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli 
    Butterfly on the New York City Highline
  • 11. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. 
  • 12. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. 
  • 13. Owl butterfly at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. 
  • 14. Agenda
  • 15. Agenda
    Agenda
    Morning
    Background
    Design Process
    Our Project
    User Research
    Competitive Review
    Personas
    Lunch
  • 16. Agenda
    Agenda
    Afternoon
    Card Sorting
    Site Maps
    Page Types
    Grids
    Navigation
    Sketching
    Wireframes
    Q&A
  • 17. Background
  • 18. Background
    Background: Defining IA
    in•for•ma•tionar•chi•tec•ture n.
    • The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system.
    • 19. The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content.
    • 20. The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information.
    • 21. An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.
    Navigation
    Interaction
    Art/Science
    Discipline/ Community
    Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p . 4, Rosenfeld and Morville
  • 22. Background
    Background: Defining IA
    The Information Architecture Institute defines information architecture as “the art and science of organizing and labeling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability.”
  • 23. Background
    Background: Defining IA
    "It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.”
    — Alex Wright, Author Glut
  • 24. Background: Defining IA
    context
    IA
    users
    content
  • 25. Background: Defining IA
    interface
    information architecture
  • 26. Background: Defining IA
    skin
    skeleton
  • 27. Design Process
    Background: Defining IA
    metaphor: architectural plans
    Flickr.com: Cornell University Library
  • 28. Background: History
    A Brief History of IA
    1975
    Richard Saul Wurman coined the term “information architecture” to describe the field now more likely described as “information design”
    1994
    Formation of Argus Associates in Ann Arbor, WI, the first firm devoted to IA
    1998
    First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld’s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as “The Polar Bear” book
  • 29. Background: History
    A Brief History of IA
    2000
    • First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture
    2002
    • Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live
    • 30. 3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett’sThe Elements of User Experience
    2011
    • 12thAnnual IA Summit held in Denver, CO
    Partially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
  • 31. Design Process
  • 32. Design Process
    Design Process
    Discovery
    Design
    Definition
    Development
  • 33. Design Process
    Design Process
    Discovery
    Design
    Definition
    Development
    • Stakeholder interviewers
    • 34. Business requirements
    • 35. Competitive & comparative audits
    • 36. User research
    • 37. Site inventory
  • Design Process
    Design Process
    Discovery
    Design
    Definition
    Development
  • Design Process
    Design Process
    Discovery
    Design
    Definition
    Development
  • Design Process
    Design Process
    Discovery
    Design
    Definition
    Development
    • Functional specifications
    • 53. Quality assurance
    • 54. Site development
  • Background
    Deliverables
    IA Deliverables
    discover
    design
    define
    requirements document
    sketches
    site map
    comparative/competitive
    review
    personas
    wireframes
    feature/functionality
    inventory
    user flows
    prototype
    experience brief
    use cases
  • 55. Background
    Deliverables
    IA Deliverables
    discover
    design
    define
    requirements document
    sketches
    site map
    comparative/competitive
    review
    personas
    wireframes
    feature/functionality
    inventory
    user flows
    prototype
    experience brief
    use cases
    visual design
  • 56. Our Project
  • 57. Our Project
    What to do?
  • 58. Our Project
    Events.comwants to revamp its website to become the go-to online resource for people wanting to attend or promote events across the United States.
    Our Project
  • 59. Discover
  • 60. User Research
    User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes
  • 61. User Research
    “Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.”
    Louis Rosenfield & Peter Morville
    Discovery: User Research
  • 62. User Research
    Methodology
    Focus Groups
    Surveys
    Interviews
    Goals
    Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles.
    Discovery: User Research
  • 63. User Research
    Class Exercise: Survey Questions
    How do you learn about events in NYC?
    What type of events are you interested in?
    What’s more important to you:
    Price
    Type of Event
    Location
    Date
    How often do you attend the events?
    Do you ever need to promote an event?
    Do you ever invite people to an event?
    Discovery:User Research
  • 64. Competitive Review
    image by brandonschauer
  • 65. Discovery: Competitive Audit
    “This type of assessment helps set an industry ‘marker’ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.”
    Dorelle Rabinowitz
    Discovery: Competitive Review
  • 66. Competitive Review
    Discovery: Competitive Review
    Methodology
    Usability Criteria
    Scorecard
    Heuristic Evaluation
    Goals
    Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria
    Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase
    Also:
    Comparative Reviews
  • 67. Competitive Review
    Discovery: Competitive Review
    Competitors
  • 68. Competitive Review: Flavorpill
    Discovery: Competitive Review
    Flavorpill

    Flavorpill loves culture. We embrace the high-brow, low-brow, underground, mainstream, and everything in between — as long as it's good.
    A city guide for those who like to go out, Flavorpill publishes a daily update of worthwhile cultural-event listings, from art exhibits and readings to concerts, plays, and festivals.

    http://flavorpill.com/about
  • 69. Competitive Review: Flavorpill
    Discovery: Competitive Review
    Home Page
    Search
    Recent Activity
    Our Pick
    What’s Happening Today
    Events calendar
    Featured Venue
    Featured Events
    Giveaways
    New York Guide
    Navigation
    Primary
    Utility
    • City Dropdown
    • 76. Sign In/Sign Out
    • 77. SignUp/ Profile
    • 78. Follow Us (RSS, Facebook, Twitter)
    • 79. Search
    Features & Functionality
  • Going.com
    Competitive Review: Going.com
    Discovery: Competitive Review

    Going helps you find fun things to do and fun people to meet.
    Ever wish there were one place where you can find all the events around town?
    Want to know whether an event is worth going to and see who else likes it?
    Looking to meet some new people who are up for doing fun things?
    We felt the same frustration and decided to do something about it. The result is Going: we now have hundreds of events a day and thousands of people who are up for doing fun things.

    http://newyork.going.com/about_site
  • 85. Competitive Review: Going.com
    Discovery: Competitive Review
    Features & Functionality
    Home Page
    Post an Event
    Search
    Inbox
    Organizer Tools
    What’s Popular this Week
    City Feed
    Recession Busters
    Top Searches (tag cloud)
    Photo Booth
    Navigation
    Primary
    Secondary
    • Recession Busters
    • 96. More Cities
    Utility
  • Discovery: Competitive Review
    NYCgo.com

    NYC & Company is New York City’s official marketing, tourism and partnership organization.
    Our mission is to maximize travel and tourism opportunities throughout the five boroughs, build economic prosperity and spread the dynamic image of New York City around the world.

    http://nycgo.com/?event=view.footerArticle&id=49568
    Competitive Review: NYCgo.com
  • 102. Competitive Review: NYCgo.com
    Discovery: Competitive Review
    Home Page
    Navigation
    Primary
    Secondary
    Utility
    • Search (with categories)
    • 121. Language Selector
    • 122. Temperature
    • 123. Twitter, Facebook, Email
    Functionality
  • Competitive Review
    Discovery: Competitive Review
    Key Findings
    • Search placed prominently on each site, sometimes with advanced search
    • 129. Clear need for and emphasis upon filtering events
    • 130. Calendars provide obvious benefit
    • 131. Maps also prove helpful, especially to out-of-towners
    • 132. Profiles and community features are also common, but handled with varying degrees of detail, success
    • 133. Free events often highlighted/bubbled up
    • 134. Event detail pages vary, may have maps, RSVP, sharing, rating, commenting functionality
    • 135. The ability to add or promote an event is not always present or prominent
  • Competitive Review
    What else have we learned?
    • Who are the audiences of these sites?
    • 136. What are the strengths of these sites?
    • 137. What are their weaknesses?
    • 138. How might another event site differentiate itself from these sites?
    Discovery: Competitive Review
  • 139. Define
  • 140. Personas
    Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable Media Group from the MIT Media Lab . It uses sophisticated natural language processing and the Internet to create a data portrait of one's aggregated online identity. In short, Personas shows you how the Internet sees you.
    Created at Personas: http://personas.media.mit.edu
  • 141. Personas
    “Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.”
    Steve Mulder
    Definition: Personas
  • 142. Personas
    Characteristics of Effective Personas
    Varied and distinct
    Detailed
    Not weighed down with minutiae
    Tied into business-specific goals
    Backed by data
    Definition: Personas
  • 143. Personas
    Methodology
    Cluster Analysis
    Goals
    Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals
    Definition: Personas
  • 144. Definition: Personas
    Big Budget
    Promoter
    Planner
    Small Budget
  • 145. Definition: Personas
    Sabrina
    Jenny
    Donny
    Jerry
  • 146. Personas
    Definition: Personas
    Sabrina, 27
    The party planner
    Location:
    Gramercy Park
    Attitude:
    Organized, outgoing
    Financial Perspective:
    Generous, bit of spendthrift
    Online Habits:
    Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc
    Events:
    Wine tastings, gallery openings
    Quote:
    “I love getting bunches of friends together to attend all these NYC events. There’s so much great stuff to do in this city!”
    Big Budget
    Planner
    Promoter
    Small Budget
  • 147. Definition: Personas
    Jerry, 44
    The out-of-towner
    Location:
    Cincinnati, OH
    Attitude:
    Casual, yet adventurous
    Financial Perspective:
    Moderate spender
    Online Habits:
    Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills
    Events:
    Museums, visiting landmarks, tours
    Quote:
    “I’m visiting the Big Apple with my wife and we want to check out some art-related events.”
    Big Budget
    Planner
    Promoter
    Small Budget
  • 148. Personas
    Definition: Personas
    Donny, 38
    The local comedian
    Location:
    East Village
    Attitude:
    Laidback, loosely organized
    Financial Perspective:
    Frugal, paycheck to paycheck
    Online Habits:
    Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites
    Events:
    Comedy slams, variety shows
    Quote:
    “I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.”
    Big Budget
    Promoter
    Planned
    Small Budget
  • 149. Personas
    Definition: Personas
    Jenny, 33
    The professional promoter
    Location:
    Williamsburg
    Attitude:
    Busy, disciplined, professional
    Financial Perspective:
    Healthy budget for promotions and
    advertising
    Online Habits:
    Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online
    Events:
    Small gigs, big concerts, DJ sets
    Quote:
    “I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they’re listed in the right, targeted places.”
    Big Budget
    Planned
    Promoter
    Small Budget
  • 150. Definition: Personas
    Class Exercise: Personas
    Sabrina
    Jenny
    Donny
    Jerry
    In regards to Events.com,
    • What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on Events.com?
    • 151. What features can you imagine each persona might like on such a site?
    • 152. What obstacles or pain points might they encounter?
  • Lunch Break
  • 153. Agenda
    Afternoon
    Card Sorting
    Site Maps
    Page Types
    Grids
    Navigation
    Sketching
    Wireframes
    Q&A
    Agenda
  • 154. Card Sorting
  • 155. Card Sorting
    Definition: Card Sorting
    “There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and choose which organization best communicates our messages.”
    Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist
  • 156. Methodology
    Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes
    Two types:
    Open – participants sort cards with no pre-established categories – useful for new architectures
    Closed – participants sort cards into predetermined, provided groups – useful for fitting content into existing architectures
    Online card sorts
    WebSort, OptimalSort,Socratic
    Goals
    Organize content more efficiently
    Find names for groups of content based on users’ perspectives
    Self Study:
    "Card sorting: a definitive guide" by Donna Spencer and Todd Warfel, Boxes and Arrows, 2004/04/07
    Definition: Card Sorting
  • 157. Class Exercise: Card Sorting
    As individuals:
    Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a person could attend
    Write each event you come up with on a Post-It note
    Definition: Card Sorting
  • 158. Class Exercise: Card Sorting
    Now, as a group:
    Take a few minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label them)
    Then we’ll share some categories
    Definition: Card Sorting
  • 159. Design
  • 160. Site Maps
  • 161. Conceptual Design
    Design: Site Maps
    “A site map is a high level diagram showing the hierarchy of a system. Site maps reflect the information structure, but are not necessarily indicative of the navigation structure.”
    - Step Two Designs
  • 162. Conceptual Design
    Design: Site Maps
    Site map for Men‘s section of designer clothing site
  • 163. Conceptual Design
    Design: Site Maps
    Kazi Shanto
    Kazi Shanto
    Site map by KaziShanto, Louise Blouin Media
  • 164. Conceptual Design
    Design: Site Maps
    Biocarta Site map, Fromson Consulting
  • 165. Page Types
  • 166. Conceptual Design
    Design: Page Types
    Home Page
    Category Page
    Details Page
  • 167. Grids
  • 168. Grids
    Design: Grids
    “The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.”
    KhoiVinh, former design Director, NYTimes.com
  • 169. Grids
    Design: Grids
  • 170. Grids
    Design: Grids
  • 171. Grids
    Design: Grids
  • 172. Grids
    Design: Grids
    12 column grid
  • 173. Grids
    Design: Grids
    3 columns of 4 units
  • 174. Grids
    Design: Grids
    4 columns of 3 units
  • 175. Grids
    Design: Grids
    6 columns of 2 units
  • 176. Grids
    Design: Grids
    Variations of the 12 column grid
  • 177. Grids
    Design: Grids
    Self Study: Want to know more?
    Learn more about design by grids:
    960 Grid System
    960.gs
    Design by Grid
    www.designbygrid.com
    Hashgrid
    www.hashgrid.com
  • 178. Navigation
  • 179. Grids
    Design: Navigation
    Types of Navigation
    Site Structure – major nav
    Hierarchical – product families
    Function – sitemap privacy
    Direct – banner ad/shortcut
    Reference – related links
    Dynamic – search results
    Breadcrumb – location
    Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results
    Faceted Navigation – filters results
    Areas of Navigation
    • Global – universal header/footer
    • 180. Local – left nav/right nav
    • 181. Local content –text links, buttons
    Styles of Navigation
    Self Study: Want to know more?
    Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites
  • 184. Sketching
  • 185. Design: Sketching
    Sketching Through the Ages
    1485-1487
    Ornithopter by Leonardo da Vinci
    2005
    Schematic representation of the major components of a helicopter by Richard Wheeler
  • 186. Sketching
    Design: Sketching
    “There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis for doing so lies in extending the traditional practice of sketching. ”
    - Bill Buxton
    Bill Buxton
    Sketching User Experiences
  • 187. Sketching
    Design: Sketching
  • 188. Sketching
    Design: Sketching
  • 189. Sketching
    Design: Sketching
    Any guesses as to what this is a sketch of?
  • 190. Twitter.com
    “twttr sketch”
    Sketching
    Design: Sketching
    Twitter
    [This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere with one other page.
    Whenever I'm thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down.
    – Jack Dorsey, Twitter
  • 191. Sketching
    Design: Sketching
    Attributes of a Sketch
    Bill Buxton
    Sketching User Experiences
  • 202. Sketching
    Design: Sketching
    Methodology
    Draw
    Limit your time
    Don’t worry about mistakes or style
    Goals
    Benefit from the participation of your colleagues
    Quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations
  • 203. Design: Sketching
    Class Exercise: Sketching
    In teams, sketch your ideas.
    1) Create & Promote an Event
    Design: Sketching
  • 204. Design: Sketching
    Class Exercise: Sketching
    In teams, sketch your ideas.
    1) Create & Promote an Event
    2) A Homepage
    Design: Sketching
  • 205. Wireframes
    photo & sculpture by polly verity
  • 206. Design: Wireframes
    Wireframes
    What are wireframes?
    “Web site wireframes are blue prints that define a Web page’s content and functionality. They do not convey design – e.g. colors, graphics, or fonts.”
    - fatpurple
  • 207. Design: Sketching
    Wireframes
    Design: Wireframes – Examples
    wireframe by Mike Rohde
  • 208. Design: Sketching
    Design: Wireframes – Examples
    wireframe by matthieumingasson
  • 209. Design: Sketching
    Design: Wireframes – Examples
    wireframe by spaceboxru
  • 210. Design: Sketching
    Design: Wireframes – Examples
    wireframe by matthieumingasson
  • 211. Design: Sketching
    Design: Wireframes - Examples
  • 212. Design: Sketching
    Design: Wireframes - Examples
  • 213. Wireframing/Prototype Tools:
    Adobe InDesign
    Axure
    Omnigraffle (Mac)
    Microsoft Visio
    Mockingbird (online, free)
    Info
    Design: Wireframing Tools
  • 214. Design: Sketching
    Class Exercise: Final Wireframe
    In your teams, create your final deliverable.
    Assign one of the following to a team member:
    Create & Promote an Event
    Event Detail
    2) A Homepage
    As an individual now, you’ll create a final “wireframe,” which incorporates your team mates’ designs and feedback.
    Design: Wireframes
  • 215. Design: Sketching
    Design: Wireframes
    Develop
    Wireframe & Prototyping Tools
    Axure
    Dreamweaver
    InDesign
    Visio
  • 216. Books:
    Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville
    Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella
    The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett
    Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson
    Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman
    Local Events:
    Dot DotDot, SVA Lecture Series
    IA Meetup
    Info
    Additional Resources
    Web Sites:
    Organizations:
    • Human Computer Interactions (HCI)
    • 219. Interaction Designers Association (IxDA)
    • 220. Usability Professionals Association (UPA)
    Further Studies:
    • Adaptive Path
    • 221. The Information Architecture Institute
    • 222. The IA Summit
    • 223. Pratt – Course in Information Design
    • 224. Nielsen Norman Group
    • 225. Rosenfeld Media
    • 226. User Interface Engineering
  • Q & A
  • 227. Slideshare address:
    http://www.slideshare.net/stribs
    Additional credit:
    Thanks to Anh Dang
    Info
    Additional Info
  • 228. Design: Sketching
    Design: Wireframes
    Addendum:
    Design Principles & Concepts
    Wireframe & Prototyping Tools
    Axure
    Dreamweaver
    InDesign
    Visio
  • 229. Dieter Rams: 10 principles of good design
    Good design is…
    Good design is innovative.Good design makes a product useful.Good design is aesthetic.Good design makes a product understandable.Good design is unobtrusive.Good design is honest.Good design is long-lasting.Good design is thorough down to the last detail.Good design is environmentally friendly.Good design is as little design as possible.
    © Dieter Rams, amended March 2003 and October 2009
  • 230. Design Concepts
    Design Concepts
    Donald Norman, Co-Founder, Nielsen Norman Group
  • 231. Design Concepts
    Key Concepts
    Affordance
    Mapping
    Constraints
    Visibility
    Feedback
    Design Concepts
  • 232. 124
    Design Concepts
    Affordance
    “Perceived properties that determine how a thing is used [and] provide strong cues to the operations of things.”
    - Donald Norman
  • 233. Design Concepts
    Design Concepts
    Mapping
    Relationship between two things
    http://flickr.com/photos/annavsculture/441610821/
  • 234. Design Concepts
    Design Concepts
    Constraints
    Limitations that constrain possible interactions
    http://flickr.com/photos/hippie/2561854165/
  • 235. Design Concepts
    Design Concepts
    Visibility
    “Just the right things have to be visible: to indicate what parts operate and how, to indicate how the user is to interact with the device.”
    - Donald Norman
    http://flickr.com/photos/huladancer22/530743543/
  • 236. 128
    Design Concepts
    Design Concepts
    Feedback
    “Sending back to the user information about what action has actually been done, what result has been accomplished.”
    - Donald Norman