Decongesting New York
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Decongesting New York

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Sam Schwartz

Sam Schwartz

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Decongesting New York Decongesting New York Presentation Transcript

  • Samuel I. Schwartz, P.E. October 11, 2007 Decongesting New York
    • Reduce Number of Taxis
    • Cap Supply of Liveries (Issue Medallions)
    • Charge Thru-Trucks $100
    • Curtail “Privileged Parkers”
    • Congestion Pricing
    Daily News Op-Ed Wednesday, September 12, 2007
  • Vehicles in Motion in Midtown Core By Time of Day
    • One million vehicles enter Manhattan each day.
    • Midtown streets carry about 8000 moving vehicles at peak times.
    • Thus seemingly small difference in number of vehicles can have large impact on vehicle speeds.
  • Vehicle Miles Traveled vs. Vehicles in Motion 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 y=2.384(10 -8 )x 2 -1.372(10-3)+15.973 VEHICLES IN MOTION SPEED (MPH)
  • TMT vs. TIM 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 500 1500 2500 3500 4500 5500 6500 7500 8500 9500 10500 TAXIS IN MOTION TAXI MILES TRAVELED
    • Reduction of Vehicle Miles Traveled
    • Peripheral parking and traffic impacts to neighborhood
    • Privacy Issues
    • Air quality and environmental concerns
    • Impact on various economic classes
    • Cost of implementation
    • Best practices
    • Overall economic impact of any proposal
    Shaw’s Criteria
  • Free Market Transportation
  •  
  • Lessons from London and Stockholm
    • London introduced Congestion Pricing (CP) on February 17, 2003.
    • Stockholm introduced CP for a six month trial period in January 2006. It was re-introduced August 2007 as a result of a referendum.
  • Lessons from London and Stockholm Traffic is responsive to pricing at moderate levels. London charges 8£ or about $16 per day (this is $7 more than NYC charges at its Midtown and Battery tunnels).
  • Lessons from London and Stockholm
    • A modest decrease in traffic volume yields big results; ~ 20% improvement in speeds/reliability
    • Motorists will shift to transit in significant numbers if it’s available.
  • Lessons from London and Stockholm
    • The voters are willing to sign on to pricing.
    • Increasing transit in preparation for charging is a must.
    • Businesses, on whole, don’t suffer.
    • Substantial amounts of money can be generated.
    London’s Ken Livingstone was re-elected 16 months after introducing Congestion Pricing.
  • Lessons from London and Stockholm
    • Air pollution benefits are significant.
    • The infrastructure needed is modest ( compared to road building) and can be implemented in less than a year. Toll plazas are anachronisms.
    • Traffic crashes decrease as a result of fewer vehicle miles traveled.
    • Traffic on roads adjacent to the CP zones rose modestly.
  • Lessons from London and Stockholm An extensive public education program is needed to gain support and to teach people how to used congestion charging.
  • Untangling NYC’s Gridlock
    • $8 Charge for cars South of 86 th Street
    • $21 for trucks
    • In effect 6am-6pm Mon-Fri
    • 50% discount for people within zone
    • FDR & West Side Highway free
    • No double-dipping (other tolls deducted)
    • Taxis, livery, buses & handicapped exempt
    Mayor Bloomberg’s PlaNYC 2030
    • Viewed as a tax
    • Sanctity of inter-borough travel
    CONGESTION PRICING: Why has it failed in NYC?
  • East River Bridges: Tolled Until 1911 Mayor Gaynor: [tolls] inconvenient and irksome…For my part, I see no more reason for tollgates on the bridges than for toll gates on Fifth Avenue or Broadway.
  • More Recent History
    • 1950’s William Vickrey proposes Congestion Pricing
    • 1973 Clean Air Act includes tolls on East & Harlem River Bridges adopted by Mayor & Governor
    • 1977 City DOT Study
    • 1977 Moynihan – Holtzman Amendment
    • 1980 SOV’s required to use toll facilities
    • 1987 ‘Draconian’ measures floated
    • 1991 “Tolling the East River Bridges”
    • 2002 Congestion Pricing listed in Mayor’s Budget
    • 2007 Mayor Bloomberg’s 2030
  • Current Dysfunctional Pricing Scheme CBD Current Round-trip Cash Rates $9 $9 $9 $9 $6 $6 $6 $6 $6 $4.50 $4.50 $9 $4.50 $9 FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE!
  • More Dysfunction 4 Agencies control traffic: PA, TBTA, NYC & NYS DOT’s Central Park Queensboro FREE! Queens Midtown $9 Williamsburg FREE! Manhattan FREE! Brooklyn FREE! Brooklyn Battery $9 Holland $6 Lincoln $6 West Side Highway FDR Drive Financial District Midtown
  • New Jersey “ Trucker’s Special!” Take Manhattan Bridge Save $58 and have fun! Tour Chinatown, Tribeca, and Little Italy via Canal St. ( While supplies last) Even More Dysfunction! The Verrazano Bridge Boondoggle FREE! FREE! $58
  • Wipe the Slate Clean CBD $9 $9 $9 $9 $6 $6 $6 $6 $6 $4.50 $4.50 $9 $4 $9 FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE!
  •  
  • Apply Congestion Pricing.. Where there’s serious congestion and where there are transit options (i.e. choice riders)
  • Choice Riders
  • FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE! FREE! CBD $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
  • The Plan
    • Remove tolls from every interborough
    • crossing (except to Manhattan’s CBD)
    • E-ZPass East River Bridges or Use a Geographic Pricing Scheme Based on Congestion Levels
    • E-ZPass southbound avenues and highways
    • at 60th Street, 34 th Street, Canal Street, etc.
    • City Residents - 33% Discount
    • Thru trucks get socked - $100 !!
  • The Plan Continued
    • Widen Staten Island Expressway, twin Goethals Bridge
    • Get trucks off Brooklyn Streets; Rebuild Belt Parkway, with adjacent parks, to allow commercial vehicles
    • Give city residents 5 free trips/year to use/barter (federal FAIR concept)
    • Apply to transit: Reduce bus fares in subway-less neighborhoods
    • Crackdown on government abuse of parking
  • Morning: Prices 6AM – 8AM Free Market Approach to achieve Congestion Relief Pricing Updated Quarterly Varying Pricing by time of day, day of week, season and real-time conditions
  • Free Market Approach to achieve Congestion Relief Peak Prices: 8AM – 6PM
  • Free Market Approach to achieve Congestion Relief Evening Prices: 6PM - Midnight
  • Free Market Approach to achieve Congestion Relief No Charge Overnight: Midnight – 6AM
  • Pricing Plan for 2015 Pricing Plan for 2015 by vehicle miles traveled and/or vehicle hours traveled and/or vehicles hours parked.
  • Congestion Pricing is Here $15 $19 $21 $20 $10 $12 $8 Somehow, we accept Congestion Pricing when cars are parked but not when they are moving $38 $51
    • ~ 95% of drivers who generate parking revenue will be unaffected by congestion pricing
    • Smart Growth policy will increase dwelling units, and parking demand, within CP zone
    • Growth in parking demand expected in outskirts of CP zone
    • More pedestrian zones and BRT lanes will lead to reductions in curbside parking allowances
    • More government workers seeking parking lots and garages due to tougher monitoring of government parking abuse
    Est. CP Reduction Weekday Revenue Peak Period Revenue Affected Drivers = 0.07 x 0.8 x 0.8 = 4.5% Impacts on Parking Industry
    • Background environmental conditions will be lessened meaning getting through the environmental process will be easier
    • Proven benefits for retailers in London and other CP cities
    • 80-90% of Manhattan shoppers already take transit or walk
    • 9 out of 10 workers in CBD take transit
    • Estimates show that 94% of drivers will continue to drive under CP
    • Residences within the CP zone will receive a 50% reduction
    Impacts on Real Estate Industry
    • Cell Phones
    • EZ Pass
    • Vehicle Signature
    • License Plate Photography
    • Registration Readers
    • Electromagnetic Body Signals
    Technologies by 2010
    • Where the “right” meets the “left”
    • A Capitalist Plan
    • You pay for “first-class” driving. Higher speeds, less congestion
    • A Socialist Plan
    • Money shifted from the well-to-do to the masses in transit
    • A New York Plan
    • No more charging between boroughs
    • City residents benefit by lower fees, cleaner air and a safer city
    • Walking, bicycling, and transit promoted
    • Continued pre-eminence as least “gas-oriented” city
    • Who Wins?
    • The rich move faster
    • The poor get better transit
    • We all win with cleaner air and better mobility
    Congestion Pricing
  •