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Information Infrastructure for Crisis Response Coordination: A Study of local Emergency Management in Norwegian Municipalities
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Information Infrastructure for Crisis Response Coordination: A Study of local Emergency Management in Norwegian Municipalities

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Torbjørg Meum and Bjørn Erik Munkvold on "Information Infrastructure for Crisis Response Coordination: A Study of local Emergency Management in Norwegian Municipalities" at ISCRAM 2013 in ...

Torbjørg Meum and Bjørn Erik Munkvold on "Information Infrastructure for Crisis Response Coordination: A Study of local Emergency Management in Norwegian Municipalities" at ISCRAM 2013 in Baden-Baden.

10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
12-15 May 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany

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Information Infrastructure for Crisis Response Coordination: A Study of local Emergency Management in Norwegian Municipalities Information Infrastructure for Crisis Response Coordination: A Study of local Emergency Management in Norwegian Municipalities Presentation Transcript

  • Information infrastructure for crisisresponse coordination: a study oflocal emergency management inNorwegian municipalitiesTorbjørg Meum & Bjørn Erik MunkvoldCentre for Integrated Emergency ManagementUniversity of Agderhttp://ciem.prosjekt.uia.no
  • Outline• Background and motivation• Related work• Aims• Theoretical framework• Mapping the information flow in local emergency• Preliminary findings• Questions2
  • Background and motivation3
  • 4More sophisticated useof ICT is a key to betteremergencypreparedness in thefuture (22 July report)
  • 5The use of social media in the throes of the crisis give 22 July aunique simultaneity (…. ) never before have the member ofgovernment personally received information by text messages,telephone calls and social media directly from victims, at the sametime as they were supposed to dealing with a national crisis(22 July report)
  • AIMS• Main aim: To provide empirical insight aswell as expand on conceptual perspectivesof processes related to information sharing,communication and coordination in termsof crisis management• Identifying information flow in localcrisis management• Identifying information systems in use• Identifying enabling and constrainingfactors• Promote development and adoption oftechnologies to facilitatecommunication and coordination6
  • Related work• The evolving role of ICT in crisis management (Van de Walle, Turoff&Hiltz,2010)• ICT as an enabling actor to improve communication, coordination and decisionsupport (Van de Walle&Turoff, 2007)• Emerging use of social media and changing communication pathways (Hughes&Palen, 2012)• The transformational role of ICT in crisis and mechanisms for aligning informaland formal sources of information (Palen et al, 2010)7
  • TheoreticalframeworkCoordination Theory• The act of managing interdependencies between activities performed toachieve a goal (Malone &Crowston, 1990)• Procedures, standards, planning tools and checklists as coordinatingmechanisms that reduce the complexities of articulation work (Schmidt &Simone, 1996)• Task interdependencies and technologies interdependencies (Bailey &Leonardi,2009)• Interdependency in a complex network of tasks, resources, and actors (Turoff,2002)8
  • Theoretical frameworkInformation Infrastructure• Information Infrastructure is an evolving shared, open, and heterogeneousinstalled base (Hanseth&Lyytinen, 2004)• A way of conceptualizing interconnected networks rather than stand-aloneinformation systems (Ciborra, 2001)• Infrastructures are interconnected, interrelated and multi-layered• Infrastructures shapes and are shaped by the dynamics in the socio-technicalnetwork9
  • Building information infrastructuresBuilding information infrastructures• Infrastructuringis the integration of new tools and technologies with existingmaterial, tools and people• Evolutionary: always built on and integrated with existing systems and workpractices(bottom-up)• Relational dimension of information Infrastructure• Information Infrastructure occurs in relation to organized practices (Star &Ruhleder,1996)• All entities achieve their significance and meaning by being in relation to othersentities and performed in, by, and through those relations (Law &Hassard, 1999)10
  • Mapping the information flow in local emergencymanagement11
  • 12The overall national principles for crisis management• The principle of responsibility• The principle of subsidiarity• The principle of similarity• The principle ofcollaboration
  • Information flow and organization of local emergency13Municipalities MunicipalitiesCountyGovernorCountyGovernorDSBMinistry ofjustice andpublic securityLocalcommunity
  • Existing ICT infrastructure in use14
  • Preliminary findings• Regional and local efforts to adopt a shared decision support system• increased standardization of risk and vulnerability assessments as well asemergency response plans• motivated to consider new technologies such as alert systems, mobiletechnology etc.However…..• Multiple systems in use• Fragmentation• lack of integration between systems and tasks15
  • Some questions for further work• How can coordination and shared situational awareness best be supported foremergency responders through further development of ICT systems?• How can new services be integrated in the existing information infrastructurefamiliar to the emergency responders?• Extension and improvement of what already exist, e.g. GeographicInformation Systems (GIS)• Shared representation and visualization of information acrossorganizational and domain-specific boundaries16
  • • How can social media be integrated with GIS to support coordination withinand across municipalities?• sorting, filtering, classification and analysis of user-generated informationfrom social media• How can social media effectively and realistically be included in emergencydrills?• How can a virtual helpdesk of volunteers be established to support localemergency coordinators17