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Training, Testing and Experimentation: A classification of command post exercises

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Erich Heumüller's, Sebastian Richter's and Ulrike Lechner's presentation on "Training, Testing and Experimentation: A classification of command post exercises" at ISCRAM 2013 in Baden-Baden.

Erich Heumüller's, Sebastian Richter's and Ulrike Lechner's presentation on "Training, Testing and Experimentation: A classification of command post exercises" at ISCRAM 2013 in Baden-Baden.

10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
12-15 May 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany

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 Training, Testing and Experimentation: A classification of command post exercises Training, Testing and Experimentation: A classification of command post exercises Presentation Transcript

  • Training, Testing and Experimentation:A classification of command post exercisesAction research approach with staffs of disasterresponse organizationsErich HeumüllerSebastian RichterUlrike Lechner
  • Research Design24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 2Goal ofresearchDevelopment of a framework for a goal-oriented and evaluation-driven exercise designResearchPartnersTHW (Federal Agency of Technical Relief): coordination and communication unitsBundeswehr: Kreisverbindungskommando Fürth (liaison unit at the county level)ResearchContext• Our goal is to support practitioners in exercise design (handbook or guideline)• Involvement in four command post exercises• We follow an Action Research approach, which aims to solve a practical problem and togenerate scientific knowledge
  • Research project24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 3Framework for Exercise DesignHeumüller, Richter, Lechner: ISCRAM 2012Conceptual Model of StaffsHeumüller, Richter, Lechner: eBled 2012Classification ofcommand post exercisesHeumüller, Richter, Lechner:ISCRAM 2013
  • Action Research Design24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 44 - 6 different staffs per exerciseTHW staff: 7 up to 15 membersReservists’ staff: 3 to 6 membersThe exercise classification approach was an “Action Planning”result of Cycle 1 and applied in the following research
  • Challenges of staff exercising24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 5A valid staff assessment is difficult,because performance criteria are notdefined:„What is a good staff?“After the first exercise it was hard tosay, which staff performed best.
  • Diagnosing24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 6Data gathering Unit of Analysis Exemplary FindingsLiteratureAnalysisEvaluation Reports like“Wintersturm” (2007),“Burgstadt unterWasser” (2008)•No information about e.g.Participants’ training level,Special processes observed,Lack in resources,Structural or technical shortcomings or other findings,Exercise goal or purpose.Involvement inCommand PostExercisesGERETSRIED •No evaluation criteria for a shift change•No test results•No information about the “unknown” process•Participants were frustratedGROSSER KREIS •Team missed guidance for exercise conceptualization,although regulations for exercise design were known•Team puzzled about goal, topic and purpose•Team lost in detail during inject development•Almost at the end of planning suddenly a bunch ofevaluation preparation started•Observers were not consulted, methods were unknown•A known traffic light system was perceived to be uselessfor evaluation
  • Action Planning - State of the Art of Exercise Classifications24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 7ExemplaryAuthors /Articles- EmergencyManagementDivision - MichiganState Police, 1998,- Oregon, 1997,- VirginiaDepartment ofEmergencyManagement,2001-US Dept ofHomelandSecurity, 2007- Renner, 2001 - Callan, 2009,- AustralianEmergencyManagementInstitute, 2012;- AustralianGovernment, 2007- Payne, 1999 -United States Federal EmergencyManagement Agency, 2012,-Trnka and Jenvald, 2006,-Klein et al., 2005,-Perry, 2004,-Peterson and Perry, 1999,-Ohio Emergency Management Agency, 1999,-Texas Department of Public Safety, Divisionof Emergency Management, 2000Exercise typesSeminar Orientation Exercise SeminarInformationSessionSeminar, AgencyPresentationWorkshop Workshop WorkshopWalkaround WalkaroundPaper-FeedExercisePaper-feed ExerciseTabletopExerciseTabletop Exercise Tabletop ExerciseTabletopExerciseSyndicate,Hypothetical ExerciseTable-top Exercise Tabletop ExerciseGame GameDrill Drill DrillFunctionalExerciseFunctional Exercise Functional ExerciseCentreSimulationFunctional ExerciseCommunicationsSimulated ExerciseFunctional ExerciseFull-ScaleExerciseFull-Scale Exercise Full-Scale Exercise Field Exercise Field Exercise Live Exercise Full-Scale Exercise
  • Training, Testing and Experimentation:A classification of command post exercises24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 8
  • Action Taking – Our classification approach in application24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 9Identified changes:ExerciseOrganizationDate ChangesFEUERBALL THW 7th-9th,October,2011•First planning team discussed uncoordinated about ideas, injects,exercise goal•We concentrated on our approach  exercise design was definedwell•Evaluation was a central issue  deduction of criteria fromregulations and specifications for injects•Injects served to test management skills and not to produce stress•Evaluation guidelines for observers were prepared, based onidentified evaluation criteria•Evaluation report offers valid statements about participants’ traininglevelFRANKEN-STURMTHW 5th-7thOctober,2012•Goal was well defined and documented very early  identification ofsomething new ( a novelty in THW exercises)•Scenario was not conceptualized to produce stress, but to supportevaluation•For the first time, exercise course followed evaluation methodology:the core was a before-and-after measurement of identified criteria toanalyze the shift change•New processes were identified  baseline for the development ofnew regulations
  • Evaluation and Learning• Our approach supported common understanding and served as a first guideline forexercise design.• The terms and definitions Training, Test and Experimental Exercise were adoptedquickly.• Our approach provides a frame for the planning team to develop the exercise contentand to prepare the evaluation.• The planning team of FEUERBALL recommended our approach to the planning team ofFRANKENSTURM. This team perceived a high value using this approach.• Although our approach was perceived to be logically and comprehensible, there is stillprofessional guidance required to apply this approach conclusively.24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 10
  • Discussion24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 11Empirical base is limited to fourcommand post exercises; classificationwas applied in only two of them.
  • Next StepsWhat was achieved?• Development of a framework which provides practical guidance for goal-oriented andevaluation-driven exercise design for different exercise types.• Development of a conceptual model of disaster response staffs, which supportsevaluation of exercises.What is to do?• Involvement in this year’s exercise in MELLRICHSTADT (northern Bavaria).• Focus will be on a link between the staff model and the framework to enable a goal-oriented exercising of staff skills.• Practical adaption of our templates regarding usability, notations and descriptions.24.06.2013 A classification of command post exercises - © Heumüller, Richter, Lechner 2013 12