ABSTRACT: How do civil society organisations (CSOs) affect microfinance? The aim of this paper is to apply a conceptual assessment of civil society organisations to microfinance. A preliminary literature review demonstrates that civil society organisations (CSOs) work with and sometimes pressure microfinance institutions (MFIs) to expand lending or targeting of excluding groups. MFIs operate in a microfinance sector embedded in a sociopolitical environment, which will include the civil society of a country. All countries have a civil society, but some countries have a strong civil society, while other countries have weak civil societies; for example, Somalia would be a country with a weak civil society. The assumption is that strong civil societies are conducive to microfinance operational stability. However, there is a sparse amount of research that connects civil society to microfinance; conceptual research demonstrates that civil society organisations could improve microfinance through developing a dialogue, voicing concerns, fighting corruption, and promoting financial inclusion of excluded groups of borrowers, notably the physical disabled. In former conflict regions, there are thousands of physically disabled people as a consequence of landmines/UXO. The landmine population is considered an underserved market using microfinance terminology. Unfortunately, there are few active and sustainable microfinance lending initiatives for landmine victims. Civil society organisations have a role to play in socioeconomic reintegration, including areas such as government policy, victim assistance, and information distribution, as well as pressuring MFIs to lend to physically disabled people.